Northern California Biographies



HENRY SEAMAN, a prominent farmer five miles west of Winters, Yolo County, was born October 12, 1826, in Prussia. His parents, Jacob and Catherine (Jacobs) Seaman, natives, also of Prussia, emigrated in 1837 to Cincinnati, Ohio, and the next year to Indiana, where be died in 1845; he was a farmer most of his days. Henry's mother died when he was very young. As he grew up he was first employed in a general store, from 1837 to 1847. In 1858 he came across plain and mountain to California, with ox teams, and for the first seven years lie was a resident of Sacra­mento: ten months of this time he was clerk in the Bee-Hive Hotel. In 1859 he purchased a ranch on Putah Creek, in Solano County. His place now contains 2,000 acres, fifty acres of which are in orchard. He has also been a very extensive stock-raiser. In 1890 he bought a nice residence,--a house and four lots—in Winters, where also he is raising some very fine fruit.

He was united in marriage in Sacramento, in 1858, to Miss Peredes, a native of Chile, who died in 1864. The next year, in Suisun City, Mr. Seaman married Ellen Ryan, a native of Ireland, born November 15, 1837. Their only child, Henry, was born August 19, 1866, and died in 1875. [Page 662]


WILLIAM RUSSELL, a prominent farmer between Winters and Madison, in Yolo County, was born April 17,1831, in Ohio County, Kentucky, being a son of J. G. and Mary (Dudley) Russell, natives of that State. At the age. of seventeen years he came to California, landing in San Francisco in May, 1852, and worked in the gold mines until autumn, when he settled upon a ranch on Willow Slough, near Woodland, and lived there until 1856, when he settled upon the place where he now resides. In 1864 he took a trip to Oregon, Nevada and Montana, spending one season on the journey; and in 1886 he visited his old Kentucky home, in, company with his brother Samuel. His ranch, containing 160 acres, is situated between Winters and Madison and consists of very fine land, well improved. He has twenty-three acres in figs, fifty in oranges and twenty-five in other kinds of fruit, besides three acres in grapes. He is continuing to improve the farm by planting fruits of all kinds, and the time is not distant when his farm will be truly a garden spot. It is so peculiarly situated that fruit ripens here three or four days sooner than in any other part of the State.

He was married September 17, 1874, to Miss Susan Wilson, who was born in Missouri, June 25, 1841, a daughter of Joseph A. and Mary J. (Dairing) Wilson; natives of North Carolina. Mr. and Mrs. Russell's children are: Susan M., born July 18, 1875; James W., February 16, 1877; and Florence, December 26, 1878. [Page 663]


FRANCIS E. RUSSELL, a farmer between Winters and Davisville, Yolo County, was born October 7, 1824, in Canada, a son of Peter and Abigail (May) Russell, both natives of that dominion, who passed their lives there, except eight or ten years in Vermont. At the age of fourteen years young Russell went to Vermont, and in 1849 sailed from Boston for California on the ship Herculean, coming around Cape Horn and arriving in San Francisco May 3, following. The first season he was engaged in gold-mining, and then settled on grant land in Suisun Valley. In the fall of 1853 he sold out his interest there, went to Vaca Valley, Solano County, and bought apiece of grant land, which he held and occupied until the autumn of 1858. He sold out again and bought 396 acres of the Wolfskill grant, where he now lives. He has increased his landed estate to 800 acres. In 1868 he erected a fine large residence, both beautiful and comfortable.

He was married in Vacaville, September 25, , 1856, to Miss Lucy C. Ogburn, a native of Texas, and a daughter of John C. and Mary M. (Love) Ogburn; her father was a native of Virginia, and a physician, and her mother was a native of Tennessee. Mr. and Mrs. Russell have five children, living: Cornelius E., born June 13, 1858; Mary A., August 31, 1861; Charlie F., born November 25, 1864, and died September 10, 1869; William 0., born June 1, 1867; Lucy L., born July 3, 1869, died October 9, 1872; Frank E., born September 25, 1875; and Lulu M., March 20, 1882. [Page 663 -664]


THOMAS J. MAXWELL, a farmer at Winters, Yolo County, was born in Madison County, Kentucky, January 3, 1815, His father, Thomas Maxwell, was among the first settlers of Kentucky, moving to Madison County, Missouri, in 1825, where he died March 18, 1826. His mother, who was a Miss Gardes, was born on the Potomac River and died in 1862, in Madison County, Missouri. The first school that she ever attended was at the house of General Washington. The subject of this sketch lived with his parents in Missouri until 1856, when he came overland to California, landing near Cacheville, Yolo County, and took up a tract of land which proved to be upon a grant. He accordingly abandoned it, moved to Buckeye, bought a claim and built there the first store in the place, and also held the office of Postmaster from 1857 to 1859. He then disposed of his ranch and store and went into the hills with a band of stock and afterward disposed of his stock, and he now lives in Winters, retired from active business. He is the proprietor of 500 acres of good land, seven acres of which are set out in fruit.

He was married December 8, 1836, in Cooper County, Missouri, to Miss Rhoda Campbell, who was born February 4, 1817, in Tennessee, the daughter of James B. and Nellie (Stevens) Campbell, both natives of Virginia. Their children are: J. O., born May 26, 1838; Susan F., born January 14, 1848, and is now the wife of R. York; and Thomas J., born January 20, 1856. [Page 664 - 665]


WILLIAM J. DE FRIES, M. D., a physician and surgeon of Woodland, is a son of John William and Susanna (Hergenga) De Fries, natives of Monroe County, New York. His father was born August 31, 1816, graduated at Leyden, Holland, Europe, when twenty-two years of age; was a physician by profession, and died in Paineville Center, New York, in 1817; and the subject's mother, who was born September 15, 1818, died in 1871.

Dr. De Fries was born February 5, 1841, in Monroe County, New York, and at the age of twenty-one years graduated at the Leyden Medical College of Holland. He then went to Tippecanoe, Indiana, where he entered the service of the Second Indiana Cavalry, in 1863, enlisting as a surgeon. Serving until 1866 in this capacity, he entered the corresponding department in the regular army. While in the volunteer service he • was shot several times. His nervous system at length becoming somewhat affected, he was trans­ferred to the position of Veterinary Surgeon, and served as such from 1867 until 1880. He then practiced his profession as surgeon on the Sand­wich Islands three years, and in 1884 he located in Petaluma, California, for one year, when lie finally came to Woodland, where he enjoys a supremacy in the surgical practice of the county. He takes great pride in his profession.

June 15, 1882, in the Sandwich Islands, the Doctor married Miss Valmena Boremann, a native of Bremen, Germany, born there in 1861, and they have had five children, viz.: John William, born in 1883, and died the next year; Wilhelmine M., September 20, 1885; Fredie L., February 17, 1887; and Bertie, De­cember 21, 1888. [Page 665]


G W. GOULD, one of the. prominent agriculturists of Yolo County, was born in  that county, in 1858. His parents were Samuel and Mary Ann (O'Conners) Gould, early settlers of this State. His father was born in the State of Maine and lost his life in 1877, possibly in being drowned in the Sacra­mento River. He was a well and favorably known citizen of Sacramento Valley. Mrs. Gould, the, mother, was born in Ireland, and she is still living in Woodland, at the age of sixty-eight years. Mr. Gould, whose mime commences this paragraph, has a farm of 160 acres four miles from Woodland, where he raises wheat, barley, live-stock, etc.

His wife, ?bee Hattie Griffith, was born also in this county, and they were married in Cache-vine. Their two children are: Mabel and Abraham. [Page 667]


R. YORK, a farmer of Yolo County, and at present one of the Supervisors,  is the son of Meredith and Martha (Browning) York. His mother was born in Kentucky in 1805, and died in 1887. His father, born in Tennessee in 1800, was a farmer and a minister of the Christian Church, and died in 1851. Mr. York, our subject, was born in Clay County, Tennessee, in 1839, and came to Woodland in 1859, where he received most of his schooling. At the present time, 1890, he is a County Supervisor from the fifth district, being elected January 1, 1889. The same year he erected a beautiful residence upon his farm, which comprises 320 acres of well improved land, and whereon the principal product is wheat

Mr. York, November 3, 1867, married Susan Maxwell, a native of Cooper County, Missouri. and the names of their children are: Mattie, Rhoda, William N. and Ella. Another child, Maud, died March 29,1884. [Page 669]


J S. TUTT, a prosperous farmer of  Yolo County, is the son of Philip and Catherine Tutt. His father, a native of Culpeper County, Virginia, followed school teaching to 1835, and then moved to Cooper County, Missouri, where he was County Surveyor for six­teen years, and where he died in 1871; and the mother, native also of Culpeper County, Vir­ginia, died in Cooper County, Missouri.

Mr. Tutt, the subject of this notice, was born in Fanquier County, Virginia, in 1836, and when he was nine years of age he was taken by his parents to Cooper County, Missouri. In 1849 he came overland to California, reaching Hangtown August 15. He followed mining there during the ensuing autumn, and then went to Nevada City, where he continued mining • until the next spring. - Going there to Sacra­mento, he had the position of turnkey of the county jail for a time, and then he returned to Nevada City and remained there until 1853; he then moved into Yolo County, where he has improved 260 acres of fine land, on which he raises live-stock and grain, and all the fruit necessary for home consumption. He is a mem­ber of Landmark Lodge, No. 153, F. & A. M., and also of Madison Lodge, No. 150, 0. C. F.

In 1857, in Yolo County, he married Miss Mary E. Gordon, and they have six children: Elizabeth, William L., Susan, Thomas, Hattie and Kate. [Page 669 - 670]

 RUSSELL DAY, a Yolo viticulturist, was born April 27, 1817, in Auburn, New York, a son of Lot Day. The father, a native of New Jersey and a tanner by trade, moved to Hamilton County, Ohio, where Cincinnati now stands, in 1817; in 1820 to Wayne County, Indiana; in 1830 to St. Joseph County, same State, where in 1842 he was elected sheriff of the county and served two terms, or a total of four years. During his second term he was appointed State Marshal for the northern part of the State. In 1847 he was elected State Senator by his district, and he served two years; and in 1850 he came across the plains to California. He was a resident of Stockton until 1860, when he moved to Woodland and remained there among his children until the fall of 1872; then, at the age of eighteen years, he went to Nevada and located a claim twenty- five miles south of Halleck’s Station; but his health failed and he died there in March, 1874, at the age of eighty-three years. His remains were brought back to Woodland and laid at rest in the cemetery there. He had always been a prominent man in political circles, and energetic in all of his business relations.

Mr. Russell Day was brought up to the tanner’s trade and followed the same until 1840, when he entered the brick trade and began contracting for buildings, and continued in the same until 1851. He then was engaged by the Chicago & Springfield Railroad Company, to superintend the construction of a branch road running from Chicago to Springfield, and was engaged therein until 1852. April 20, 1853, he left South Bend, -Indiana, for California, and crossed the plains with his father, who had re- turned from California. He located his present property September 10, 1853, taking the land from the Government, and he has been a resident there until the present. He converted the wild and desert- like place to the neat, attractive and fertile farm that ii now is. He also has run a tine dairy, but is now turning his attention more especially to the raising of wine grapes, and is a stockholder in the Yolo Winery. His farm is now all a vineyard. It is situated thirty miles southeast of Woodland, a good gravel road existing between his vine- yard and the town. He is a member of Wood- land Lodge, No. Ill, I. O. O. F., and is next to the oldest member of this order; he is also a member of the Encampment. He once visited the spot where Woodland is now located with the view of taking a portion of it for a home, but he gave it up and located where he now resides.

For his wife Mr. Day married Miss Abia Russell, a native of the State of New York.  Their children have been : Lot, who was born December 18, 1875 and is now deceased; Russell T., born June 26, 1881. [Pages 714 - 715]


JOEL WOOD, a pioneer of 1849 now partially retired rancher, residing near Cadenasso, Yolo County, was born near Nashville, Tennessee, in January, 1823, a son of William and Mary (Goze) Wood, natives of Kentucky. His father, a farmer by occupation, remained a resident of Tennessee until his death; his wife also died in that State. Joel was but six years of age when he went to live with an uncle, and was brought up by him until twenty-two years old. Then, in 1849. in company with his uncle, William Goze, he came across the plains to California by way of the Carson and Lassen routes, arriving at Bidwell’s Bar November 16. There Mr. Wood kept a trading post and ran a ferry across the Feather River until May, 1850; then he opened a store and butcher shop at Rich Bar on the middle fork of the Yuba River and conducted them and followed mining until late in the ensuing autumn; next, in partnership with L. Hibbard, he purchased land ten miles above Marysville and stocked it with cattle and horses; but a year afterward he sold out and he went by the Beckwourth route to the Big Meadows, on the Humboldt River and conducted a trading post and butcher shop there until the fall of 1852. Selling out he again went into Yolo County and settled in the Lamb Valley, where now is located the Orleans Vineyard. In 1854 he again sold out and went up into the Capay Valley, where he was one of the first settlers, being one of the five, and he had the honor of naming the valley. He had the postoflice in 1857, which was called Capay, and at that point he also had a store and blacksmith shop. For a time also he was Constable, and among the arrests that he made were those of the desperate characters James Marble and T. Glass- cock. Ever since his first location there Mr.  Wood has been a resident of that valley. He now resides five miles west of Capay and one mile from Cadenasso, a station on the railroad.  He is now living a life somewhat retired on seventy-five acres of choice valley land, well improved in vines and fruit trees. His children also have about four sections of choice land in the immediate vicinity.

Mr. Wood was married in May, 1853, in Lamb Valley, to Miss Emerine Clark, a native of Missouri, and their children are named and born as follows: William T., deceased; Mary B., born October 17, 1856; Albert B., November 5, 1858; Josephine B., December 12, 1860;

George W., August 1, 1863; Leonard, September 20, 1865; Donald S, May 5, 1868: William S., March 27, 1870; Laura Etta, August 27, 1873: Myrtle, January 4, 1876; Joel E., August 21, 1879, and Maria M, July 24, 1884. [Page 715]


ROBERT McDONALD, a farmer of Murray Township, Alameda County, was born January 1, 1837, in New Orleans, Louisiana, and at the age of five years he was taken by his parents to Bonaparte, Iowa, in the Des Moines Valley. In 1850 he came with his parents overland to California, the father, how-ever, dying on the way, and the family stopping at Salt Lake City while he came on to Hangtown, where lie engaged in mining at different camps, following the excitement of rich discoveries; was also one of the victims of the Fraser River excitement. After a few 3’ears he settled down at San Jose and engaged at farming upon land which he had purchased, and continued for fifteen years. In 1867 he sold his farm and re-invested in another, which he held for two years only, when he again sold out and went to Murray Township, near Livermore, where he purchased 160 acres and is now engaged in general farming, but making a specialty of rearing draft horses. His parents, James and Sarah, were natives of Scotland.

He was married in Alvarado, Alameda County, April 19, 1858, to Miss Edna Stuart, and the names of their six children are: Frank, Hettie, William, Lydia, John and Arthur. [Pages 715-715]


ROBERT McGLASHAN, a general farmer near Livermore, was born August 15, 1839, in Perth, Scotland, emigrated to America in 1860 and for a short time was engaged in farming near Amsterdam, Fulton County, New York, but in the same year he came on to California, by way of the Isthmus of Panama, landing at San Francisco. For the first seven years he was engaged in agricultural pursuits in Washington Township, Alameda County; the next four years lie was at Salinas, Monterey County; in 1871 he went to Livermore and followed farming there ten years; then he was two years in Solano County, and finally returned to Livermore and purchased 370 acres of land, where he resides. He has forty acres in vineyard and eighteen in fruit- trees, all bearing. He is a member of Salinas Lodge, No. 204, F. & A. M. He was married in San Francisco May 1, 1867, to Miss Margaretta J. Webb, and they have eight children, whose names are: Andrew A., John W., Robert P., Isabel C, Adele £., Alfred L., Margaretta P. and Harry S. [Page 715]


DENNIS SPENCER, attorney at law, has been a resident of California since ^^ 1852. He was born in Missouri, August 22, 1844, his parents being Dwight and Eliza (Kirby) Spencer, who removed to California in 1852. His father, however, had come here across the plains in 1849, with the first great rush of emigration to the gold fields. He was a millwright by trade; and after his arrival here he built a quartz mill in Amador County, one among the first built in the State. He brought some live-stock with him from Missouri, and acquired large stock interests here, supplying meat to some of the large mining camps. He accumulated considerable property, having large numbers of domestic animals in San Joaquin Valley. He purchased 160 acres adjoining the town of Napa, part of which is known as Spencer’s addition, and a part is still in possession of the family.

Mr. Dennis Spencer for three years of his youth attended Santa Clara College at San Jose; then he engaged in the study of law in the office of Wallace & Rale at Napa, and afterward in the office of Pendergast & Stoney, and was admitted to the bar of the district court in 1870.  Alter about one year’s practice he attended law school at Albany, New York, in 1872-73, graduating in the summer of the latter year; and he was admitted to the bar of the Supreme Court of the State of New York May 15, 1873, and to the Supreme Court of California April 13, 1874. In 1873 he was elected District Attorney, and later was re-elected for two succeeding terms. In 1879 — ‘80 he was nominated by the Democrats for the Assembly against Hon. Chancellor Hartson, now deceased, and the contest was probably one of the hardest ever waged in this county. Mr. Spencer was defeated by only eleven votes, in this, a largely Republican, county. In 1882, in the Stonemau campaign, he was a candidate for the Senate from the Twentieth district, and was elected by a large majority. In his four years’ term in the Senate he did yeoman service in that most exciting political period. He was one of the most prominent figures in the discussion and management of the railroad tax question, and also in the riparian and irrigation problems.  During those four years there were two extra sessions, in which these came up so prominently and were the all-absorbing questions of the State. He was also adverse to the displacing of the Supreme Court, on the theory that it was against the policy of our Government for one bench to interfere with a co-ordinate branch of the Government.

After the close of his Senatorial term, Mr.  Spencer was elected a delegate to the National Convention that nominated President Cleve- land, and was appointed Chairman of the California delegation. He was mentioned very prominently for the office of United States District Attorney for the Northern District of California. His defeat was probably brought about by the bitterness engendered in the Democratic party in the Stockton Convention. His name has been prominently considered for Congress in the councils of his party, but he has steadily refused to entertain a proposition in that direction, and has since devoted himself exclusively to the practice of his profession.

He is a member of Napa Lodge, No. 18, I.  O. O. F. He was married in 1874, to Miss Ellen E. Spencer, a native of the Sandwich Islands, a daughter of Captain Thomas Spencer, a prominent business man of Hawaii. They have four children now living: Lloyd, Kate J., Helen T.  and Niles Searles. [Page 715-716]


PHILIP H. McVICAR, a general black-smith at Livermore, was born in the town of Sidney, Nova Scotia, July 12, 1857, and learned his trade there. In 1875 he came to California and worked at the same a year, and then was in Australia a year, and, returning, located at Livermore, where he was employed as a journeyman in the shops of Taylor & Son, and C. P. Heslipo. He after-ward bought out the latter and conducted the shop until 1863, when he sold out and went to Byron, Contra Costa County, purchased the shop of F. Phelps, and did business there a year; and then sold the establishment back to Mr. Phelps, went to Livermore and purchased the shop and business of Earson & Merick, where he has since carried on a general repair shop for blacksmithing on wagon work, machines and agricultural implements. He is a Republican and active in political matters. He was married in Livermore, December 14, 1880, to Miss Ella Hilton, and they had two children, both of whom, as well as the wife, are now de- ceased, — the latter dying September 14, 1886.[Page 716]


MAAS LUDERS, an extensive farmer near Livermore, was born in Holstein, Germany, January 27, 1837; in 1853-‘57 he followed the sea, and in 1858 landed in New York and came thence by sailing vessel, the Henry Brighton, around Cape Horn, to San Francisco. He went directly to San Lorenzo and thence to Mt. Eden, where he worked as a farm hand until 1865. About this time he rented a farm and conducted it upon his own account for three years; then he rented a ranch near Livermore, while renting another near Haywards, and his time was occupied in super- intending these until 1881, when he purchased 640 acres of fine land near Livermore, where he now resides, having all this large farm under cultivation. He is a Republican, but spends no time at politics; he is a member of Vesper Lodge, No. 62, A. O. U. W., at Livermore.

He was united in marriage November 22, 1872, in San Francisco, to Mrs. Mary Higmau, who had one child, named August. [Page 716]


W F JEANS, poultry-man near Woodland, was born in Vacaville, Solano County, this State, March 18, 1854, a son of T. J. and Isabel (Hoyle) Jeans. Father was a farmer by occupation, lived in Missouri, his native State, until 1851, when he came over- land to California. A short time afterward he returned to Missouri, and in 1853 recrossed the plains to the Golden State. He is now a resident of Woodland, aged sixty-seven years. The subject of this sketch was brought up on he farm, but since the age of seventeen years he has been employed with machinery, in which a has exhibited great talent. He has invented a number of useful devices which have been patented, and some are in use in the large harvesters of the coast. One of these is a spreader, operating upon the grain going to the machine, and is considered almost indispensable nowadays. The patent right is now owned by Byron Jackson of San Francisco. Another device is a sack-holder, now in use two years, which saves one man’s labor in connection with the harvester. For the past year, however, Mr. Jeans has been giving his attention to the raising of thorough- bred chickens, — White Leghorns and Plymouth Rock, — at ills place two miles southwest of Woodland. Both varieties are of the single- comb strain. Mr. Jeans has also invented an incubator, which promises to be a success; it will soon be placed upon the market.

He was married in 1887 to Miss Lottie Copland, a native of California. Their children are Jessie and Raymond. Mr. Jeans is a member of the I. O. G. T., at Woodland. [Pages 716-717]


ROBERT H. STERLING, who has been prominently identified with the real-estate and insurance business of Napa County since 1866, has been a resident of California since 1849, and of Napa since 1852. He was born in New York City in 1829. His parents were David and Emma (Waterman) Sterling; his father, a native of Bridgeport, Connecticut, was at that time a book publisher, doing business under the firm name of Sterling & Strong.  His mother was a sister of Captain Robert Waterman, who came to this coast in 1850, in command of the steamship Northerner, one of the early Panama liners. While Mr. Sterling was an infant his parents removed to Bridge- port, where he was brought up, receiving his education in the public schools of that city.  At the early age of fourteen years he shipped before the mast in the ship Natchez, making the trip around the world in nine months and twenty-six days. He followed the sea until the breaking out of the excitement consequent upon the discovery of gold in California, when he came around the Horn as a passenger in the ship Tarolinta, arriving in San Francisco July 6, 1849. Among his fellow passengers by this vessel were William S. O’Brien, later of the firm of Flood & O’Brien, the well-known millionaires of the Pacific coast. Dr. J. C. Tucker, of Ala- meda, Daniel Norcross, of San Francisco, and others who have become more or less prominent in the history of the State. Engaging in mining, he was soon taken sick and returned to San Francisco, where he shipped as first mate on the Tarolinta for a voyage to Shanghai. He returned to San Francisco in the following spring with health perfectly restored, and took charge of the stores hips of the Pacific Mail Company, and also of the stores of Stevens & Bancroft, which position he held for a year, and then returned to the East, where he remained for another year. Returning to California, he located in Napa County, and has resided there ever since, first engaging in the stock business, raising horses, cattle and sheep in partnership with Captain A. A. Ritchie, in that part of Napa County which has since been set of as Lake County. In 1858, the death of Captain Ritchie requiring the sale of the stock to close up his estate, Mr. Sterling embarked in the lumber business in Napa City, in which he continued till 1866. He then engaged in the real-estate and insurance business in connection with the office of Assistant Assessor of Internal Revenue, which office he held until it was abolished in 1874. In 1881 he was appointed Deputy Col- lector of United States Revenue, serving until the change of administration in 1885, since which time he has devoted himself exclusively to his private business.

Mr. Sterling married in 1854 Miss Lydia J.  Wheaton, of Guilford, Connecticut, daughter of Captain W. N. Wheaton. They have one daughter, Julia H., now the wife of Horace L.  Hill, of San Francisco. He is a member of the Masonic order. Mount Lodge, No. 18, and of the Royal Arch Chapter, No. 30, both of Napa; a life member of the Society of California Pioneers, of San Francisco; and also of the Board of Supervisors of Napa County. Mr. and Mrs.  Sterling are attendants of the Episcopal Church.  Always an earnest supporter of Republican ideas and of that political party, he was one of the first Board of Trustees of the Napa State Insane Asylum, of which the late Judge Chancellor Hartson, James H. Goodman, Dr. John F. Morse, of San Francisco, and John H. Jewett, of Marysville, were also members. This board had the control of the building of this institution from its inception, and under their supervision the buildings were nearly completed and partially occupied. Mr. Sterling and the majority of that board were reappointed for a second term, but soon afterward a change of political administration took place in the State, and the Republican board was legislated out of office.[Pages 717-718]


JOHN H. MILLER is one of the prominent business men and physicians of the city of Redding, Shasta County, California. He was born on a farm near the village of Pontiac, Oakland County, Michigan, July 2, 1842, his father. Captain John Miller, having been one of the first settlers of that county.  The house in which he was born was a two- story, strong, block log house that his father had built in the forest. The logs were hewed and laid close together, and the windows were provided with heavy wooden shutters. His father used to drive his ox team twenty-five miles to Detroit for supplies, going through the forest and fording rivers. While absent on a trip of this kind at one time the Indians carried away stock, stole their corn and made havoc of the country in general. His mother, secure in her stronghold, escaped unhurt.

A fact worthy of note in the history of the Miller family is that three generations of John Millers carried arms in defense of their country. Our subject’s grandfather, John Miller, when a young man enlisted in the Continental army and aided in driving King George’s red coats out of America. At the close of the Revolutionary war he settled at Albany, New York. His son, John Miller, was born near Auburn, same State, in 1792. This son, the Doctor’s father, was a captain in the United States forces in the war of 1812. Our subject attended the district school of his native place in winter and worked on his father’s farm in summer, thus becoming inured to work, and in that primitive log school-house laying the foundation of an education which has been of so much value to him in after life. In 1861 the great civil war burst upon the country, and in 1862 the call for volunteers to put down the rebellion became urgent. At that time young Miller had attained his twentieth year, and the fires of patriotism that burned in the breast of his sire and paternal grandsire would not be downed, and he was irresistibly impelled to enlist in the service of his country. In August, 1862, he enlisted in the Twenty-second Michigan, that grand regiment that carried its colors so triumphantly on so many battle-fields, and after three years of hard lighting victoriously returned the old flag, though shot to shreds, to the State. About the first of October they were sent to the front, and soon gained the reputation of being one of the first regiments from Michigan. They participated in the battles of the Army of the Cumberland, and at the battle of Chickamauga the regiment did valiant fighting and suffered fearful loss. The last year of the war Dr. Miller was at General Thomas’s head- quarters, and was chief clerk of the commissary for the staff of General Thomas. At last the war closed and victory came. After three years of service in a most sanguinary war, in which several hundred thousand good men on both sides went down in death, John H. Miller, a veteran, was discharged.

He finished his education in Buffalo, New York, and graduated in medicine in the spring of 1877. He soon after began the practice of his profession in the oil regions of Pennsylvania, remaining there three years. During that time he operated largely in oil. In 1880 he came to California and to the new town of Red- ding. Being pleased with the location he decided to make it his home. He at once began his practice and became interested in the growth and improvement of the town. In all his undertakings he has met with eminent success, has a good practice and owns a nice drug store.  The Doctor has also interested himself in horticulture on his ranch of 160 acres, which is located four miles east of Redding. On it he has planted a great variety of fruits: prunes, almonds, peaches, Bartlett pears, cherries, apricots, figs and grape vines.

In 1866 Dr. Miller married Miss Elizabeth Hughes, who was born in France of English parentage. They have four children, three sons and a daughter, all born in Pennsylvania, viz.:

Charles H., Edward H., Harold A. and Ethel E.  The family are Presbyterians. The Doctor is a trustee and an elder in the church and aided in the building of their house of worship. He is also Superintendent of the Sunday-school, and it is with pleasure that one notes the lively interest he takes in the children of the city.  He is a Republican, a G. A. K., and a member of the Masonic fraternity. [Pages 718-719]


JOSEPH SUAZA, a farmer near Pleasanton, Alameda County, was born at St. George, Western Islands (in the Kingdom of Portugal), August 26. 1847, and in 1868 chose the sea as the arena whereon to earn His livelihood; he was four years before the mast. In 1872 he came to San Francisco by way of Panama, and proceeded to Livermore, where for three years he worked at farm labor. He then purchased 155 acres of land near Pleasanton, in Murray Township, where he has since been ranching.  June 15, 1884, he left on a visit to his native island, where he married Mary B. Suaza, and he brought her to his California home. They have six children living, namely: Mary, Louisa, Manuel, Joseph, Andrew and Johnnie.  [Page 719]


EBENEZER MAJOR, a well and favorably known farmer near Winters, was born March 19, 1826, in Amsterdam, Montgomery County, New York, the son of John and Jane (Maxwell) Major. His father, a farmer by occupation, resided all his life in his native State, New York, dying in 1857, at the age of sixty-five years; the mother also died there, in 1864, at the age of seventy- three years. In their family were seven sons and five daughters.  At the age of seventeen years Mr. Major, the subject of this sketch, began to learn the carpenter and joiner’s trade, which he mastered and followed in New York until 1851, when he came by way of the Isthmus to California. He had to wait thirteen days at the Isthmus for a vessel, which when it came proved to be the German bark Cornelia. He had to pay $300 for cabin passage. After being out about five months the water was exhausted and the ship was obliged to put into land, the nearest port being 500 miles distant. When they arrived they found themselves in Acapulco, and here Mr.  Major found the steamers Golden Gate and Panama. Taking passage on the Panama, he paid $100 for passage to San Francisco, at which port he arrived in about ten days. Three weeks afterward he went down the coast forty miles on a schooner, and was employed about a month upon the ranch of a Mr. Gates, running for him the first mower and reaper ever brought to the coast. Then he followed mining two months at Mormon Island; stopped six weeks in Sacramento; mined again two months at Galena Hill; went to North Bar on the Feather River, met his brother David there, who had crossed the plains in 1850, and worked with him about eighteen months, and for a short time on Rapid Creek, etc.; three months on the South Yuba; and then David went into Yolo County and took a claim southwest of Winters upon what afterward became the Wolfskill grant, and while there he met his death by being drowned in the Sacramento River, resulting from walking out upon a plank after dark to board a canoe; his body was found the next morning.

Ebenezer followed mining in different places for about eight years, in which he was success- ful. He purchased his present place by obtaining a squatter’s claim thereto in 1856. He has made upon it all the improvements now visible there. It comprises 170 acres of choice land, well improved, where he raises hay, grain and live-stock, two miles east of Winters. In his political views Mr. Major is a Republican.  December 27, 1884, he met with a serious accident. A horse struck him on the hip with his knee and so severely injured the part that Mr.  Major still walks with a limp. [Page 719-720]


RICHARD OWENS, a successful citizen and rancher of Tehama County, is a native ^^ of Wales, born October 8, 1836, the son of William and Ellen (Williams) Owens, both natives of the same country. They were the parents of five children, four of whom are now living. Mr. Owens, our subject, came to America in 1857, when twenty-one years of age, and worked in the State of Wisconsin for two years. In 1859 he came to Tehama County, where he has improved his fine ranch and since resided. He purchased 400 acres first, then took the homestead, in 1866, and later 285 acres was purchased, and he now has 1,085 acres of choice fruit land, with a nice dwelling-house and good farm buildings. Their home is surrounded with flowers and shrubs. He built his present residence in 1872.

In 1865 he was married to Miss Ellen Jones, a native of his own country. Their union has been blessed with four children, all born at their home and all living excepting one. Their names are: Mary Jane, Richard Roy and Vera Edna. The one they lost, their eldest, Maggie Ellen, died at the age of two years.

Mr. Owens is raising on his ranch hay, grain and stock. He has sown as high as 400 acres in a single year, and he has harvested 6,666 bushels in a year. He is breeding improved Clydesdale horses and Durham cattle.  Mr. Owens purchased a portion of his place from a man who camped on it under a tree, and was there shot by Indians. The early days of trouble and danger have passed away, and the residence with its flowers and well-tilled fields and line stock take the place of the rude life of the past. Mr. Owens now goes over his ranch on a swift gray horse, without danger from the Indians. He is a Republican in his political views, and is now one of the substantial farmers of that section. [Pages 723 - 724]


JAMES T. LILLARD, deceased, formerly the proprietor of the Lillard House at Davisvilie, was associated with the history of Yolo County since its earliest days. He was born in Harrodsburg, Kentucky, a son of Thomas and Eliza Lillard, natives also of the same State. Left an orphan at the age of twelve years, he was with relatives until he was eighteen, when he served a year in the Mexican war, under Doniphan. He then was at his native home until 1849, when he came overland to California, in company with Hudsby, the man who established Hudsby’s Cut-off on this trip, which occupied the time from May to September.

Mr. Lillard followed mining two years on the Yuba River; then conducted a hotel at Washington, Yolo County, two years; the next two years he was employed by J. C. Davis, at Davisvilie, which place was named after Mr. Davis; and finally Mr. Lillard purchased 600 acres of land and engaged in agricultural pursuits, continuing until 1885, when he sold out and moved to Davisvilie and built the Lillard House, of which he was proprietor until his death, which occurred January 6, 1889. He was a member of the Pioneer Society and of the I.O. R. M. He was married in 1854, to Miss Mary A. Mear, now deceased. By that marriage there were two children: Henry R., de- ceased, and Eliza, now the wife of Rerlan Seasel.  Mr. Lillard was again married, October 21, 1861, to Miss Susan S. Hoy, a native of Kentucky, and they also had two children: James J. and Edna A., both of whom are now deceased. Since the death of her husband Mrs.  Lillard has conducted the house, and in such a manner as to maintain its good reputation. It is situated at the foot of Main Street near the depot, and is well known to the traveling public. [Page 724]


W C SCHWEER, a prosperous farmer of Alameda County, was born in Murray Township, this county. May 28, 1865, and was a boy when his parents moved with him to the town of San Leandro, where he was a pupil in the free schools until 1874, when they removed to Murray Township, and there our subject completed his school education. In 1880 he became a farmer and for a number of years past has been managing a large farm for his widowed mother, comprising several hundred acres of rich laud. By perseverance he has brought it to a high state of perfection, making it one of the best improved farms in that section of the country. He is a Republican and takes a prominent part in local politics; in 1888 he was a delegate to the county convention. He is yet unmarried and not a member of any secret organization. [Page 724]


ALBERT KOOPMAN, a prominent rancher near Pleasanton, has a farm of 300 acres two miles northeast of the town in the Amador Valley. He was born in San Francisco, this State, June 28, 1806, and when very young his parents moved to Pleasanton, where he grew up and was educated, completing his school days at Livermore College in 1879, since which time he has been an occupant of his present farm. Thirty acres of his place is in vine-yard, which averages three tons of grapes to the acre. The product he sells to the wineries. He also has fifteen acres of orchard in a good variety of fruit; the remainder of the farm is utilized in general agriculture and stock-raising.

The subject of this sketch is the son of John and Catherine Koopman, natives of Holstein, Germany, who came to America in 1852; the father died in 1873, and the mother is still living, a resident of Alameda County. Mr. Koopman, at San Francisco, August 27, 1887, married Miss Dinah Fieldman, of Pleasanton, and they have an infant daughter. [Page 724]


W1LLTAM H. AND BENJAMIN F.BURLAND are the enterprising and hospitable proprietors of the well-known Rose Hotel in the flourishing town of Pleasanton, in the Amador Valley. The building, which is conducted as the only first-class hotel in the place, is a large three-story frame structure, well ventilated and furnished, and is patronized by the health and pleasure seekers of San Francisco and other Bay cities. The grounds are well shaded by handsome trees and shrubbery, with croquet plats, etc.

The senior member of the firm was born at Sacramento, May 10, 1857, and was three years of age when his parents moved to Watsonville, where his younger brother and present partner was born. Their parents were Robert and Jemima (Hudson) Burland. The father was a native of Boston, Massachusetts, where he was reared and educated and learned the cabinet- making trade. He came to California in 1849, by way of Panama, and was engaged in mining several years. The mother, a native of Iowa, crossed the plains to California in 1850; they are both still living. William H. was educated at Watsonville, and was employed as a clerk in a general store until 1877. He then went to Seattle, Washington; returning to Watsonville three years later, he remained until 1889, being for a time in charge of one of the grain-ware- houses of that place. Next he purchased the stock of the Watsonville Transfer Company, enlarged the business and gave employment to a number of men for three years, and handling also all the outside l)U8iness of Wells, Fargo & Co.’s Express. He sold out this place to a good advantage, leased the Scott Hotel and conducted it fir two years. Then he engaged in the buying and selling of stock in the interest of J.  Lincott until 1889, when he moved to Pleasanton and took charge of the Rose Hotel.

He was married at Irvington, October 15 1880, to Miss Ida Livley, a daughter of Joseph Livley, M. D., who came to California in 1850.  They have one child, a daughter. Mr. Burland politically is a Republican and takes an active part in local politics, and fraternally he is a member of Fajaro Lodge, No. 110, F. & A. M.  at Watsonville. [Page 724-725]


JOHN K. SCHUERLEY, a farmer near Woodland, who is widely known for his generous disposition, good humor and cordial sociability, was born June 1, 1831, in Wiirtenberg, Germany, a son of Bernard and Mary (Mains) Schuerley. His father, a farmer by occupation, died in Germany, his native country, in 1846, at the age of sixty years.  John K. was accordingly brought up to farm life, and was educated at a governmental agricultural college, spending three years at the institution. The ensuing three years he was foreman of a large estate in Switzerland, owned by a German nobleman. In 1854 he emigrated to America from Havre de Grace, landing in New York after forty-two days’ voyage, and forty-two persons died of the cholera on the way across the sea. He went to Cincinnati, Ohio, and engaged upon a farm near by for two and a half years; then he was employed in the city by a large lumber company, contractors and builders until the spring of 1860. when he re- turned to New York city, and took passage on the North Star for the Isthmus, and thence on the Golden Gate for San Francisco. He first visited Coloma, where the prospect was poor, and then went to Woodland, and soon found employment on the farm of F. 0. Ruggles near that place. In 1862 he started a brewery, in company with A. Miller. The building was erected at a little distance from where Wood- land now is, and afterward moved to his present location on Main Street in the western part of town. Mr. Schuerley operated the institution successfully until 1880, when he .sold it and moved upon his present property, consisting of 240 acres of choice land which he purchased in 1877, adjoining the city limits; seventy-live acres is planted to choice varieties of grapes.  In 1875 Mr. Schuerley made a trip to Europe, returning in 1876. He is yet unmarried, and his sister. Bertha A. Weber, is mistress of his home. [Page 725]


OTTO SCHLEUR, one of Woodland’s enterprising business men, now engaged in a bakery there, was born September 20, 1846, in Hanover, Germany; a son of William and Matilda (Struck) Schleur. His father was a merchant and passed all his life in Germany.  At an early age Otto learned the baker’s trade, and continued to follow it until he came to America in 1866. Landing at New York, he came almost immediately to California by way of the Isthmus. At first, in this State, lie was engaged eighteen months in a bakery at- Washington, opposite Sacramento, at $35 a month.  In October, 1877, he established a bakery at Woodland, in which he has ever since been interested. His institution is a fine one, well patronized. Mr. Sclileur is also a stockholder in the Yolo Brewery, and in the Bulfah Brewery at Sacramento, and he owns eighty acres of choice land near town, devoted to wine and raisin grapes. He is a member of Woodland Lodge, No. Ill, I. O. O. F.

He was married in 1873, to Miss Anna Dinzler, a native of California. Of their eleven children, there are seven living, namely: Tiilie, Eddie, Willie, Annie, Balpli, Birt and a babe unnamed. [Page 725]


PHILIP V. WENIG, dealer in fresh and salt meats on Neal street, Pleasanton, was born at Saxe-Meiningen, July 8, 1845, and was reared to the butchers’ trade with his father. Christian Wenig; his mother’s name be- fore marriage was Maria Hasfeldt. He came to America in 1866, and for the first two 3’ears was employed as a journeyman butcher at Baltimore, Maryland, and in 1869 he came by way of Panama to California. After stopping a short time at Hay wards, he followed his trade two years at San Jose, and for two years again he was at Alvarado; in 1873 he returned to Haywards, where he formed a partnership with Adam May in the butcher’s trade, and carried on business there until 1875, and then until 1885 he was at Sunol, when he finally came to Pleasanton, where he has since been prospering in his trade. He raises much of his own stock for slaughter on the 160-acre ranch three miles west of town, which he owns. He was married at Sunol, March 1, 1879, to a native of Holstein, Germany, and they have a son and a daughter. [Page 726]


CHARLES N. MORETTE, manufacturer of and dealer in saddles and harness at Pleasanton, was born February 10, 1869, at Middletown, Lake County, California, the only child of J. F. and Christina Morette (now deceased). The father was a native of Luxemburg, and the mother, of Alsace, both in Ger- many. They emigrated to America in 1854 settling at the point named, where the father became an active politician. Charles received his schooling at Shasta, where he began the trade of harness-making, which he finished at Livermore, the family having moved to that place. They subsequently removed to Santa Cruz, where the elder Morette and the son were engaged in a brewery. Returning to Liver- more, the latter resumed work at his trade, and is now carrying a large and handsome stock of] goods, at an eligible location. He has also been connected with the fire department of Livermore for two years. He has traveled some for the sake of seeing the world, visiting Oregon, Washington and many other points in the Northwest. He was married September*^ 29, 1888, and has one daughter, named Christina. [Pages 726-727]


H W. KOOPMAN, general merchant at Pleasanton and a prominent citizen of Alameda County, was born at Pleasanton, December 3, 1868, the second son of John and Catherine (Stindt) Koopman, natives of Germany, who came to America in 1860. Our subject completed his school education at the College of Livermore, then spent three years in Europe, returning in 1889, and now he is in company with his brother Albert and his mother, now Mrs. Thiessen, in the management of a large and well-known mercantile establishment at Pleasanton under the name of H. W.  Koopman. Although a young man, he has already, by his industry and fidelity to honest business principles, built up a good and flourishing trade, and is a popular citizen. [Page 727]


JOSEPH GERMESHAUSEN, one of the proprietors of the Yolo Brewery and an old time-honored citizen, was born March 25, 1836, in Germany, and came to America in 1854, traveled extensively through the Southern States and Mexico, and settled in Platte County, Missouri, where he remained until 1861. He then came by ox teams to California, stopping first, however, until the next year at Virginia City. He then purchased land near Plainfield, Yolo County, and was engaged in agricultural pursuits there until 1881, on 320 acres of rich bottom land, which he still owns. In 1881 he purchased his present interest in the Yolo Brewery, which establishment ranks among the first in the State. He is an enterprising citizen, and has a neat and tasteful residence on Court street, which he built in 1887. He was married in 1868, to Mss Mary Beck, a native of Ger- many, and they have five sons and four daughters. [Page 727]


WILLIAM KUHN, a retired business man of Woodland, was born October 17, 1814, in Prussia, a son of George and Anna (Kena) Kuhn. The father was a tradesman and farmer, and died in 1868 at the age of seventy-six years. William learned the brewer’s trade and followed the same in his native country until he came to America in 1869, landing at New York City and spending only one week there; and then he came by rail to California. First he endeavored in vain to find employment in his line at Marysville, and then at Sacramento, but was soon employed upon a ranch and in a chiccory factory. In the spring of 1871 he began to work at the Columbus Brewery in Sacramento, and after a time for the Pacific Brewery, of the same place; next he conducted a 8ar on J street, between Sixth and Seventh, which place is remembered by many old-timers. In 1872 he came to Wood- land and was employed by the Woodland Brewery; afterward he became a partner with the same, and sustained that relation until 1888, and November 1, that year, he sold out and has lived a somewhat retired life. His beautiful residence on Fourth street was built in 1889, and it is indeed a model of neatness and beauty.  He also has a very fine property adjoining. He is a member of the society of the German I. O.  R. M., lodge No. 124. Socially and as a citizen Mr. Kuhn has attained a high standing, while his business reputation was always un- tarnished. He was married in 1887 to Miss Anna C. Sekaumdoifel. [Pages 727-728]


PETER A. TOCKER is the senior partner of the line conducting the well known Fashion Livery, Feed and Sale Stables on Main Street, Pleasanton, adjacent to the Hose Hotel, where they are prepared to furnish lively and fashionable turn-outs at reasonable rates. Mr. Tocker was born in Germany, September IG, 1848, the second son of Christ and Annie (Smith) Tocker. His father died in 1880, and his mother is still living, in the old country. Our subject was brought up as a farmer in his native land until 1872, when he came to America, locating at Monmouth, Illinois. There he followed farming for live years.  In 1877 he came to San Lorenzo, Alameda County, California, and followed agricultural pursuits there for eleven years. During his residence at San Lorenzo be spent one year with his parents and old associates in Fatherland.  On his return to this country he located at Pleasanton and established himself in his present business. He is a member of Eden Lodge, No.  204, A. O. U. W., of San Lorenzo, is still un- married, and is a whole-souled, good-natured German whom it is a pleasure to meet. [Page 728]


H P MEHRMANN, of Pleasanton, was born in Buffalo City, Wisconsin, October 17, 1864, big parents being J. F.  and Katherine Mehrmann, natives of Germany, who emigrated to America in 1849. They had two sons: Ferdinand and H. B. The family moved to Chicago, where the latter attended school until 1874, and then they came to the Golden State, locating at Oakland, where our subject completed his education. At the age of eighteen years he began the study of medi- cine with the determination of going up to the head of his profession, and this lie found an easy matter, under the instruction and assistance of his father, in the old eclectic practice. He com- pleted the whole medical course of lour years in the Oakland Medical College, where he became an instructor in physiology and anatomy, two years in each class. After practicing in Oak- land until 1889 he went to Pleasanton, where he has now a lucrative practice. He is also largely interested in a sandstone quarry, two miles southwest of the town of Sunol, which is 4pka new industry, the stone being very tine for building and curbing. The stone is so well striated that it is easily and economically re- moved from its place and shipped. It stands well the lire and water tests, receives a high polish and bids fair to become one of the principal building materials of this district. The Doctor is a member of several benevolent societies, including the Chosen Friends, Red Men and Druids of Oakland. He is a Republican in his political principles and takes an active part in politics. He was married April 12, 1888, at San Jose, to Miss Annie Curdts, of that city. [Page 729]


H C BUFORD, dairyman near Woodland, was born in July, 1840, in Kentucky, a  son of Thomas and Elizabeth (Shropshire) Buford, natives of Kentucky. Thomas was a farmer and turfman, and died in Kentucky in 1876, at the age of about seventy years. The subject of this brief notice was reared on a farm.  At the age of twenty-one years, in 1862, he entered the Confederate service (although his father was a strong Union man), and served three years. Afterward he lived in Kentucky, until 1879, engaged in farming and mercantile business and trading in live-stock. He then moved to Marion County, Kansas; and then to Cowley County, and remained there until 1887.  In December, this year, he came to California and located in Yolo County, one mile from Woodland. His dairy is the second in extent in the county. He intends to purchase land in Yolo County and make his permanent home there.  His increasing patronage comprises the best citizens of Woodland. He is a member of Crab Orchard Lodge, No. 420, F. & A. M., of Kentucky. He was married in 1883 to Miss M.  Berry, a native of Virginia, and they have had one child. By the two former marriages Mr.  Buford had five children. The names of the children are: Bessie, Thomas K., Kennedy Clara L., Fannie M. and Chelsea C.[Page 729]


JOHN FRICK, of Livermore, was born in Monroe County, near Waterloo, New York, December 24, 1843, and in 1861 came to California by way of Panama. For the first two years after his arrival in this State he engaged in the butchering business at San Francisco; for the next four years, in the same business at San Jose, and finally, in 1867, he located near Livermore, where he is cultivating 160 acres in grain. He has also another quarter- section of land, nine miles southeast of Liver- more, which is devoted principally to grazing.  He was married in Livermore, in 1867, to Miss Louisa Whitney, now deceased, and by that marriage there were four children: John R., Lonisa, Charles F. and Katherine. In 1880 Mr. Frick was again married, and by this mar- riage there are also four children: Etta M., Susan M., Herman and William. [Page 730]


JOHN G BRAUCH GOEPPERT, one of the proprietors of the Yolo Brewery and the general manager and correspondent, is a native of Hamburg, Germany, born in June, 1859; received a fine education, and in 1879 sailed for the United States and California, but came around Cape Horn and arrived in San Francisco in the fall of 1880. He first engaged as clerk in a grocery store, then started a bottling establishment for Bavarian beer and continued to conduct the same until 1887, when he established the United States Beer Bottling Company and remained there until 1883. In March of this year he returned to Germany and in October came again to San Francisco and in a short time to Woodland, where he purchased his present interest. At first here he was in partnership for four months with a man, and then a stock company wag formed, comprising Otto Schlner, Chris Seiber, Joseph Genneshausen, A. Niclas, Richard Alge and John G. Goeppert. Mr. Goeppert was made manager and correspondent. The brewery is a magnificent brick structure on west Main Street, and equipped with all the modern improvements for the manufacture of first-class beer.  Under the present able management the establishment is a complete success and one of which the city of Woodland is proud.

Mr. Goeppert was married in 1887, to Miss Clara C. Myer, a native of Germany, and they have one son, John G. by name. [Page 730]


H P. CHADBOURN, a prominent business of Pleasanton, Alameda County, was born at Biddeford, Maine, June 6, 1853, and came to San Francisco with his parents when a child. He completed his edu- cation in that city, including a course of one year at Heald’s Business College. Commenc- ing at the foot of the ladder he then followed railroading for about six years and by persever- ance and industry he finally reached the position of passenger conductor. He quit that business on account of a siege of sickness, which was protracted to a period of more than two years, incapacitating him from any steady business. On recovery he was associated with Charles Sutton & Co. for two years. In 1878 he sold out his interest to his partner and again tried railroad- ing for three months; but not finding the old business a suitable one he went to Pleasanton, where for the first eight months he was book keeper for the firm of Myer & Chadbonrn; the next two years he was in Cloverdale, Sonoma County, and vicinity; in 1882 he took charge of the Pierce estate and conducted the ranch as foreman for some two years; then he tried rail-roading for the third time, but in a few months he quit it and located at Pleasanton, where he is now secretary and one of the managers of the Chadbourn Warehouse Company, dealers in hay, grain and lumber, and engaged in storage, shipping and commission and insurance. The incorporators and present stockholders of this company are: Joshua Chadbourn, President;

E. W. Harris, Vice President; H. P. Chad- bourn, Secretary; William Harris and John E. Hortenstine. Our subject is a member of Mosaic Lodge, No. 218, F. & A. M., at Livermore.

He was married September 16, 1874, to Miss Etta Roden, of Stockton, and they have two children: Edna C. and Harry R. [Page 729]


EMIL NICLAS, one of the proprietors of the Yolo Brewery, is a young man of more than ordinary energy and ability in his occupation. He dates his birth July 6, 1860, in Germany, where he learned his trade and followed the same until 1882, when he came to California, and worked at his trade in San Francisco and Sacramento. He went to Woodland, and in 1889 he became a partner in the association now owning the Yolo Brewery, which ranks among the first-class in the State.  Mr. Niclas is yet unmarried. [Page 730]


FREDERICK A. SCHRADER, wheel-wright and blacksmith at Livermore, was born near Rostock, Germany, August 29, 1851, and accompanied his parents to America in 1861, locating at Elgin, Illinois, where he finished his education and learned the trade of millwright. In 1871 he went to Chicago, where he followed his trade until 1874, when he came by rail to San Francisco, and soon after went to Haywards, and there he worked at his trade as a journeyman until 1875. Then he went to Dublin and continued in his calling there five years; then was in San Francisco until 1884, then at Sacramento, and then Central America, where he was employed in the railroad shops at Guatemala, at car-building for eighteen months. In 1886 he returned to California, visited the East for a few months, came again to California, in 1887, locating near Livermore, where he is now carrying on his old trade, doing general repair work, etc., and having good patronage. He also conducts and owns a saloon at the cross-roads, known as Greenville.

He was married at Stockton, May 17, 1890.  to Miss Augusta Kruger. He is a Republican in his political views, taking an active interest in the public affairs of his locality. He is a member of Mosaic Lodge, No. 218, F. & A.  M., and also of the Society of the Sons of Hermann, both of Livermore. [Page 730]


W B. GIBSON, one of the early settlers of Yolo and an agriculturist near Woodland, was born May 20, 1831’ in Louisa County, Virginia, a son of William and Susan (Turner) Gibson, both natives of that State. The grandparents on both sides were in the Revolutionary war. William Gibson moved from Virginia to Missouri in 1837, locating in Howard County, where he remained, a farmer, until his death, which occurred April 10, 1840.  He was born July 13, 1799, and learned the brick-maker’s trade. His wife died April 28, 1877, in Napa County, California. Mr. Gibson, our subject, was brought up on a farm until 1850, when he came overland with mule teams to the Golden State, the journey occupying four months. Going direct to Yolo County, he pre- empted 160 acres of land from the Government on Cache Creek, in company with a man named Cooper. Two months afterward he went to Scott’s River and followed mining until the following spring. He then went to Oregon, was there three months and returned to Yolo County, arriving .July 15, 1851. He remained on his ranch until the discovery was made that his land was part of a grant. Accordingly, in 1857, he disposed of the same and located upon his present property, consisting then of 160 acres a half mile from what is now the city of Wood- land, and upon this he has been a constant resident, making it a beautiful and attractive home.  He has now some 2,400 acres, all in this county, and he principally raises grain, hay and stock. He was the first to settle in that portion of the county. The plains then were covered with elk, antelope and wolves. Mr. Gibson is justly entitled to the success which he has earned, coming to California without means and having by his industry and economy added to the wealth of the country.

December 23, 1857, is the date of Mr. Gibson’s marriage to Miss Mary E. Cook, a native of Kentucky, whose people came to California across the plains in 1853, and are now living in Yolo County. Their children are three sons:

Robert J., born October 18, 1859; Thomas B., born October 2, 1861, and is now a member of the firm of Gibson & Co., one of the largest hardware firms in the county; and Joseph W., born June 4, 1863. [Page 731]


RICHARD BARRY, a farmer near Livermore, was born in County Kildare, Ireland  in 1839, and in 1859 he came to America, locating in Philadelphia; one year afterward he went to Gloucester County, New Jersey, where he worked as a farm hand for six years. In 1866 he took passage to California by way of the Isthmus, lauding at San Francisco, and for two years he was engaged in agricultural pursuits near San Jose. In 1868 he moved to Livermore and purchased 160 acres of land, which he has since been cultivating, mainly in grain. Mr.  Barry was married at Salem, New Jersey, to Miss Mary Lyons, and they have three children, namely: Alice J., Mary Isabelle and John. [Page 731]


N. H. WULFF, now engaged in the steamboat business, has been a resident of California since 1850, and of Napa since 1859, and he has always been actively interested in boating on the Sacramento and Stockton rivers and their tributaries, first employing sailing vessels, and for the last thirteen years as a steamboat owner He was born in Denmark in 1830, attended the usual public schools up to the age of fourteen, and then, as did most of the boys in that country, began his career as a follower of the sea. During his life as a sailor he visited almost every port in the world, including Europe, China, South America and Australia, first reaching the California coast in 1850. The glowing accounts of fortunes ac- cumulated in the mines of Shasta County attracted his attention, but after a short though fairly successful experience there he made several trips to Chili, where, at that time, most of the flour, vegetables and other food products that supplied the San Francisco market were procured. He then essayed mining again at Mormon Island, on the American River, but in the next spring a freshet occurred which swept away the results of the winter’s work. He continued there through the summer, and having made a little money he invested in a schooner, with which he traded on the river, and ever since that time he has been interested in the same line of business. From 1853 to 1856 he was also engaged in ballasting ships and carrying building stone from Benicia to San Francisco. In 1855 he transported the first loco- motive run in California from San Francisco to Sacramento. This was for the railroad between Folsom and Sacramento. At that time the great bulk of the trade of the State was carried on between these points, and thence into the mines.  There was at Folsom a large flouring-mill run by water power, and this railroad was intended to do away with the immense amount of team- ing of wheat to this mill, and of supplies from it to the mines and elsewhere. The capacity of that mill was probably 2,000 barrels of flour per day. In 1859 he removed to Napa, where was a large flouring-mill, and engaged in carrying flour and wheat from this county to Sacramento and other parts of the State. About fifteen years ago, feeling assured that steam was certain to supersede the use of sailing vessels, he transferred his inteest to that class of transportation. He is now interested in the Caroline “ and the “ Zinfandel,” the latter a boat he had built in 1889. This boat was fitted up for passengers as well as freight, and the line has been of great value to Napa County, operating on the railroad as a check upon high passenger rates. It is the only line on the Napa River having passenger accommodations. For one dollar passengers can make the trip to or between Napa and San Francisco, having a good, comfortable bed and wake up in the morning at either point.

Captain Wulff was married in 1859, to Miss Margaret O’Brien, a native of Ireland, who came to this country at the age of ten years with an older brother. They have had two children: a daughter, Annie, who died in 1861, and a son. Nelson, a graduate of Heald’s Business College ill San Francisco, now in partnership with his father. The Captain is a member of the American Legion of Honor, and of the Master Mariners’ Association. He has been a public-spirited and useful citizen, contributing liberally of his means to all matters of public interest. [Pages 731-732]

HANS MATTHIESEN, a blacksmith of Livermore, was born in Husam, Germany, September 22, 1844, and learned the black- smith’s trade there. In 1864 he emigrated to America, landing at New York. After spending a few months at Chicago, and following his trade two years at St. Lopis, he came in 1866 to California, by way of the Isthmus of Panama, landing at San Francisco. The first year here he spent at Pleasanton, Alameda County; from 1867 to 1870 he was a journeyman black- smith in San Francisco; then he established himself in business at lone, Amador County, but sold out there in 1883, and since then has been engaged in blacksmithing, general repairing and as a wheel-wright. He is a member of Vesper Lodge, No. 62, A. O. U. W., and also of the society of the Sons of Hermann, No. 13, both of Livermore.

November 14, 1871, at Livermore, is the date of his marriage to Mary Sachau. They have seven children living: Anna AV., Pauline, Wilhelmina, Emma, Elinora, Dora. John C, the second child, is deceased. [Page 732]


HOLTON COCHRAN was born in Sandusky County, near Toledo, Ohio, January 16, 1828. The history of his fore fathers is coequal with the history of America.  He traces his ancestry back to John Cochran, who was born in Scotland of Scotch parents and who came to America as a British soldier in the army of General Braddock, at the time of the war with France. When Braddock was defeated he went with General George Washington (then a colonel in the army) to Virginia. There he purchased a farm and became a wealthy man.  In the meantime he went to Scotland for his wife and brought her to his new home in the Old Dominion. To them were born ten children.  Their son Robert removed to one of the Eastern States and married a Miss Rice, and settled in Vermont on a farm near Burlington. He be- came a General in the Revolutionary war. His son Seth was a seaman, a mate of a vessel, and came to this coast many years ago; was in the Bay of San Francisco, and purchased furs on the Columbia River. He subsequently re- turned to Vermont and married Polly Stotard, a native of Connecticut, of Scotch parents. He also had a war record worthy of note. In the war of 1812 he raised a company and was elected their captain. For meritorious service at Plattsburg and in other battles he was promoted to colonel. At the close of the war he returned to his home and remained there until 1816, when he sold his farm and made the journey with a wagon to Coldersburg, Ohio.  In that place, then a wilderness, he located and continued his residence there until 1821. He then removed to Sandusky, and from there, in 1832, to Toledo. After remaining in the latter place some time he moved to Hillsdale, Michigan, and died there at the age of eighty-eight years. Mr. Cochran’s grandmother died in Huron County, Ohio, aged ninety-six years.

Hoi ton Cochran is the seventh son and the only survivor of a family of eleven children. At the age of sixteen he began to learn the cooper’s trade, and worked at it four years. After that he learned the carpenter’s trade in New York City. He made three voyages at sea, first before then and afterward as second mate; was in the East India Islands and in Mexico. He then returned to Ohio, and, after spending some time in traveling, visiting nearly every State in the Union, he located at Toledo, where he engaged in contracting and building. He was very successful in his business undertakings there, doing large carpenter jobs and also con- ducting extensive cooper works. He erected several fine buildings in Toledo, including the Bethel Church.

In the spring of 1859 he sold out and came to California, via the Isthmus of Panama. His first venture here was mining in Butte County.  He found one piece of gold that weighed and in his best day’s work he took out Mr. Cochran saw a piece of gold taken out by another man that weighed fifty- four pounds.  In 1860 he went to Virginia City and mined, but not with so much success. He then went to Los Angeles, and from there traveled over the State in search of a desirable location, going to Butte and from there to Red Bluff in 1862. In the latter place he engaged in business until the fall of 1864. At that time he removed to Shingletown, Shasta County, and purchased a saw-mill, sawed pine lumber and rafted it down the river to Sacramento. The expense of drawing the lumber to the river was $10; rafting to Ked Bluff, $2.50; shipping by steam to Sacramento, $10; in that city it brought $65 per thousand feet. This business Mr. Cochran continued for four years, taking the oar to steer the rafts down the river him- self. He then purchased a farm and engaged in agricultural pursuits and stock-raising till 1868. In that year he sold out and pre-empted 160 acres on Cow Creek and purchased 320 ad- joining acres. He improved this ranch and resided on it five years, and at the end of that time, in 1873, he sold the property and came to Redding. He arrived here before the rail- road was completed and he built one of the first houses in the town. He engaged in contracting and building, and also purchased a saw-mill at the mouth of Spring (]reek. The logs were run down Pit River seventy miles, and the lumber was sold at Redding and Red Bluff. At this business Mr. Cochran was also successful.  He sold his mill and engaged in quartz-mining, which proved a failure. Then he bought $3,000 worth of cattle which he sent by John Bloodsel to Bey Valley to be wintered. The winter, however, was so severe that they lost all except fourteen head. After selling his mine he returned to Redding and engaged again in contracting and building and has followed that business up to the present time. He has in- vested in houses and city property in the best part of the town, which he rents. He is one of the stockholders of the I. O. O. F. Hall, a fine block recently completed. Mr. Cochran was the first to invest money in the enterprise.  Besides his large real-estate interests he also has money loaned.

In 1854 Mr. Cochran married Miss Mary Ann Read, a native of Ohio. Their union was blessed with four children; George, born in Ohio, and the others in California. Emma married Mr. Ballard and resides at Red Bluff.  Addie is now the wife of William Worley, also of Red Bluff. After sixteen years of married life Mrs. Cochran died. In 1870 Mr. Cochran married Mrs. Stanley, a native of Kentucky, by whom he had two sons, Horace and Charles, born at Cow Creek. In 1886 Mrs. Cochran died,, and in 1889 he wedded Mrs. Gifford, a native of New York. She is of English ex- traction, and for many years made her home at Grand Rapids, Michigan.

Mr. Cochran is an Odd Fellow and has passed all the chairs in the order. He is a stanch Re- publican, and a man who stands high in the estimation of his fellow  citizens. [Pages 733-734]


 Z B KINCHLOE, one of the early settlers and well-known citizens of Yolo County, was born December 9, 1823, in Missouri, a son of Joseph and Martha (Edwards) Kinchloe, natives of Kentucky who in early day moved to Cooper County, Missouri, where at the lead mines the father died, in 1828. In their family were five sons and five daughters, of whom only four ar« now living. Mr.  Kinchloe, the subject of this sketch, remained at home on the farm with his widowed mother until her death, which occurred in 1845. He then rented land and continued farming until 1854, when he came overland to California, with ox teams, the trip of live months being a tedious one. The train consisted of ten wagons, with eighteen men and eight women, and David Workman as captain. They had considerable trouble with the Indians. Their first permanent halt was in Yolo County, at the home ranch of Abraham Barnes, Mr. Kinchloe’s father-in-law, who had come to this State in 1850. Mr.  Kinchloe then had a cabin built, which still stands, as an eloquent monument of pioneer life.  The land, 160 acres, was afterward surveyed and found to exist within grant limits, and Mr.  Kinchloe was therefore obliged to pay for the same, at the rate of 85 per acre. Later he homesteaded other land, and now he and his brother, who came with him to California, own together 640 acres of good land, in quality second to none in the county. They carry on general fanning and stock-raising, and have accumulated means sufficient to enable them to retire upon their capital. When they first located there the land was perfectly wild, and their nearest market was Sacramento, twenty miles distant. Their property is five miles southwest of Woodland. The brother, P. G.  Kinchloe, was born in 1826.

Mr. Z. B. Kinchloe was married in 1846, to Miss Victoria Barnes, a native of Missouri, and they had ten children, seven of whom are now living. Mrs. Barnes was a faithful wife and mother for forty-two years, when, to all appearances in the best of health, she was taken suddenly sick and died in a few short hours. It was ever her desire to render to her beloved family every comfort possible, and her loss is there- fore very deeply felt. [Page 734]

SIMON J. SIMONS, of the firm of Simons & Clee, proprietors of the Soda Works and agents for the Union Ice Company, having their office on B street, between First and Second, Haywards, supply also the towns of Dublin, Pleasanton, Livermore, Sunol, Mission San Jose, Irvington, Decoto, Centerville, Alvarado, Mount Eden, San Lorenzo, San Leandro, etc., with products of their manufacture. Mr.  Simons was born in Schleswig, Germany, March 6, 1860, and came to America in 1875, landing first in New York City, and coming thence by rail to Haywards. For the first several years here he followed farming and teaming, and also ran a saloon about two years. He then purchased the soda works and later admitted a partner, and has since managed the business successfully, building up a good and substantial trade. He‘s a member of the order of the Sons of Hermann, at Livermore.

He was married in Haywards, June 9, 1886, to Miss Annie Hunt, and they have two children, viz.: John H. and an infant son. Mr.  Simons’ parents were John and Annie (Neilsen) Simons, both natives of Germany, his father is now deceased. [Page 734]


JOSEPH H. HARLAN, a farmer five miles southwest of Woodland, is one of the worthy citizens who have amassed a fortune by the cultivation of the soil, and stands at the front of the class. He was born May 9, 1829, ill Boyle County, Kentucky, a son of George and Johanna (Hilm) Harlan, both natives also of that State. His father, a farmer, in 1853 moved to Cooper County, Missouri, and continued as a farmer and stock-raiser there until ills death, in 1845, when he was about forty- seven years old. His wife died in 1852, at the age of fifty years. He brought up six sons and three daughters. Joseph H. was reared on his father’s farm. At the age of twenty-one he struck out in the world for himself, working and trading, allowing no opportunity to make an honest dollar to escape. In 1853 he came to California, with ox teams and other live-stock, being only three months on the road and the journey being pleasant. The train did not camp out twice in the same place. On arriving in this State, Mr. Harlan first stopped in Sierra County, on the head-waters of the Feather River, to recruit; he then was in Colusa County twelve months, and another twelve months in Butte County, where he had located to re- main, but his claim was found to be grant land, and he went to Solano County, having a similar experience; and in the autumn of 1860 he settled on 160 acres of Government land in the western portion of Yolo County, known as the Buckeye ranch. At that time the land was all a bare plain, visited by elk, antelope, deer and bands of Spanish cattle. In 1863 he moved again upon a ranch three miles and a half north- west of Woodland, where he remained until 1872, when he purchased his present place, five miles southwest of Woodland, where he built a handsome residence in 1873, and has a tine home. He owns 2,820 -acres in Yolo County, on which he carries on general farming and raises livestock; and he also has 1,800 acres in Fresno County, devoted also to general farming.  Mr. Harlan is a practical farmer, a wide-awake citizen and a generous neighbor. He has given employment to many deserving working men. He was married November 15, 1855, to Miss Grace H. Barnes, a native of Missouri. [Page 735]


ANDREW RAMAGE, of Haywards, is a native son of the Golden West, who de- serves special mention in this volume. He was born at Haywards, March 16, 1864, learned the trade of blacksmith, worked as a journey- man and finally started in business for himself, having now his shop on Main street, between A and B streets. He is also agent for the sale of wagons, carriages and agricultural implements.  He is one of the prominent mechanics of the place, who has by industry and honest dealing gained for himself a good business and a fine reputation. He is an active member of Eden Parlor, No. 113, N. S. G. W. His parents were James and Clementina Ramage, his father a coppersmith by trade, and his mother dying when he was but three years of age. He married Miss Mary Addison, August 22, 1889, at San Leandro, and they have a child. [Page 735]


WILLIAM BRAY, a farmer near Woodland, was born February 23, 1832, in Monroe County, Kentucky, a son of Richard and Annie (Woods) Bray. His father, a farmer by vocation, was a pioneer of that county, and died there at the age of sixty-two years. The genealogy of the family is traceable to Germany. In their family were five sons and one daughter. Mr. William Bray was brought up on a farm in Kentucky, and was but nineteen years of age when in 1852 he came over land to California, with ox teams, starting March 10 and arriving August 14. His first stop was among the mines on Hopkins’ Creek, in Onion Valley, where he followed mining until about the middle of November, when he went to Yolo County and located 160 acres of land, which has ever since been his home. It was then perfectly wild, the country being over- run with antelope, wild horses and grizzly bears, etc. in the mountains, but he has long since made it a model residence. He also in early day followed mining in Grass Valley, Nevada, and on Feather River, with moderate success.  The place at present comprises 340 acres, three miles southwest of Woodland, where Mr. Bray followed general farming, stock-raising, and raises what fruit is needed for family use. He is a practical farmer and a reliable citizen.

He was married March 4, 1860, to Miss Harriet Eakee, a native of Jackson County, Tennessee, and of their seven children six are now living: Alexander C, John E., who died January 22, 1878, aged fifteen years, four months and twenty-five days; Sara A., Lucy J., James I., William H. and Mary C. [Page 736]


HANS P. JESSEN, dealer in lumber and building material of every description, also his hay, grain, coal, salt, bale rope, barb-wire, etc., Haywards, is also the owner and manager of a line of freight schooners plying between Jessen’s Landing and San Francisco, making regular trips, and also of a warehouse at the landing. He is a native of Schleswig, Germany, born January 4, 1847, and was brought up there in farming pursuits until 1864, when he came to America, landing at New York. He came thence by way of Panama to San Francisco, and soon located near Haywards, engaging in farming. In 1867 he established the salt works four miles west of Haywards, which he conducted for a number of years and still owns. Later he leased the works and established his present business. He is also agent for the Sun Fire Insurance Company of London. Mr. Jessen was the son of Jesse and Katrina (Kirkman) Jessen, natives of Germany. He was married at Mount Eden, Alameda County, March 16, 1877, to Miss Christina Hansen, and they have three children, — Catherine E., James F. and Ada. Mr. .lessen is a member of Sycamore Lodge, No. 129, I. O. O. F., and also of the Encampment, No. 28, at Haywards.  [Page 736]


WILLIAM F. CASSEL, a farmer residing between Woodland and Davisville, was born October 10, 1832, in Washington County, Virginia, a son of John and Anna (Weeks) Cassel. His father, a native also of Virginia, and a farmer by occupation, moved from that State to Cole County, Illinois, in 1833, being a pioneer there. He took up Government land, a part of which is now within the limits of Charleston, the county-seat, and remained thereon until the death of his wife in March, 1855. He then sold out and removed to Adams County, same State, where he resided until his death, March 24, 1887, when he was aged ninety-three years and three months, and three days before his death he walked a distance of six miles.

Mr. William F. Cassel, the subject of this biographical mention, was brought up on a farm. At the age of fifteen years he left home and drifted about, visiting New Orleans, St.  Louis, Wisconsin, Minnesota, etc., until December 9, 1850, when he left for California. He sailed from New York on the Northern Light to Greytown, and from the Isthmus to San Francisco, arriving March 9, 1851. He went to the mines in Sierra County, near Downieville, and he remembers well the evening that place received its name. He thinks that Mr. Downie spent at least $10,000 for drinks that evening!  Mr. Cassel remained there until 1863, experiencing the usual vicissitudes of a miner’s life and enjoying moderate success. He then purchased land in Sonoma County, near Santa Rosa improved and cultivated it and made it his home until October, 1877, when he sold out and moved into Yolo County, upon his present property of 320 acres of choice farming land, six miles from Woodland and four from Davisville, with good gravel- roads to each place.  There he is engaged in stock-raising and general agriculture. He is a practical farmer and his place is always found in a presentable condition.

He was married in December, 1860, to Mrs. Sarah Lowe, a native of England, and they have five sons and two daughters, viz.: Hiram F., deceased, Robert E., William F., Leonard J., Sarah B., Addie M., deceased, and Richard C. [Page 736-737


MATTHIAS C. PETERSEN, a horticulturist and farmer near Haywards, was born in Denmark, May 22, 1850, and was brought up a farmer. In 1869 he emigrated to America, landing at New York, whence he shortly came on to San Francisco by way of the Isthmus of Panama, and immediately located at Haywards. There he worked upon a farm until 1875, wiien he purchased thirty-five acres of line orchard and farm land, and devoted it to the purposes mentioned. He has twenty-two acres in choice fruits, the products of which he ships to the San Francisco markets. He is a member of the Board of Town Trustees, and in his political views is a Democrat. He was married at Haywards, to Theresa Frank, a native of Germany, who came to America in 1868. Their six children are Martin, Catherine, Arthur, Mattie, Edith and Eugene. Mr. Petersen is the son of Martin and Hachie (Eskelsen) Petersen, both natives of Denmark. [Page 737]


BENNETT JAMES , deceased.— Since the settlement of Napa County it is probable that no other man ever attained so warm a place in the hearts of his fellow-citizens as he whose name commences this article. No history can do credit to such a man in a personal mention of his career, as being of a modest demeanor many of the acts of kindness and charity which so endeared him to all with whom he came in contact are not matters of record except in the hearts of those who are better for having known him. This much may be said in this connection, however, that the impress of his character is indelibly affixed upon the community of which he was so long an honored member. In a work such as this, a part of whose mission is to collect and preserve for posterity, not only the deeds of worthy men, but some- thing in regard to those who performed them, a more than passing notice of such men as Bennett James becomes valuable and even essential.

He came of a family prominent in business and other circles, many of whose members achieved positions of high honor and trust. His father. Colonel Austin James, who was reared at Florissant, Missouri, and afterward removed to Illinois, was. a prominent figure in the early political history of the latter State, as well as in the military circles; while his uncle, General Thomas James, was one of the early traders, who, while residing in southwestern Illinois, took an active part in the early commercial business of the Southwest, his operations extending as far as Santa Fe and the Rocky Mountains, and even as a member of the Mc- Knight party, the well known old-time Indian traders to the Pacific coast.

Bennett James, the subject of this sketch after receiving the education afforded by the schools of his native place, began attendance at the St. Louis University. When about nine- teen years of age his talents won for him the appointment to a cadetship at the National Military Academy at West Point at the hands of the Congressman from his district, where he made an enviable record. Having completed the course within three months of graduation, and not desiring a commission in the army, he was honorably discharged. Returning to his home in Illinois, he resided at the home farm of his father until 1852, when he joined a party made up for the most part at St. Louis, bound for California. With them he made the long trip across the plains, and, as the journey was accomplished with ox teams, considerable time wag consumed before the goal was reached. The first permanent stop in California was made at Hangtown, and Mr. James was. soon engaged, like so many others, in gold-seeking. His principal mining experience at first was in the camps of Calaveras County. Later, however, he went up on Feather River, and there he allied himself with a company which organized to turn the river and work the bed, which was considered to be rich in gold. At the cost of enormous labor and expense the work was finally completed, and when everything was in readiness the men were set to work mining, and Mr. James went to breakfast. While at his meal the dam gave way and an investment of $100,000 was swept away almost in the twinkling of an eye. This misfortune decided Mr.  James course, and his intention was at once formed to give up mining. He began settling up his business affairs in the State; and a few months later, April 18, 1859, he started on his return, via Panama, to Illinois, and arrived at his old home in the following month. On the 18th of April, 1860, just a year after he left California, he was married to the lady who was thereafter his life companion. On his return he engaged in the general merchandise trade at Harrisonville, and in 1861 embarked in ware-housing and shipping on the river.

In 1868 he removed with his family to California, via New York and Panama, landing at San Francisco on the 2nd day of December.  After some two weeks spent in the city, they went to Mission San Jose, where they remained about six months, then came to Napa County.  Mr. James purchased a ranch of 287 acres about two miles west of Napa, and to this he devoted his attention largely for years, giving some prominence to fruit-raising. There he resided until the removal of the family to Napa. He established himself in the lumber business in Napa and carried on a successful business in that line until, on account of ill-health, he relinquished its management to his son, L. L., in 1879.  From the early days of his residence in the county, his many sterling qualities began to attract to him a strong personal following, and this eventually resulted in his being called to official life, though he was not. in the strict meaning of the term, a politician. He was elected a member of the Board of Supervisors, and his record therein for two terms fully justified the high estimation in which he was held by his friends. This was followed by his election to the office of Sheriff which he held from 1877 until the time of his death. He was not a man to go out and work for his own political advancement, and would never consent to make the race for a nomination unless satisfied that the field was open for him without antagonizing those whom he counted among his friends.

In his family relations he was peculiarly happy, and in his own home his noblest qualities were brought out. His wife, whose maiden name was Emily Bamber, was a native of Harrisonville, Monroe County, Illinois, a daughter of William and Mary (James) Bamber. Her father, who is still living, was born in Mary- land of English parentage, and removed with his parents to Illinois when he was a mere child.  There he married and yet resides, though his wife is now deceased. Nine children were born to Mr. and Mrs. James, of whom one died in infancy. Those living are: Leander L., whose sketch follows; Clement Laurel, who is in the hardware business in Napa, manager of the firm of James & Son; Agnes M., Annie T., Edward A., William B., Francis L. and Edith.

The death of Bennett James occurred on the 30th of November, 1884, and a profound gloom was thereby thrown over the community, where he was so loved and honored.

His funeral, which is said to have been the most notable one held in Napa County is thus referred to by the Napa Journal of December 4, 1884:

“The funeral of Sheriff” Bennett James took place from the family residence Wednesday morning at half past nine o’clock, the following gentlemen acting as pall-bearers: B. Little, A.  J. Kaney, Dennis Spencer, J. A. McClelland, Dr. F. M. Hackett, B. L. Robinson,. N. L.  Nielsen, E. Gr. Young, F. L. Coombs, George E. Groodman, Judge W. C. Wallace, Eli Hottel, John Simmons and A. G. Boggs. The sad procession proceeded to the Catholic Church where a requiem high mass was celebrated for the repose of the soul of the faithful departed. The church was filled with the mourning relatives and friends who had gone to pay their last respects to the mortal remains of that noble man, whose death had cast a gloom over the entire community. The mass was chanted in solemn tone5 by Rev. Father Slattery, and the responses came in silvery tones from the regular church choir, assisted by the Misses Edith aid Rose Stanley, of St. Ignatius choir, San Francisco.  The Misses Stanley also sang several duets appropriate to the ceremony. At the conclusion of the elaborate mass, Rev. Father Slattery said it was not the custom of the church to deliver a sermon on the death of a member, extolling the virtues he possessed in discharging his duty, but, in obedience to the dictates of his conscience, on this occasion he could not refrain from mentioning some of the noble traits of the deceased who had ever been a fearless and faithful champion of his religion, a generous and hearty supporter of the church, a true and devoted husband, and a loving and indulgent father, and an honorable citizen in the community. During his remarks he delivered a eulogy on the life of his beloved friend that touched the hearts of all present.

“The funeral cortege left the church about 12 o’clock and the remains were escorted to Tulocay cemetery by the heart-stricken family and a great concourse of sorrowing friends, there being in the line of procession about 120 carriages. Arriving at the grave the priest read the services of the Catholic Church, and thus the last sad rites were performed over him whose life was a noble example to all mankind.”

The Board of Supervisors, recognizing his services in behalf of the people and his high standing in the community, expressed the general sentiment of the citizens, together with their own in the following:

Resolutions of Respect to the Memory of The Late Bennett James, Sheriff of Napa County.

Whereas, Death has taken from oar midst the late Sheriff of Napa County, Bennett James, it is therefore, by the Court and its officers, Resolved, That by his death this Court has lost a faithful and conscientious officer, the county an efficient servant, the community an honorable citizen and his family a true and affectionate husband and father.

 Resolved, That in his public and private life he was esteemed as a man of unswerving honor and integrity, and of high and moral character; that he was benevolent in his daily walks of life, kind and sympathetic by nature, a Christian in faith and in practice, and his conduct always the result of his convictions.

Resolved, That the family of the deceased have the profound sympathy of this Court and its officers.

Resolved, That this resolution be spread upon the minutes of this Court, and that a copy of the same be transmitted to the family of the deceased.

F. L. Coombs,

Dennis Spencer,


Henry C. Gesford,

E. D. Ham,

F. E. Johnston,

A true copy. Attest

N. L. Nielsen, Clerk.


Mr. James was in his every-day life a Christian man, and was one of the mainstays of the Catholic Church of Napa. Li February, 1846, while a boy attending the St. Louis University, he identified himself with the Arch-Confrateinity of Our Lady of Victory, and took an active part in the work of the Young Men’s Sodality.  His zeal in the faith continued all through life and was the of his greatest consolations in the hone of death. On the monument which marks his last resting place, this simple, yet touching description, suggested by his fellow officials, tells the epitomized story of his character.

“ An honest, upright man — in all things just.” [Pages 737 – 740]

 A Memorial & Biographical History of Northern California: Chicago : The Lewis Publishing Company, 1891

Transcribed by Martha A Crosley Graham,
12 October 2008 - Pages 714-740

T H. WARRINGTON is one of the active business men of Redding, California. He was born in Pictou, Prince Edward  County, Canada, February 17, 1854. His father, William Warrington, a native of England, enigrated to Canada in 1821. In 1838 he married Margaret Cooper, who was born in the north of Ireland of Scotch ancestry. They had seven children, four of whom are living, the subject of this sketch being the youngest.

He was educated in Canada and there learned telegraphy. In 1875 he came direct to Shasta, California. He followed farming in Contra Costa County until 1880. Then for a year he was clerk and coal weigher for the Black Diamond Coal Mining Company. In 1881 he became telegraph operator for the Southern Pacific Railroad Company; in the fall of 1882 was sent as their agent to Marfa, Texas; in 1888 was transferred to El Paso; and in 1889,to Marcalles. In July, 1890, he came to Red­ding as ticket and freight agent.

Mr. Warrington was married, in 1873, to Miss Mary Adelaide Bongard, a native of Prince Edward County. Her parents were En­glish people. They have one child now living, Mary Neda, born in Texas. Mr. Warrington is a member of the Masonic fraternity, and his wife is a member of the Eastern Star. They attend the Methodist Episcopal Church. Po­litically he is a Republican.

MARSHALL A. MITCHELL is the gentleman in Redding, California, in whose hands the good order of the city rests. He it is who sits as the receiver of city taxes and has the care of the streets and highways. His duties are onerous, but he goes about them from morning till night with a smiling face; all one to him whether he has a noisy and quarrelsome drunkard to arrest. and put in the city cooler, or whether he takes the shining gold from the hands of the many wealthy resi­dents of Redding in payment of their taxes. These duties he has faithfully performed for the past six years to the complete satisfaction of all concerned. Few city marshals could fill the office so faithfully and with so little friction —Marshall by name and Marshal by virtue of office. He is a large, fine-looking man; asks what he wants in a quiet, good-natured way and usually has the power and backbone to make it known that he means what he says. Consequently he has as little trouble as any man could have holding the office he does.

Mr. Mitchell is a native of Illinois, born in Boone County, October 19,1848. He comes of one of the old Pennsylvania families. His father, a native of the Keystone State, married Esther Alexander, who was born in Virginia, a descendant of one of the old Virginia families. It is believed that the ancestors of her family came from Scotland and Ireland and settled in Amer­ica in the colonial days, and that later there was a Dutch mixture. Suffice it to say that both his paternal and maternal ancestors were sober, industrious and influential people—high spir­ited and too proud to do a mean act. Of a family of seven children, two only are living— Isaac Mitchell, who resides in Plymouth Coun­ty. Oregon, and Marshall Mitchell, the subject of this sketch. The latter came to Shasta County, California, in 1859, when eleven years of age, and has been reared and educated in the county. His father was a saw-mill and lumber-man here until 1865, when his death occurred.

Marshall Mitchell began business in this county for himself as a farmer. He purchased 320 acres of land on Cow Creek, which he cul­tivated three years. Soon after the town of Redding was laid out he began the mercantile business in it, in partnership with Mr. Williams. In 1874 they built a store on California street between Butte and Yuba, and the firm of Williams & Mitchell did a good business until 1875, when they were burned out and sustained heavy losses. They opened again and continued in business five years longer., when a second fire destroyed their store. Neither of these fires originated in their place of business. Mr. Mitchell then engaged in the forwarding busi­ness, which he continued for several years. In 1885 he was elected Marshal of the city, and has since filled that office with satisfaction to all concerned.

He has purchased town lots and built a resi­dence on Pine, between Butte and Tehama streets. Mr. Mitchell was married, in 1883, to Miss Annie Watt, a native: of Oregon. He is a Master and Royal Arch Mason. In  politics. he is a Republican.


JAMES M. GLEAVES was born in Guernsey County, Ohio, September 10, 1852. His father, James S. Gleaves, was a native of Ohio, and his grandfather, Lewis Weaves,settled the town of Norristown, Pennsylvania. The family originated in England. James S. Gleaves married Elmira A. A. McDonald, a native of Pennsylvania, and daughter of Captain Malcolm McDonald, a native of Scotland and a captain in the British navy. They had twelve children, of whom the subject of this sketch was the second. He was a sickly boy, and in early life developed a taste for reading. He went from home at thirteen years of age, and at sev­enteen began to teach school. As soon as he had earned and saved money enough he entered the State University of Missouri. When within a few months of graduating his health gave out, and he was compelled to leave college.

In 1874 he came to California seeking health. He obtained employment in Merced, as a book­keeper, at $90 per month and board. From there he went to the Yosemite, where, in the pure air of that far-famed mountain retreat, he regained his physical strength. Next, he went to San Bernardino and engaged in the drug business. For a time he was Deputy Postmas­ter; he also had charge of the County Hos­pital a while.

July 4, 1875, Mr. Gleaves was married to Miss Martha A. Beardsly, a native of Connecti­cut and a daughter of Julius S. and Eliza Lucretia (Reed) Beardsly, both natives of that State. Mr. and Mrs. Gleaves have had five children, two of whom are living, both born in Redding. Their names are James, Malcom and Charles Beardsly.

 Mr. Gleaves was elected Surveyor of Shasta County in 1886: for two years previous to that time, was Deputy Surveyor. At the last Repub­lican convention at Sacramento, in 1890, he was a candidate for Surveyor General. He is now United States Deputy Surveyor and United States Deputy Mineral Surveyor. Mr. Gleaves was admitted to practice at the bar of Shasta County on September 10, 1889, but does not practice law.

When he first came to Redding Mr. Gleaves was in the drug business, but was burned out, and thereby sustained a severe loss. With an undaunted courage and a determination to suc­ceed he has taken hold of other enterprises and has met with fair success. He is now the owner of an eighteen-acre fruit ranch, the " Fair View Farm," which is beautifully situ­ated on the banks of the Sacramento River, near Reading. He has built an attractive home, from which a beautiful view of the river and surrounding country is obtained. The choice fruits and rare flowers which surround this home are indicative of the taste and re­finement of the inmates. Mrs. Cleaves takes special pride in the care and cultivation of her flowers.

Mr. Gleaves was the first Past Master of the A. O. H. W., at Redding. He, was one of the men who instituted the I. O. O. F. Lodge at Redding, and has been District Deputy Grand Master in his district. By unanimous vote he was made Grand Commander of the
American Legion of Honor. He is also a Master Mason.


REUBEN O. CARMER is one of the early settlers of California. He drove two yoke of oxen and a yoke of cows for leaders across the plains to this State in 1859.. Those who come overland to this coast in four or five days, in a palace sleeping car or a tourists' sleeper, know little of the dangers and privations of the men who spent six or eight weary months in corning to California before the railroads were built and the iron horse began to come " whiz­zing o'er the mountains and buzzing through the vales."

Mr. Carmer was born in New York in 18--, and comes of good old Revolutionary stock. His great-grandfather, Isaac Carmel., came from Germany to this country when a youth. At the age of seventeen he carried his musket and fought bravely in many of the battles of the Revolutionary struggle. He afterward settled in the State of New York, married and became the father of Abram Carmer. Abram Carmer had a son John, also horn in New York, who married Hulda Hart, a native of New Jersey

 They reared a family of seven children, all of whom are living, Reuben being the youngest of the family.

He worked on his father's farm and attended school in his native town until he reached the age of seventeen years. He then went to Illi­nois and worked on a farm for three years. On the twelfth of April, 1859, he started for Cali­fornia, as before stated. When they reached the Missouri River, the young men with whom Mr. Carmer started went back. He came on with Dr. Roberts, a gentleman from Pennsyl­vania. They had several skirmishes with the Indians, and Mr. Canner received three arrows in his left shoulder. They were stone-pointed arrows, and the Doctor cut them out. When they arrived in California, at a point between Stockton and Sacramento, they sold their cattle and went to Kentucky Hill, two miles and a half from Camptonville, in Yuba County. There they engaged in mining and were successful. The Doctor lost the use of his arm by a shot, and Mr. Canner and his partner, Will­iam Roades, earned money at one ounce of gold per day and furnished him with the means to return east that winter. During the winter they made $9,000 each. Then they went to the Yuba River and sunk all the money they had made except $60. After that Mr. Carmer went to Yreka and prospected; then went to Red Bluff and worked for wages in the ice business; next, engaged in freighting to Weaverville, Yreka, Shasta and Scott's Valley. In 1871 he sold out, and was employed by the railroad com­pany for a year. In 1872 he came to Redding, then an embryo town. He built a feed corral, which he kept two years. Then he sold out, and, in company with Mr. F. C. Tiffan, built a barn and opened a livery stable. He conducted the feed stable and also did a freighting business until 1875, when he sold out. One winter he drove a stage from Yreka to Oregon, during which time he met with many exciting adven­tures. Once, in crossing the Cottonwood River, his lead horses were both drowned. He stuck to the wagon and floated to a bend in the river where he jumped out. He succeeded in rescu­ing the other horses and saved the mail. In the spring he returned to Redding and worked for Bosh & Johnson, freighters. Then for a time he was night clerk in Conroy's Hotel. Then he followed various callings, including mining. About this time be became blind. His disease was what the physicians called ad­hesion of the eye. He suffered severely, but his sight was finally restored. In 1887 he opened his drug store in Redding, and is now doing a very successful business.

In 1888 Mr. Carmer married Mrs. Lydia-A. Wilson, a native of California. He is in poli­tics, a Republican. For twenty-two years he has been an Odd Fellow, having passed all the chairs of the order.


W.HERRON is one of the prominent contractors and builders of Redding, California. Since his residence in this place he has identified himself with the best interests of the town, and has done much toward its improvement in his line of work. A sketch - of his life is herewith given.

Mr. Herron was born in Kentucky, Novem­ber 9, 1842, the son of William and Catherine (Hood) Herron, both natives of Kentucky. Grandfather William Herron was born in Scot­land. The subject of this sketch was one of a family of six children. He received his educa­tion in his native State, and, in 1861, at the age of nineteen, enlisted in the Union army, Com­pany K, Seventh Kentucky Volunteer Infantry. He was in many skirmishes and several of the great battles of the war, among them the battles of Fort Henry, Fort Donelson, Mill Spring, Shiloh, Stone River, siege of Vicksburg, and others. He was in the Banks expedition, on Red River, in the midst of hard fighting. In 1864 his term of enlistment expired, and he re- enlisted and fought until the close of the war. During the numerous engagements in which he took part he was slightly wounded four times.

 The war over, Mr. Herron received an honor­able discharge in 1866. He returned to Cin­cinnati, Ohio, and engaged in carpenter work, at which he was employed in Ohio, Indiana and Illinois. In 1869 he married Miss Mary C. Sly. They have two daughters, Emma J. and Bertha A.

From Illinois; in 1876, he came to Colusa County, California, where he carried on his business for about ten years. At the end of that time he located in Redding, and has since been a leading architect and contractor of the city. He is now (1890), superintending the building of several of the best residences and business blocks of .Redding. He belongs to the G. A. R., A. 0. U. W., I. 0. 0. F., and is a Master Mason. Politically he affiliates with the Republican Party. He is a worthy citizen and is respected and esteemed by all who know him.


WILLIAM S. B. TOWNSLEY was born in East Tennessee, September 1, 1824, the son of John and Mary (Blair) Townsley. His father was born in Tennessee, and his mother, a native of Virginia, was reared on the James River. The ancestors of the Townsley family emigrated to this country from England during the Colonial days. Grandfather George Townsley was a soldier in the Revolu­tionary war. He settled in Virginia, and after­ward removed to Tennessee. The subject of this sketch is one of a family of four sons and five daughters. When last heard from his brothers. and sisters were all living, scattered 'over Kentucky, Arkansas and Missouri..

Mr. Townsley was reared and educated in his native State until nineteen years of age, when, with his younger brother, Nicholas, he came West. He drove an ox team across the plains for a trader. He came as far West as Santa Fe in 1848. In 1850 he came to California. His first mining experience was near Diamond Springs, on the Cosumnes River. In the sum­mer of 1851 he was in Vacaville. He had only moderate success in mining, getting enough of the glittering gold to pay his expenses. Then he engaged in farming for two or three years, then, until 1858, he mined on Scott and Klamath Rivers. From there he came to Shasta County, and mined two years at Buckeye. After this he located in the southeastern part of Shasta County, on 360 acres of land, where he built and made improvements and lived for twenty- five years. There are only two men now living who were there at the time he settled on that place. There was not a child of school age in that part of the county. While there his principal business was stock-raising. He sold that property. and purchased an improved farm of 120 acres, where he now resides.

Politically Mr. Townsley is a Democrat. In 1886 he was elected a member of the Board of Supervisors of Shasta County. Dnring his term of office he has favored many valuable county improvements-, such as the building of roads and bridges, and the construction of the fine court-house and jail. These buildings were completed in 1889, and cost $50,000. Mr. Townsley is one of the worthy and respected early settlers of Shasta County, and it is eminently fitting that his name should find a place in history among other brave California pioneers.


JOHN EDWARD REYNOLDS, Captain of the National Guards at Redding, California, is a native of Wisconsin. He was born in Dodgeville, August 2, 1849. His father, Edward Reynolds, a native of Scotland, married Margaret Doris, who was born in Wales. They came to the United States in 1840, and settled. in Pennsylvania. In 1849 the father came to California and in 1852 returned for his family, which at that time consisted of wife and, five children. They reached Hangtown (now Placerville) in September of the same year. After a short stay there he went to Volcano Bar, on the American River; and engaged in mining and also kept hotel, being very successful in his undertakings. In 1854 the family came to Shasta County and took up their abode at Whiskeytown, five miles above Shasta. The father entered into a speculation in the Golden Gate Mining Tunnel, being successful in a financial way, but losing his life in the mine. In 1864 the tunnel caved in on him and others and suffocated them. Twenty hours later they were taken out dead.

The subject of this sketch was three years old when he came with his parents to California, and five when he came to Shasta County. The first work he did was when, at the age of ten years, he rode bell horse for a pack train from Shasta to Douglas City, Trinity County, a dis­tance of fifty miles. The train consisted of fifty or sixty mules, and usually there were six men with them. Mr. Reynolds did the cooking, and was employed in that way for a year. After that he went to. work for Town & Taggart, for whom he collected toll and clerked at the Town House. When Mr. Grant purchased the Weaverville and Shasta stage route, Mr. Reynolds became driver and drove till 1867. Then he drove stage for the Oregon and California Stage Company till 1876.

On the 19th of October, 1875, while driving fourteen miles north of Redding, they were stopped by two men who demanded the express box of Wells, Fargo & Co. Mr. Reynolds re­plied that it was locked in the bottom of the boat and they could not get at it at this place. Then the robbers shot at them, and the team ran and they got away without being robbed. On the following Christmas the company made him a present of a gold watch, inscribed as follows: " Presented to John Reynolds in recognition of his courage and devotion to Wells, Fargo & Co's interests, when attacked by high­waymen, October 19, 1875. John J. Valentine, General Superintendent."

In 1876 he went to work for Wells, Fargo & Co., as shot-gun messenger, between Red­ding and Yreka and Redding and Weaver­ville. The gold from both places was sent down by express, from six to seven millions of dollars being sent per year by them. It was Mr. Reynolds' duty to guard it, and he acted in this capacity from 1876 till 1882. On the 6th day of September, 1876, they had $60,000 in gold dust with them and were within a mile of the top of Scott Mountain. At three o'clock A. M. the driver was commanded to halt, and was covered by a revolver in the hands of a masked highwayman. There were three of them, the second armed with a double-barreled shot-gun and the other with a rifle. Mr. Rey­nolds was in the coach, and, pointing his gun out between the curtains, shot the first man in the neck and he fell dead in his tracks. The horses started on the run. One of the high­waymen shot one horse in the fore leg. It ran 100 yards and fell dead. Mr. Reynolds then jumped from the stage and got in the shade of the trees,, expecting a fight. The highwaymen, however, did not come on. One of the lead horses was put in the place of the dead one, and they reached Redding with their treasure in safety. The other men were afterward captured and tried. One pleaded guilty and was ,sentenced for five years. The other was con­victed and sent to San Quentin for ten years. The Express Company showed their apprecia­tion for this service by telegraphing Mr. Rey­nolds a present of $300.

In 1882 he received the appointment of Un­der Sheriff of Shasta County, William B. Hop­ping being Sheriff. This position he now (1890) holds. For the last eight years he has aided in the arrest of many criminals and has taken many to prison. None ever escaped from him after being captured.

December 19, 1889, Company E, Eighth Infantry Battalion, C. N. G., was organized, with sixty of the best young men of Redding. Mr. Reynolds was chosen Captain. They are well equipped, make a fine appearance, and are a credit to themselves as well as the city of Red­ding.

Mr. Reynolds was married, March 6, 1874, to Miss Eva Smithson, a native of Belvidere, Illinois. They have three children, born in Shasta County, namely: Mary L., Eddie S. and John B.

Mr. Reynolds has taken nine degrees in the Masonic order, and has passed all the chairs in the I. 0. 0. F. In 1880 he received the nom­ination for Sheriff by the Republican party, but it was decided by the Superior Court that there would be no election and that the old officer would hold over two years.


MARION GRIFFIN, the leading real-estate dealer of Cottonwood, was born in St. Omer, Decatur County, Indiana, September 1, 1858, the son of Charles and Catharine Griffin, the former a native of Vermont and the latter of Kentucky. Mr. Griffin's great-grandfather, Mr. Lyman Griffin, was a physician, and came from England and settled in Vermont, where our subject's father and grand‑father were born. Mr. Griffin's grandfather on the maternal side was Jesse Cain, a wealthy Indiana farmer. Mr. Griffin's parents had four‑teen children, seven of whom are now living. Our subject, the eleventh child, was educated in his native State, first at the St. Omer Academy, and then graduated from the Indiana State Normal School at Terre Haute. He was then a teacher in the public schools for two years. In 1884 lie came to Napa County, California; some of his relatives had died with consumption and he was advised to come to this State for a milder climate, but while in Napa County he was informed that it would be better for him to go to the foothills, and accordingly, on April 9, 1885, went to Cottonwood with his younger brother, Scott Griffin, and went into the real-estate business. Griffin Bros. took hold of the business with a will and since that time have spent about $1,000 a year advertising Cottonwood Valley, as a result of which they soon built up a good business and induced scores of settlers with money to go in and develop the latent resources of that valley. In 1887 they purchased 400 acres of land in Rogue River Valley, Oregon, and laid out the town-site of Tolo, of which Scott Griffin took charge and our subject continued the management of their business at Cottonwood.

When Griffin Bros. located at Cottonwood the place contained only one school-house, an old discarded saloon building. But under their manipulation, and that of a few active young business men, who arrived about the same time, or soon afterward, the aspect of the town radi­cally changed. They now have a fine large two- story brick school-house, which is a credit to the town, two large new churches, four stores, and all other kinds of business duly represented. The large quantities of rich land about the town have been subdivided and sold to industrious settlers; and where there were only evergreen Manzanita's, there are now pleasant homes, vine­yards and orchards. The people who were wont to be satisfied with cheap buildings are now building elegant brick structures, and Cotton­wood is now a clean, healthy, thriving village, with the best of social and educational advan­tages. The people of Cottonwood give Mr. Griffin much praise for his efficient aid in bring­ing about this desirable state of affairs. The people who have purchased the rich fruit lands have planted trees, and have been pleased to see them bear fruit in two years from planting, and four-year-old peach, almond, nectarine and prune orchards bear fruit that yield handsome returns. Such orchards are worth $500 per acre.

In addition to his real-estate business, he is a notary public, and is a bright, wide-awake, en­ergetic gentleman. Mr. Griffin says several thousand acres of land have recently been sold to capitalists, who purchased them for fruit ranches; that they are to be planted to vines and orchards, and that 100,000 fruit trees will be set out this spring (1891) near Cottonwood. He now has valuable tracts of fruit land for sale from ten acres up, at $30 per acre.

After corning to Cottonwood, Mr. Griffin became acquainted with Miss Alice McLain, an accomplished teacher in the schools, and a native daughter of the Golden West; and at Cot­tonwood, December 18, 1887, they were united in marriage, in the Congregational Church, by their pastor, the Rev. J. A. Jones. Mrs. Grif­fin was born at Roseburg, Oregon, October 22, 1865, and reared in Shasta County; is a graduate of the Anderson Normal School, and for several years was a successful "teacher. In ad­dition to his other good qualities, Mr. Griffin is an active Republican, and a strong temper­ance man, not even using tobacco in any way, and has never tasted intoxicating liquor of any kind. He and his wife are both energetic and enthusiastic workers in the Congregational Church.


JAMES OSCAR SMITH, one of the early settlers of the county, and a time-tried and reliable citizen and physician, arrived in this county July 4, 1855. He is a native of the State of New York, born in Schoharie County, April 23, 1822, the son of James Smith, who was a native of the same State and' a merchant in Buffalo, and was also a lumber merchant in Canada. He died in 1873. The Doctor's grandfather, John Smith, was a native. of New York, and a soldier in the Revolution; the ancestors of the family came from England. The Doctor's father married Abigail Wattles, a native of Cherry Valley, Connecticut, and they had eleven children, four of whom are now living.

 Dr. Smith, the eldest son, spent the first twelve years of his life in the city of Buffalo, and then attended school for six years in Can­ada. There he commenced the study of medicine with Dr. Wallen, with whom he remained eleven years. The Doctor came to California and began practice at Middletown, where he re­mained nine years. He then purchased a ranch of 240 acres, and in connection with his medi­cal practice carried on the farm for two years. He then sold and purchased another 240 acres, on which he resided until 1885. He was engaged in raising cattle, horses and sheep, and from time to time added to his ranch until he had 4,000 acres, which he afterward sold and moved into Cottonwood. While on his ranch his house was robbed and burned when the family was absent, causing him a loss of $3,000, but it was thought that the thieves did not get over $150. The Doctor has built him a good residence and office in Cottonwood, where he has in a measure retired, and is living upon the interest of his money. For some years he has been engaged in money lending. During his long life he has waited upon and adminis­tered to the suffering of both rich and poor alike, both in the day and night and in all kinds of weather, accepting pay from those who had it, and giving it to those who were too poor to pay. For a long time he was the only physician in his part of the county. The Doctor has a fine constitution, and is a strong and hearty man, who has witnessed the growth of the great commonwealth in which he lives, and is one of its active citizens. Before the war he was a Douglas Democrat, but at Lincoln's second election he became a Republican, and has since voted that ticket. He is also a strong temperance man..

Dr. Smith was married in Canada, in 1843, to Miss Jane Stooer, a native of Nova Scotia, and they have been blessed with six children, three boys and three girls, but one of whom is deceased. ;


THOMAS JEFFERSON MCCABE, a citizen of Cottonwood, who has done much for the growth of the county by his example in the field of horticulture, having planted a fine tract of his ranch to fruit, and thereby demonstrating the wonderful capability of the county to produce fruit without irrigation. He was born in Shelby County, Indiana, October 17, 1856, the son of Thomas E. McCabe, who was also a native of the same State; the family originated in Ireland. He married Mary Robertson, a native of his own State, and the daughter of James Robertson, a native of Kentucky. They had sixteen children, eleven of whom still survive, eight boys and three girls.

 Mr. McCabe, the eighth child and one of twins, was reared his in native State, and when twenty-one years of age came to California, but afterward returned and remained three months. He then came again to this State and settled in Cloverdale, Sonoma County, where he was married to Miss Marcella Saling, a native of California, and a daughter of Peter Saling, an early settler of this State. They have four children, three born in Colusa County, and the youngest born at Cottonwood, namely: Lena, Clara M., Orrin L. and Ethel L. They removed to Cottonwood in May, 1886, and purchased eighty acres of choice fruit land near the town. He has improved the place by building a home and the necessary farm buildings, and in 1888 planted twenty acres of peaches and pears, which have made a good growth, many of them having commenced to bear.

In politics Mr. McCabe is a Republican, and in 1888 was elected a Justice of the Peace in his township. He and his wife are influential members of the Congregational Church, and Mr. McCabe is a Deacon and Superintendent of the Sunday-school. He is one of those reliable men that can be depended upon in everything in which they engage.


WALTER W. FELTS, the founder of the Shasta County Index, now changed to the Cottonwood Register, was born December 7, 1848, in Mississippi, the son of Asahel Felts, a native of the same State. He was deprived of his parents by death when but a
child, and knows but little of them. He received his education at the Hesperian, and at the
Metnodist College at Vacaville, Solano County. He purchased an interest in the Maxwell store in Colusa County, and was connected with it three years. In 1885 he came to Cottonwood, and found a small place, wanting in enterprise, and also met with a good deal of opposition in starting his paper; but, aided by a few of the enterprising business men, the opposition was overcome and the town was improved. Mr. Felts is not only a business and newspaper man but is a close thinker, and has recently pub­lished a book which shows that he takes a com­plete departure from old accepted scientific ideas. His work is the " Principles of Science," and he is about to publish a revised edition. His book is a cornplete over throw of some old scientific ideas, dispensing with both gravitation and centrifu­gal force, and several of the leading educational men of the State speak in the highest terms of his book and the new ideas it presents. Mr. Felts is a Christian man, a believer in the reli­gion taught in the Scriptures, and in his early life he was for, some years a teacher. He is a strong temperance man, and favors Prohibition, but is a liberal Democrat.

He was married  in 1885, to Miss Fanny H. Rice, a native of Missouri, and they have one son,' born in Ashland, Oregon. Mr. Felts has bought considerable town property and is alive to the interests of Cottonwood and the State.


HENRY CLAY FOSTER, the successful and popular young druggist of Cottonwood, was born September 2, 1869, in Jackson County, Indiana, the son of Albert S. and Callie (James) Foster, both natives of the same State. His ancestors on the paternal side were from Germany, and on the maternal side from England. His parents had five children, four of whom are now living, three boys and one girl. The family came to Tehama County, California, in 1872, and settled at Vina, where the subject of this sketch was reared and educated. His father's occupation had been that of a teacher, but after coming to this State he purchased a ranch at Vina. It was decided that the subject of this sketch should become a doctor, and he commenced the study of medi­cine under Dr. J. W. Harvey, one of the most prominent physicians of the county. He remained with him two years, and then ran a drug store in Villa one year. In 1889 he purchased the Cottonwood drug store, and began business for himself, which has proved an eminent suc­cess. He has a good stock, gives his busi­ness close attention, and enjoys the trade of the entire city. Mr. Foster has also purchased property in Cottonwood, takes an interest in the improvement of this city, and intends to make it his permanent home. In political views he is a Republican.


WILLIAM F. PRICE.--No apology need be made for collecting and recording the history of the men who were the pioneers and early settlers of the great State of California, f or their adventurous spirit, fortitude, courage and persistency has not been excelled in the world's history. The subject of this sketch has not only the honor of being one of these early settlers, but is also the pioneer merchant of the town of Cottonwood. He is a self-educated man, who by his own personal and industrious efforts, has gained for himself suc­cess and valuable property.

He was born in St. Louis, Missouri, May 18, 1821, the son of Isaac Price, who was a native of North Carolina, and Tabitha (Wilkenson) Price, who was born in Virginia, and was of English ancestry. They had a family of five children, two of whom still survive. Mr. Price's sister, now Mrs. Emeline Bond, wife of William Bond, now resides in Wisconsin. When thir­teen years of age our subject began his mercantile experience as a store boy in Illinois and he not only learned good business habits, but from day to day picked up his own education in the dear school of experience. A kind lady, the wife of his employer, gave him some instructions at spare times, and it is to his credit to add that he remained there until he was twenty-one years of age. Be then went to Galena, Illinois, where he was engaged as a teamster in hauling lead. He next removed to Wisconsin, and engaged in both mining and clerking for three and a half years, and at that time was attacked with the gold fever. He bought four good horses and a mule, and made the journey overland, bringing with him a man and a boy. They traveled alone, but camped near some company of emigrants every night, their journey occupying ninety-seven days.

They arrived at Placerville, El Dorado County, and at once engaged in the search for gold at White Rock, in which they were quite successful. Mr. Price and another man worked together on a claim 100 yards long, the dirt being from two to four feet deep over the bed rock,' which they removed that winter, and on the whole of their claim took out $14,000 during the same winter. There were miners in the same gulch, both below and above them, for two miles in length. From that place to Montezuma Flats they were successful, and took out about $11,000. He and his partner then bought claims, in which they sunk their former earnings, and on leaving took away only $600. Mr. Price then went to Sacramento, where he remained but a short time, and in the spring of 1853 went to Yreka, where he mined and trad­ed for ten years, with both good and bad luck. In one of his transactions he made $6,000, but lost it all in the mines. From there he moved to Virginia City, and engaged in mining in the Golden Courier mines, remaining two years and meeting with poor success. In 1864 he went to Red Bluff, and for a year rented the Star Ranch; then be accepted a position in the hard­ware store of Herbert Kraft, and was there at intervals seven and a half years. In 1874 he came to Cottonwood, and bought out the store of a man named Simon, and organized the firm of Price & Co., Mr. A. S. Schuman being his partner. At that time the railroad had only been built two years, and the town contained only a few houses, and their trade rapidly in creased until they were doing a large mercantile business, both in the sale of merchandise and in the purchase and shipment of wool and grain. Their first store, a frame building, 22 x 56 feet, they were soon obliged to enlarge, and they are now building a fine brick store 50 x80 feet. The firm of Price & Co. have been very successful, and they have done nearly all of the work of their large business themselves since its commencement. Hard, earnest work and close application to business has earned for them a fine property; the treatment of their customers have been so uniformly just that many of the men who first began to trade with them are still their customers. They have in­vested in lands, and own several thousand acres.

Mr. Price has never married, and resides with his partner. They are like brothers, notwithstanding that Mr. Price' people were Southerners, he became a Republican at the organization of that party, and has remained with it ever since.


CHARLES KEIR .MeELWEE, a native son ay of the Golden West, and a . prominent business man of the city of Redding, Shasta County, was born October 21, 1856, in the first brick building erected in the city of San Francisco, on Commercial street, below Montgomery. His father, John V. McElwee, was a native of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, born in 1821, and his grandfather, Charles McElwee, came from Scotland before the Revolution, and was a participant in that war. The father mar­ried Mary Scott, a native of Nova Scotia, whose ancestors settled in Boston before the Revolu­tion, but remained loyal to the King, and escaped to Nova Scotia, where they resided for many years. Mr. and Mrs. McElwee were the parents of five children, all of whom are living. Their father came to California in 1850, tried mining at first, and then settled on a fine ranch below Sacramento on the river. A flood came soon afterward and drove them out, and they went to San Francisco, where he engaged in the furniture business, which had been his occupation in the East. This trade he carried on successfully until his death, which occurred in 1882. He was a good citizen and a thorough business man; his wife still survives him.

Charles McElwee, the subject of this sketch, was educated at the Lincoln School in San Francisco, and learned the upholstering trade. He started out for himself in that business in 1874, in San Francisco,. and after a year removed to Seattle, but concluding not to locate there he returned to San Francisco, where he remained until 1888. He then learned that there was a good opening for business at Redding, and he accordingly engaged in business in this city, in partnership with Herbert Moody. They have a fine store, 50 x 80 feet, and a shop 25 x 40 feet, which is the first and only store in the city, and they enjoy a nice trade, their customers coming to them from 250 miles' distance. Mr McElwee has. purchased his partner's interest, and is now the sole proprietor. He is also in­terested in town property in Redding.

He was married to Miss Jennie Gould, a native of Boston, and daughter of Governor Gould, and is of Scotch ancestry. Mr. Elwee is a Native Son of the Golden West; an Odd Fellow; and a member of the Order of Red Men. His politi­cal views are Republican, with strong American tendencies. He is a man of good business ability.


JOHN H. FOSTER, one of the prominent merchants of Cottonwood, is a native of the Golden West, born in Shasta, August. 30, 1856. His father, Jacob Foster, came to California in 1849, and in two years returned East after his family, and again came to this State in 1852. He was a native of Germany, and was married in St. Louis, Missouri, to Miss Adaline Hertling, also a native of Germany. They had seven children, five of whom are still living.

Mr. Foster, the subject of this sketch, received his education in Cottonwood, and also took a full business course at Heald's Business College at San Francisco. He learned telegraphy, and was engaged in railroading eighteen years. In 1884 the firm of Becker & Foster was organ­ized, they having purchased the stock and good­will of William Knowlton, and they now have a large double store filled with a desirable stock of general merchandise. They enjoy a satisfac­tory trade, which extends to a distance of from thirty-five to forty miles. Mr. Foster has also invested in village property, and has a very pleasant home where he now resides. He is a business man of energy and ability. His father, Jacob Foster, was the founder of the town of Cottonwood, and was the owner of the ranch on which the town was built; he also built the first hotel. . His son, the subject of this sketch, was reared in Cottonwood, and has been the railroad agent in the town for eighteen years, and it is not to be wondered at that he takes just pride in its growth. He is one of those ready busi­ness men who take hold on whatever has to be done, in connection with his large and diversi­fied business.

Mr. Foster was united in marriage with Miss Philipina Rieser, a native daughter of the Golden West, born in Red Bluff. This union has been blessed with three children tall born in Cottonwood, namely: Ellis J., Joseph A. and Carrie.


COLONEL WILLIAM MAGEE is a man of mark, one of the striking figures in the early history of Northern California, and a representative pioneer of Shasta County. He arrived in San Francisco December 1, 1849. He was born in Darlington district, South Carolina, among the rice plantations, February 1, 1806. His father, John Magee, was a native of North Carolina. Time progenitor of the family was a descendant of the Scottish chieftains who emigrated to the Colonies very early, settling in North Carolina, and became the ancestor of one 50 of the old Southern families. John Magee, the Colonel's father, married Winnie Whiden, also a native of North Carolina. They had eight chil­dren, four sons and four daughters, four of whom are now living. Colonel Magee, their oldest child, received his early education in Wayne County, Mississippi. When he be­came a man Ile engaged in business in Alabama, and also was Deputy Sheriff seven years; was Deputy United States Marshal for eight years in the days of General Jackson and Van Buren. He was Sheriff in Mobile, Alabama, for four years,—from 1836 till 1840; from there he re­moved to New Orleans and engaged in the mer­cantile business for a time; then sold out and came to California, in search of the golden treasures hidden in her mountains. He was thirty days on the journey, by the way of the Isthmus, besides being detained twenty days at Panama, and sailed thence .on the steamer Oregon for San Fr.m.3isco. He went to Shasta in May, 1850, when there were about 300 people there, living in tents and cloth houses. Mr. Magee put his horse in the corral, and with many others made his bed with his blankets on the ground, in what is now the principal street in the town. All goods and supplies were taken to Shasta by team from Red Bluff, and from Shasta the goods were packed on mules over the county, no wagon road being above Shasta. At times miles of the road was block­aded with heavily loaded wagons drawn by five yokes of oxen each, and for miles the stage could not get past them, and sometimes was delayed hours. Five hundred pack mules were loaded in the streets of Shasta to distribute supplies to the places further north. Few people can re­alize the rush and crowd of mules and prospect­ors that gathered around the place.

Colonel Magee remained at Shasta and on Major Redding's ranch for four years. He surveyed the ranch for the Major and got his title perfected, and had charge of the property for three years. He was then appointed United States Deputy Surveyor and extended the Government surveys all over the county of Shasta.

 The Colonel, with his assistants, lived in the mountains and valleys. His surveying business he followed until a recent date. Among Colonel Magee's chainmen in an early day was C. C. Bush, then a young man and now the Hon. Judge C. C. Bush, another of Shasta's repre­sentative citizens. The Colonel's business gave him a complete knowledge of the county, which paved the way for his fortune. He was the dis­coverer of Iron Mountain in 1870. He found a lone miner in camp on the mountain, who knew what iron was, and pointed it out to him. The Colonel bought his interest in it for $100, and took a deed for that interest, and then set about getting a patent from the Government to the mountain. It was situated within railroad limits, and he could not obtain a title until a special act of Congress was enacted to authorize the location of agricultural college scrip within railroad limits. Iron Mountain at that time was included in agricultural land. As soon as the act of Congress was passed he located the mountain with agricultural scrip, and proceeded to perfect his title for the grant through the State of California. Commencing in 1871 to improve the mountain, he worked on, treating it as a mountain of iron until early in 1880, when James Salee, a practical miner, was pros­pecting there for silver and gold and found sil­ver in the mountain. That was nine years after the patent had been obtained as agricultural land. The Colonel advised the Government that silver had been found on the land. Being in doubt about the strength of his title, he pro­posed to re-deed the land to the Government, reserving the privilege of buying it as mineral land. The Secretary of the Interior, after investigating the matter, decided that he would not permit him to reconvey the land; that he considered his title good, having been held as agricultural land for nine years before the silver was discovered. The Colonel then gave Mr. Salee a third interest in the mine which he had discovered, and he called it the Lost California Mine. In the meantime another partner, Charles Camden, was taken in, and they have been mining silver ever since. In 1886 they built a twenty-stamp mill, and have taken out several hundred thousand dollars. They have 640 acres of land in the mountain, and the largest quantity of the best iron ore known to exist in the United States, and in a very pure condition. The silver lode is 130 feet wide, extending three-fourth:3 of a. mile and cropping out on the other side of the mountain. They employ forty hands at the mine. It is seven and one-half miles from Shasta. The road to the mine was built at a cost of $8,000.

In 1854 Colonel Magee purchased the cozy and pleasant home in which he has since resided. He was thrice married: first in Mobile, in 1828, to Miss Margaret M. Bass, and they had one daughter, Caroline Virginia, who is now the wife of Judge Hobbs, of Franklin County, New York. Mrs. Magee died in 1869, and after some years the Colonel married Mrs. Mary Perry, whose death occurred in 1887; and in 1888 he married for his present wife, Mrs. Ann L. Moon, a native of New York. They are living very happily together. Mrs. Magee is a very kind and agreeable lady, is very fond of the Colonel, and very attentive to him.

 His political views are Democratic. He has lived to the ripe age of eighty-four years; is a large gentleman, a fine representative of the old Scotch ancestry from which he sprang several generations ago.


RICHARD HENRY 'FEENY, proprietor of the Feeny Hotel, French Gulch, is a California Forty-niner. He has passed many years of pioneer life on this coast, and has seen the wonderful transformation which has taken place in this State since the first grand rush was made for the new El Dorado. A brief sketch of his life is as follows:

Mr. Feeny was, born in West Meath, Ireland, in 1822, the son of Richard and Mary (Hadlet) Eeeny, both natives of Ireland. He is the only survivor of a family of thirteen children, five of whom grew to maturity. He received his education in the Emerald Isle, and was there em­ployed in the drug business for two years. That work, however, was not congenial to his taste, and he emigrated to New York in April, 1840. At that place lie worked in a brick­yard for nine years, until the gold excitement broke out in California. He sailed from New York in the Sarah and Eliza, February 14, 1849, and arrived in California September 17. When he landed in San Francisco that city was a town of cloth,—as he says, " a town of rag houses." Mr. Feeny went to Sacramento and from there to Weaver Creek, where he worked and made eight dollars per day. In the spring of 1850 he went to Coloma, remaining at that place about a month. In seven and a half days' work he took out $1,040 with a rocker., Then be went to Sacramento and paid $140 for a horse, on which he traveled to the Middle Yuba. There he worked three years and saved $5,000. He made much more money than that, but, like other miners, he spent it freely. Next he went. to the South mines, and afterward returned to his claim. On the 5th of September he and his brother went to election at Orleans Flat. While there some of their friends got into a row. His brother, while trying to extricate his friend, was stabbed and died. • Mr. Feeny made every effort to find and bring to justice his brother's murderer, but he escaped. After that our subject went .to Siskiyou County, and pur­chased an interest in a toll-road, and kept it for sixteen Years. During that time he bought the whole road. In 1885 he came to French Gulch, and built the Feeny Hotel and his own resi­dence, at a cost of $12,000.

 In 1875 Mr. Feeny married Miss Sarah J. Dailey, a native of Ireland. To them three children have been born, two in Trinity County and one in Shasta. Their names are Mary Elizabeth, Thomas Henry and Arlieta. Mr. Feeny is a stanch Democrat, but often votes for the best man regardless of party. As a citizen he is highly respected by all. Ile has experienced much of, the ups and downs of a miner's life, and at this writing (1890) is interested in quartz. milling.


GEORGE R. KNOX, one of the early settlers of Shasta County, California, is a native of Saratoga, New York. He was born August 20, 1822, the son of William B. and Inlam (Hayes) Knox, both natives of New York City. Grandfather Knox was born in Scotland, the country that has furnished so many brave soldiers and such fine physical specimens of the human race. Mr. and Mrs. Knox both died in 1859, leaving two children, natives of the State of New York, William Henry and George R.

The subject of this sketch received his education in Rochester, and afterward became a clerk in Albany, where he was in business four years. He then removed to Galway, New York, and engaged in the mercantile business on his own account, conducting it four years. He spent one season in Troy in the forwarding business. From there he went to New York city, and filled the position of book-keeper for a firm three years. In the spring of 1853 he came to California, and engaged in mining until 1861, a part of the time being on Whisky Creek. His best day's work while there made him $150. He came to Shasta in 1862, and opened the saloon business, in which he has been engaged most of the time since. He has a fine large billiard room. In it are many specimens of mineral taken from the Shasta County Moun­tains. Judge Knox keeps what he now calls Knox's Reading Rooms, and counts among his customers many of the citizens of Shasta and surrounding country. He is interested in sev­eral good mines, among them the Highland Chief, the Ark, the Alexander, the Goodenough and the Golden Eagle.

 The Judge was married in 1843, to Miss Sarah C. Mead, a native of Troy, New York. They had one child, Ann R., now the wife of P. A. Simmons. They reside in New York.

 Mrs. Knox died in 1889. Judge Knox has recently married Mrs. Celinda Isaacs, the widow of Joseph Isaacs. She is a native of New York, and was formerly Miss Celinda M. Downer.

 Our subject is a Republican, and has held the office of Justice of 'the Peace for the last twenty years, and that of Notary Public for fourteen pars. He is a charter member of the lodge and encampment of L O. O. F., has held the office of District Deputy Grand Master and Grand Patriarch, and was a member of the Grand Lodge and Grand Encampment of the State. He is an intelligent representative of the early days in California; is both a good- looking and a kind-hearted gentleman.


WILLIAM A. BOSWELL is one of the industrious, energetic and well-to-do citizens of Shasta. He was born in Illinois, November 3, 1846, and was brought to California when four years of age, in 1850, by his parents, Andrew J. and Rebecca (Carlin) Boswell. His father was born in Tennessee, and the family were residents of that State for many years. His mother was a native of Virginia. Mr. and Mrs. Boswell had four sons and three daughters, the subject of this sketch being the oldest child. He was educated in El Dorado County, near the site of Sutter's mill, where he resided until twenty-one years of age. He followed stock-raising in both Colusa and Tehama counties, raising many horses and cattle. In 1883 he came to Shasta, and opened a meat market, in which he has been very successful. He has the only business of the kind in the town. He runs three teams and supplies people with meat for fifteen and twenty miles out from Shasta.

 Mr. Boswell was married in 1883, to Miss Mary E. Divine, a native of Missouri,. and daughter of Thomas Divine. When she was two years old her mother died, and she was reared :by Mr. Boswell's aunt. Mr. and Mrs. Boswell have two sons and a daughter born in Shasta, namely: William M., Andrew A. and California. Mrs. Boswell is a member of the Christian, 'Church. Mr. Boswell is a Chapter Mason, and is now the Junior Warden of the lodge: His political views are Democratic. He resides with his family in their pleasant home on  Main street in Shasta.


FRANK LITSCH is one of the representative citizens and business men of Shasta County. He was born in Baden, Ger­many, November 7, 1835, of German parents. He was educated in his native country, and there learned the trade of baker. After the term of his apprenticeship had expired, in 1853, when eighteen years of age, he came to the United States of America. He spent one year as a baker and clerk in a store in Missouri, and the following year, hearing of the new El Dorado of the West, he came to California in pursuit of gold. After landing in San Francisco he came direct to Shasta County, where for three years he was engaged in mining at Lower Springs without any remarkable success,—his largest find in one day being $40. He then came to Shasta, and for three years was bar-tender for his brother, Charles Litsch. - In 1863 he started a store on his own account, on the ground adjoining his present location. He now owns and occupies both stores. Until-1869 he was in partnership with Fred Michaelson. They moved their stock to Lewiston, Trinity County, pur­chased the store of Isaac Shaw, and conducted it till 1872: At that time Mr. Litsch sold out and went to San Francisco, remaining in that city a year. In the fall of 1873 he returned to Shasta and started a general merchandise store, and has successfully conducted it since that time. He has been continuously in business longer than any other merchant in the town. He is interested in a valuable quartz mine which is now being developed.

 In 1863 Mr: Litsch wedded a Miss Sheure, a native of the city of New Orleans. Their union has been blessed with four children, two of whom are living, both born in Shasta: Elizabeth and Emma. Their son, Joseph, lived to be twenty-three years of age, and died of heart dis­ease. The other child died at the age of nine months.

Mr. Litsch is an I. 0. 0. F., has passed all the chairs of the order and is now Treasurer. He is a charter. member of the A. 0. U. W., and is now holding the office of Financier. Politically he is a Democrat. In 1886 he was elected one of the Supervisors of the county, which office he is now filling. He is a valuable and worthy member of society, ever ready to do what he can for the advancement of the best interests of the community in which he resides.


JOHN VARNER SCOTT is one of the old representative Californians who came to this State in the early days of its history. Since that time he has been identified with the interests of Shasta County as a miner, a hotel- keeper, and, lastly, receiver at the United States Land Office, now located at Redding. He is a native of County Tyrone, Ireland, born Decem­ber 27, 1821. His parents were Hugh and Margaret (Moore) Scott, natives of the Emerald Isle. To them were born nine children, some in Ireland, some in England and some in the United States, as they removed to England and from there to Pennsylvania, settling in time latter place in 1833. Five of the family survive.

 The subject of this sketch left his home in Pittsburg, Pennsylvania, in 1851, and came via the Isthmus route to California, arriving in San Francisco in 1852. The Atlantic voyage was . made in the United States steamer Atlantic,. and the journey was finished in the Clarissa Andrews. Upon his arrival at this coast he came direct to Shasta, where he engaged in mining and was fairly successful.. He has seen two ounces of gold taken from a single pan of dirt. He says the largest piece ever mined in Shasta County was taken out by Rochon and his partner at Spring Creek, three and a half miles from Shasta. It weighed sixteen pounds and was worth about $4,000

 In 1854 Mr. Scott purchased an interest in the Franklin Hotel, and conducted it until 1868. In the mean time he bought out his partners, Alfred Walton and James W. Tull. In 1868 he purchased the Empire. Hotel, which he ran until 1889. During his career as a hotel-keeper in Shasta he entertained-large numbers of people who were attracted to the town by the rich mines in its vicinity. Among his frequent guests were such men as Leland Stanford, David Gwinn, Joaquin MIiller,, Governor Haight, John P. Jones, Governor Bigler, Major Bidwell, George C. Gorham and hosts of others. For sev­eral years Shasta was the end of the wagon road, and from there supplies were packed on mules. In this way the machinery for mills was taken, 400 to 450 pounds being an ordinary load fora mule. Mr. Scott says he knew one mule to carry 1,000 pounds of flour twenty rods, most of the way up grade; another packed an iron safe, weighing 650 pounds, to Yreka, a distance of 120 miles, was not unloaded until it reached its destination and did not lie down while on the journey. Mr. Scott is interested in the Bunker Hill quartz mine, and also in some gold and silver mines. The Empire Hotel still belongs to him. He is one of the nineteen voters of Shasta County who cast their ballot for Gen­eral John C. Fremont in 1856, and he has since voted with  the Republican party. September 1, 1889, be was commissioned receiver in the United States Land Office, in which position he now serves, and to which he gives his close attention. He is one of the prominent members of Western Star Lodge, No. g, the -first instituted Masonic lodge in the State. of California, and has filled all its offices. He is also a member of the Connell and Chapter, and is a member of the Legion of Honor.

Mr. Scott was married in 1863, to Miss Kate Linch, a native of Ireland. Since that time she has been his faithful companion, the sharer of his joys and sorrows. They live in a cozy home on one of the picturesque hills of the old mining town of Shasta.


LUDWIG ANDERSON, a lumberman of Martinez, was born in Copenhagen, Denmark, August 26, 1825, and at the age of sixteen years he became a mariner, and at the end of six years of seafaring life he found him­self in New York city, whence he came to Cal­lao and Lima, in Peru, in 1849. In the latter part of this year lie sailed on the baroque Ellitta and arrived in Sari Francisco in August, 1850. During the same year he made the round trip to Panama on the steamer Oregon, which brought the first tidings to the coast that California had been admitted into the Union. He then followed the coasting trade until 1860, and finally, having learned that Captain Anderson of the excellence of the Contra Costa region, lie determined to locate at Pacheco, which was then flourishing. At that place he opened a lumber yard, which he still conducts with satisfactory success; and he has branched out into Martinez in his extending business. By an unflinching integrity and indomitable perseverance he has acquired considerable possessions in different portions of the county.

He was married in San Francisco November 23, 1858, to Miss Honora Troy, a native of Ire­land, and has seven children living:. Marie C., Louis D., Nora A., Mary M., Annie N., Jence J. and Elizabeth T.


JAMES L. PACE, a farmer of Yolo, is a son of Richard R. and Elizabeth (Proctor) Pace, the former a native of Kentucky and the latter of Tennessee. He was born in Boone County, Missouri, August 16, 1836, and at the age of twenty-two years he went to Pike's Peak with ox teams, and three weeks afterward came on to California with the same outfit, arriving on the banks of Mokelumne River, where the train disbanded. Mr. Pace came to Yolo County and worked by the day until the spring of 1863, when' he went to the coast and bought a drove of hogs, brought them to Yolo Valley, fattened them in the stubble fields and then dis­posed of them the same year. He then bought another drove and took them in the mountains near Auburn and sold them there. Returning to Yolo County, he drove a number of the same to Cedar Lake for H. C. Yerby, in 1864, and remained there until 1866. During this time he purchased a small ranch in- Lake County, bought some stock for it, and in 1866 drove a band of cattle to Yolo County and pastured them upon the old Snodgrass ranch, being a partner of D. Cramer. He then disposed of his ranch in Lake County, married Miss Porter, October 6, 1875, and began to spend their summer seasons in Yolo and their winters on the ranch. In 1889 Mr. Pace bought another ranch of 160 acres about three miles from Yolo and eight from Woodland, where they expect to make their permanent home. The ranch of 8,000 acres belonging to Messrs. Pace & Cramer is well stocked.

Mr. Pace's children are: Ralph H., Myrtle A. and Pauline E., all natives of Yolo County.

A Memorial & Biographical History of Northern California: Chicago : The Lewis Publishing Company, 1891

Transcribed by Martha A Croslery Graham
10 October 2008 - Pages 774 -790

ABNER ABELE, a farmer of Yolo County, is a son of Joseph and Francisca (Yeager) Abele, natives of Germany. He was born in Wiirtembiirg, Germany, August 7, 1826, lost his parents when fourteen years of age, and when twenty-five years old emigrated to this country. The first five years here he spent in Buffalo, New York, following his trade as cooper; spent one year in Canada; returned to Buffalo, and next was in Erie, Pennsylvania, two years, where in 1856 he married Theckla Heemle, also a native of Wiirtemburg. After following his trade two years in the latter place he went again to Canada and conducted a cooper-shop of his own three years, when he came to California, via the Isthmus route. Going to Yolo, he first worked as a day laborer until 1862, and then purchased a place of his own. He now has 1,120 acres two miles west of Cacheville. He has three sons and three daughters living, namely: Joe, Alois, John, Francisco, Josephine, Mary and Ragena. Two of his children are deceased, Adolph and Agata, besides a grandson named Joe Abele.



PERSON E. READING, one of the two or three most conspicuous fathers of Northern California, was born in New Jersey, November 26, 1816, and died at his ranch, Buena Ventura, in Shasta County, on the 29th of May, 1868, aged fifty-one years and six months. For about a quarter of a century' he had occupied a prominent position in California. In 1843 he crossed the plains in company with the late Samuel J. Hensley, and some twenty-five others, and from that period was thoroughly identified with this region of the continent. The route by which the party arrived is thus described by Hon. John Bidwell:


"The route by which they had come had never to my knowledge been visited or traversed by any save the most savage Indian tribes; namely, from Fort Boise, on Snake River, to the Sacramento Valley, via the upper Sacramento or Pit River. The hostility as well as courage of those savages is well known; and I may refer to the conflicts with them of Fremont in 1846, of the lamented Captain Warner in 1849, and of General Crook in 1867.


In 1844, Reading entered the service of General Sutter, and was at the Fort when Fremont first arrived in California in the spring of that year. In 1845 he was left in charge, while Sutter marched with all his forces to assist Micheltorena in quelling the insurrection headed by Castro and Alvarado. The former had shown his partiality for Americans by granting them lands, and this led to the espousal of his cause by our people. Reading, in 1844, had received a grant in what is now known as Shasta County. Later, in 1845, he visited, on a hunting and trapping expedition, nearly all the northern part of California, the western part of Nevada, as also Southern Oregon. He was afterward extensively engaged in trapping in 1845-'46 on the lower Sacramento and San Joaquin rivers. In all these dangerous expeditions his intelligence, bravery, and imposing personal appearance exercised over the hostile Indians a commanding influence that protected himself and party not only from hostile attack, but also secured their friendly aid in his undertakings.


When it became probable that war would be declared against Mexico, Reading enlisted under Fremont; and on the organization of the California Battalion by Commodore Stockton, was appointed [Paymaster, with the rank of Major, and served until the close of the war in this country. After its termination, Reading returned to his ranch in Shasta, which he made his permanent home.


In the events preceding and accompanying the acquisition of this territory, the knowledge and experience of Reading were of great advantage to the Government, and that the flag of our Union instead of that of another nation now waves over it, is in a great measure due to those early pioneers who entered California before the existence of gold in its soil was even surmised.


In 1848 Reading was among the first to visit the scene of Marshall's gold discovery Coloma and shortly after engaged extensively in prospecting for gold, making discoveries in Shasta, at the head waters of the Trinity, and prospecting that river until he became satisfied that the gold region extended to the Pacific Ocean. A portion of these explorations were made in company with Jacob R. Snyder. A large number of Indians were worked with great success, until all were disabled by sickness.


In 1849, with Hensley and Snyder, Reading engaged extensively in commercial business in Sacramento, and continued the firm until 1850. In the fall of 1849 Major Reading fitted out an expedition to discover the bay into which he supposed the Trinity and Klamath rivers must empty. The bark Josephine, in which the party sailed, was driven by a storm far out of her course to the northwest of Vancouver's Island and had to return. Others, subsequently, acting on the idea, discovered and called the bay after that world renowned traveler Humboldt, by whose name it is now known.


In 1850, Major Reading visited Washington to settle his accounts as Paymaster of the California Battalion. The disbursements exceeded $166,000, and had been kept with such neatness and accuracy, supported by vouchers, that the auditor considered them as being the best of all presented during the war.


While in the "States," on this occasion, he visited his old home, Vicksburg, where in 1837 he succumbed to the crisis which caused such wide-spread ruin among the merchants of the Southwest. His object was to pay in gold the principal and interest of his long outstanding and almost forgotten obligations. This he did to the extent of 860,000 an instance of commercial integrity of which California has reason to be proud.


In 1851 Major Reading was the candidate of the Whig party for Governor of Californian, which exalted position he failed to obtain only by a few votes. Since then he was frequently invited to become a candidate for political positions, but declined. For many years previous to his decease, agriculture, with a view of developing the interests of the State, occupied his attention. In 1856 Major Reading married, in Washington, Miss Fanny Washington, who, with five children, was left to mourn the death of their beloved protector.


BARNEY PARISH, a farmer near Cacheville, is a son of James and Nancy (Mc-Can) Parish. the former a native of Pennsylvania and the latter of Virginia. He was born in Cambria County, Pennsylvania, September 18, 1835. In 1858 he came by water to California and soon went to Virginia City, where he was engaged in mining one winter. In the spring he went to Grass Valley, and in a month to Yuba County, where he was employed by a mining company for five months. Purchasing then a team, he began freighting from Marysville to the mountains, which business he followed two years. Selling this outfit, he went to San Joaquin County and then again to Virginia City, Nevada, in 1862, but within a few weeks he returned to Yolo County and worked for George and William Woodard for four years. In 1865 he bought 217 acres of land, of M. Lowe, and in 1869 purchased the farm of fifty acres where he now resides, a half mile from Cacheville and five miles from Woodland. In 1865 he was united in marriage with Mary Boub [Transcriber's Note: Mary's surname is hard to read, it may be Bonb], and they had five children, all of whom are dead but one son, named Edward. Mr. Parish, for his present wife married Miss Autiie Weamer, and by this marriage there are six children: Eiizabeth, William, Annie, Otto, Theodore and Minnie.


BENJAMIN OLIVER was born in Vermont, May 6, 1833. His parents, Alexander and Sarah (Robinson) Oliver, natives of Ireland, came to America a newly married couple, in 1827, and settled in Essex, Vermont, They resided on a farm there for many years, and there reared a family of nine children, the subject of this sketch being the oldest. He received his education in the common schools of the Green Mountain State, and assisted his father in farm work.


In 1852 he came to California. For nine years he worked in the mines in Shasta County, without large results. At the end of that time he turned his attention to farming. He purchased seven and a half acres in the corporation of Redding. From time to time he bought other lands until he owned 600 acres. This he disposed of at a liberal advance, and afterward  repurchased twenty-five acres of the property, on which he has built a nice large residence. He is engaged in raising fruit and vegetables, giving most of his attention to horticulture.


Mr. Oliver was united in marriage, in 1874, to Mrs. Ellen Carine, a native of Michigan. They have eight children, all born in Redding, Sarah, Maggie, Ella, Lucy, Winnie, George, Benjamin and Charles, all at home with their parents at this writing. Mr. Oliver came to the vicinity of Redding in 1859, long before there was any thought of a town here. He has seen its wonderful growth and development, and has aided in the advancement of its best interests. He is a Democrat; was elected by his party to the office of Supervisor, holding the office from 1871 till 1876. He is now a nominee for the same position. Mr. Oliver's father died in 1870, after which his mother and sister came to California. The mother died in 1889, and is buried at Redding.


BENJAMIN H. PICKETT, one of the early and reliable citizens of California, was only one year old when he arrived in this State, and consequently has seen all of her wonderful growth. He was born at White River Junction, Vermont, October 23, 1824, the son of John Pickett, who was also a native of that State. His grandfather, David Pickett, was an Englishman, who left that country for the colonies in their early history, and took a hand in the war for independence. He was one of General Washington's staff officers, and was a prisoner on the old Dutch prison ship 109 days, and with eight others escaped, the remainder dying of disease and hardships. Mr. Pickett's father married Miss Candace Lewis, a native of New Hampshire, and the daughter of Professor Lewis, President of Dartmouth College. He was an Englishman, and came to America with his parents when he was a child. Mr. Pickett's parents had six children, four of whom still survive.


Our subject, the third child, received his education in Vermont, Indiana, Mexico and California, the practical part of which was received in the two latter States, as he was a volunteer American soldier in the war with Mexico from its commencement until the capture of the capital of Mexico. So he was one of the brave little army who attacked and defeated a far superior army in numbers in their own- country, and drove them time and again from their strong fortifications and captured their capital. No wonder General Taylor said of them, " They did not know when they were whipped." The remainder of his practical education was obtained in the mines and mountains of California in the early days, and there is no doubt that he was an apt scholar in digging gold, pursuing Indians and hunting deer, elk and bear, and notwithstanding he is sixty-five years of age, he still takes pride in a good shot. Mr. Pickett's first work in this State was on a farm, and then in a saw-mill. He mined at Placerville for two years and took out $16,000; next he mined for a time at Shasta, and only made $300, and at that time his flour cost him $1.25 per pound and other things in proportion. From there he went to Yreka, where he mined ten months, and took out $10,000. He then returned to Grand Rapids, Michigan, and after a visit came again to California and became a rancher. He secured a homestead of 120 acres, and afterward made other purchases until he has now a fine ranch of 1,380 acres. He has built three dwelling houses on this ranch as his necessities' required, and he now has a pleasant home and good farm buildings. He is engaged in raising hay, grain, hogs and cattle, in which he has been very successful.


Mr. Pickett was married in 1847, to Miss Melita Mohan, a native of Indiana, and this union has been blessed with one child, a daughter, whom they named Candace. She was born in Indiana, and is now the wife of Elias Brown, and resides on their ranch near her father. They have seven children. Mr. Pickett has been a Republican since the organization of that party, and in 1856 took a part as a free State man in the Kansas troubles. 'In 1855 he was a volunteer against the Indians on the Rogue River. Fourteen men from his vicinity started on that expedition, and only himself and another man went through. The expedition was a success, the whites running the Indians into a cave and killing them. At the tight on Klamath River there were a large number of Indians in a tamarisk swamp. Mr. Pickett, with thirteen others, volunteered to go around behind them and drive them out, which was accomplished, the men in front being ready to shoot as soon as they came out. Nearly all the Indians were killed and this ended their depredations. Mr. Pickett has many interesting reminiscences of the early days. He has a good retentive memory, and is quite strong and capable for a man of his years. The value of such brave men to the State and the society which they protected and helped to build, can never be over- estimated. "May they live long and be happy.'


W F. REID, a retired farmer residing seven miles southeast of Davisville, ' Yolo County, was born in Garrard County, Kentucky, June 20, 1812, his parents being Joseph a-id Elizibeth (Slavin) Raid, the former a native of Virginia, born in 1779, a farmer by occupation, and the latter a native of North Carolina. They moved to Adair County, Kentucky, when the subject of this notice was a year and a half old, and six and a half years afterward they moved into Tennessee; two years subsequently to Franklin County, that State; in 1829 into Alabama; in 1844 back to Tennessee; in 1853 to Arkansas; and in 1857 to California, landing at Sacramento. He bought a place in Yolo County, which he still owns, containing 320 acres, seven miles south- east of Davisville.


October 6, 1834, Mr. Reid was united in marriage with Elizabeth Shores, a native of Tennessee, and a daughter of Levi and Mary Shores, natives of North Carolina. She was born in 1818, and died October 11, 1889, the period of their married life being fifty-five years, lacking only twenty-five days. In their family have been sixteen children, three of whom are deceased. The living are: Joseph B., Alexander H., Eliza A., Mary I., Reuben E., Sarah F., Alfred, William F., Jr., John M. Margaret E., James H., Louis L. and Emma; and the deceased are: Levi, who died in 1861; Lucie E., who died in 1876; and Hannah W., who died in 1884.


M H DRUMMOND, a merchant at Davisville, was born May 1, 1859, about seven miles southeast of that village, on a ranch where he lived until he was fifteen years old. He then moved into town, attended school, and finished his education at Sacramento, at the age of twenty years. In 1882, in partnership with E. W. Brown, he started in the hardware business at Davisville; and nine month afterward he sold out his interest in that business and bought an interest in the hardware and grocery trade of D. F. Liggett, and they carry a stock of about $20,000, doing a large and prosperous business. March 13, 1884, Mr. Drummond was married to Eliza Callaway, and they have one son, named Lester C. Mrs. Drummond was killed in Oregon by a horse running away and throwing her and her little babe out of the buggy, July 15, 1885. She was killed in the instant, but the babe escaped unhurt!


E M. Hall, Jr., is the owner of Glendale one of the finest estates in every respect in this part of California. It has a magnificent stretch of 1,400 acres, reaching from hill crest to hill crest and occupying the whole of the upper end of Conn Valley. When Mr. Hall took possession of it six years ago it was a cattle range and wholly in a state of nature. There are now ninety acres of choice grapes, such as Zinfandel, Burgundy, Pinot, Riesling, Chasselas, Carignane, etc.; and eventually the vineyards will be increased to 200 acres. The cellar contains cooperage for 50,000 gallons of wines, and tunnels are being run into the hill that will give unlimited storage capacity. This year's make was 30,000 gallons. Upon the place are two fine, hard-finished residences, well kept gardens and grounds, and the usual barns, corrals, etc., of a gentleman's country-seat. Mr. Hall is a native son of California, born February 10, 1859, at Auburn, Placer County. His father, E. M. Hall, Sr., is a prominent pioneer and now a member of the well-known firm of T. Whiteley & Co., stockbrokers of San Francisco. Mr. Hall was raised and educated in this State. He is married to Miss Lillian Tubbs, the daughter of H. Tubbs, Esq., the well-known merchant of San Francisco. They have three children: Hiram, now seven years old; Edward, now five; and Susie, an infant daughter.


F N HENDRICK, proprietor of a packing house and manufacturer of ice at Madison, Yolo County, is one of the enterprising and leading business men of that county. Hard work and good management have brought him to his present business standing and financial status. He was born in Cz'ernach, Germany, March 17, 1848, the son of Philip F. and Barbara (Frcdner) Henrick, relatives of the same town; his father was born in November, 1817, was a butcher by trade and dealer in live-stock, and finally died in his native country, in 1859. His wife, born May 11, 1822, is still living, at the old home. The genealogy of the family is traceable back for three centuries, in Cziernach.


In 1864 Mr. Henrick, our subject, came to California, by way of New York and the Isthmus; on the Atlantic side he sailed on the steamer Arizona, and on the Pacific side the Golden City. He was on the sea thirteen days from Germany to New York, and twenty-four days thence to San Francisco. After remaining some time with his uncle on a ranch in Solano County, he entered the butcher business in San Francisco and Sacramento at the time time. Seven years afterward, in 1870, he went to Cottonwood (now Madison), Yolo County, where he was manager and book-keeper for a large packing house and meat market owned by James Asbury of Woodland. Two years after- ward he went into the business for himself again, on a small scale, and now he has a large ice manufactory and packing house there, and meat markets in a number of towns. He kills yearly about 5,000 hogs, and he also packs and wholesales all the other staple meats, lard, etc. He also has 220 acres of well-improved land within a quarter of a mile of Madison. He is a member of Madison Lodge, No. 287, I. O. O. F., and of the Encampment, No. 62.


He was first married in Sacramento in 1870, to M. L. Rehmke, and they had five children, namely: Frederick C, Adolph T., Anna M., Julius E. and Philip T. Frederick and Adolph T. were taken to Europe by their father to school for three years, and have just recently returned. Mr. Henrick's second marriage was in 1884, to Miss Caroline Bachstein.


A POTTERTON, fruit-grower and vine-yardist, is one of the pioneer and prominent fruit-growers of the upper part of Napa Valley. His fine ranch and orchards are located about a mile and a half almost east of St. Helena, just at the edge of the foothills, and include both hill ranges and fertile bottom lands. In all he has about forty acres in trees and vines. The trees most planted are silver prunes, French prunes, and peaches and pears, although a variety of other kinds are grown for table use. He has erected a dryer of his own device that is certainly of most admirable construction, being so arranged that the fruit is evenly dried without the necessity of shifting the trays. The capacity of the dryer is about 2,000 pounds per day of ten hours. He has separation, dippers, etc., such as are usually found in like establishments. The dried fruit presented a very fine, glossy appearance, and the writer was much surprised to learn that artificial glossing was not required.


Mr. Potterton was born in Lancaster, England, December 6, 1820, his parents being both of English stock. In 1846 he left England for the United States and for a time was engaged in wool-combing in Massachusetts. In the fall of that year he returned to England, but sailed again for America in March, 1847, it being a curious circumstance that both trips were made on board the same ship and with the same captain; and while the first voyage took four weeks the latter took four weeks and one day. He took up wool-combing again, but after about six months engaged in a woolen manufactory in Connecticut. Finally he determined to come to California, and sailed via Nicaragua in the fall of 1855. Although ship-wrecked and having to put into Norfolk, Virginia, he finally reached San Francisco in safety, in the early part of 1856. He went first to the mines on Dry Creek, Nevada County, where he stayed two years. He then started for the Fraser River, but on reaching San Francisco was so discouraged by the reports of some returning that he gave up the trip. He took a position as butcher on a Pacific mail steamer and went on from Panama to New York. He remained East until 18?? , then went out to Oregon, but not liking it came back to California and engaged in the chicken business at the corner of Folsom and Twenty-second streets, San Francisco. He afterward worked for a time in Mission Woolen Mills. In the fall of 1868 he purchased his present snug farm of 160 acres, and in March, 1869, came up here to reside. Since that time he has transformed it from a wilderness into almost a garden, and now has a very valuable piece of property, with a comfortable residence on the hillside beside the road. This was built about four years ago, as the house he had formerly occupied was accidentally blown up in December, 1885.


Mr. Potterton was married October 11, 1862, to Mrs. S. M. Boyd, nee Anderson, at Aurora, Illinois. They have had four children: Frank, born January 24, 1870; William, August 30, 1872; Eugene, August 6, 1874, and Nellie, born 1877, but died young. Frank is learning the trade of blacksmithing. William is now in the mountains for his health and Eugene at home. Mrs. Potterton has a daughter by a former marriage, who is now Mrs. Annie Macauley, lives at Calistoga, and has three children. Her brother, John Anderson, was the first man to locate in the Yosemite and was the first white man to be buried there. Mr. Potterton is a Democrat of pronounced but liberal views.


L  DUCKWORTH is now the sole proprietor of the St. Helena Foundry and Machine Shops, the only establishment (>f its kind in the vicinity. The business was begun originally in July, 1883-, under the firm name of Taylor, Duckworth & Geraing, all these gentlemen having been previously in the employment of the Government at the Mare Island Navy Yard. In 1886 Mr. W. L. Russell bought out Mr. Taylor's interest, and the firm was; then Duckworth, Geming & Co. At the end of that year Messrs. Duckworth & Geming bought out Mr. Russell, and finally in October, 1889, Mr. Duckworth bought out his remaining partner, and is conducting the business alone. From the first he had been the moving spirit; and it was largely owing to his energy and business tact that it was a success from the very first, and has possessed constantly increasing dimensions. It was begun first as a planing-mill, but was soon expanded to include also the general work of a foundry and machine shop. In addition, all kinds of job work is done, the making of presses, pumps, etc., etc. The specialty of the establishment is wine machinery of all kinds, as screw and toggle and hydraulic presses, elevators, crushers and stemmers, pomace cars, and in fact everything pertaining to wine-machinery. It is generally conceded that they manufacture the best hydraulic wine-press on the coast. At the Mechanics' Fair, 1888, they carried off first premium. General agricultural work, making and repairing of machinery, blacksmithing, etc., are also included, and the setting tip of boilers, engines, mills, etc. In the summer of 1889 a disastrous fire occurred, involving a loss of $15,000, and leaving nothing but the substantial stone walls of the main building standing and a damaged engine and boiler. This building is 75 X 45 feet in size and two stories and a half in height, and at time of visit preparations were being made for a large addition to contain the dynamo room and blacksmith shop, for Mr. Duckworth is the Superintendent of the St. Helena Electric Light and Power Company, and supplies the power by which the dynamo is run. A new 125-horse-power engine has just been placed in position, to afford greater power. The situation of the works is near the Southern Pacific Railroad depot.


Mr. Duckworth was born in 1850, in Stark County, near Peoria, Illinois, where his parents still reside, his father being a farmer of the section. Young Duckworth was raised as a farmer, and brought up to the hard work and honest endeavor that farmers' sons usually experience. Failing health induced him to come to California in 1878, and for a time worked in the railway shops at Sacramento, and later for five years at the Mare Island Navy Yard, in the employment of the Government. In 1883 he came to St. Helena, and has since then been identified with the progress of this section. When he began here he had only his hands and a determination to do his best. He prospered with the prosperity of the town, and notwithstanding the severe losses by tire, is now well above circumstances and commands the fullest confidence of the community by his promptness and integrity, as good an example as can be cited of what may be accomplished by industry and rectitude in this country, and a splendid instance of the self-made man. He has a family consisting of wife and three children, his oldest daughter being married. He is a member of the Knights of Pythias. It should be further stated that he employs from ten to thirty men according to the season.


M F. INMAN, orchardist and nursery- man at St. Helena, was born in Rodman, Jefferson County, New York, June 25, 1839. His early life until his eighteenth year was passed as a farmer's boy at the paternal homestead. After attending for two years the Union Academy at Bellevue, in his native county, he became a teacher in the public schools. In 1860 he began to be occupied in various pursuits in Illinois, Iowa and Wisconsin. In January, 1862, he enlisted as a private soldier at Dubuque, Iowa, in the Thirteenth United States Regular Infantry, commanded by Colonel (now General) William T. Sherman. This regiment was first stationed at Jefferson Barracks, near St. Louis, and at Alton, Illinois, and then ordered to Covington, Kentucky, to check Morgan in his raid. In December they moved down the Ohio and Mississippi rivers to Memphis on the transport Forest Green, convoyed by gunboats, and led the fleet down the river to break the Rebel blockade. They afterward engaged in the battles of Chickasaw Bayou .and Yazoo Bluffs, camped at Milliken's Bend, assisted Grant in canal digging above Vicksburg, crossed the Mississippi at Grand Gulf, formed a column in the investment of Vicksburg, captured Fort Gibson, Grand Gulf and Jackson, engaged at Raymond, Edward's Station, upper crossing of Black River, Champion Hill and in the advance line at the storming of Vicksburg, May 19, 1863. In the meantime Mr. Inman passed through the various grades of noncommissioned officers, being Sergeant and Captain, and leading the column of occupation into the city of Vicksburg. In the summer of 1863 he was attacked by fever and ague, the direct result of exposure and a partial sunstroke, which in course of time developed an affliction of the lungs. In 1864, on the advice of medical authority and on a surgeon's certificate of disability, he resigned and returned to the scenes of his boyhood.


After partially recovering his health he engaged in the manufacture of lumber for a time; 1871-'73 was in a mercantile business, and, again losing his health, as a last resort he moved to California, with his wife and two sons, arriving in January, 1876, and settling at St. Helena, Napa County. There he began farming, on thirty acres of land within the corporate limits of the town, with direct reference to his health. He has planted and developed an orchard and vineyard, and in 1880 he added the nursery business, and now has the leading nursery of the upper valley. Out-door work and climatic influences have greatly beneficed his health; still he does not believe that absolute recovery is possible. He is now serving his second terms a member of the Board of Education and a fourth term as a Town Trustee, being at this time President of the Board. He is also serving for the fourth year as Secretary of the Royal Arch Chapter of Freemasons. He is named by the local paper as a candidate for County Clerk in the coming election, of November, 1890. He is an honorable, hard-working and public-spirited citizen, and a faithful public servant, a sound business man, able, energetic and reliable.


G. B. CARR is the leading dentist of St. Helena, enjoying a large and increasing patronage, and being the successor of  Dr. C. E. Davis, whose practice he purchased  in June, 1885. Dr. Carr is a native of California, born at Grass Valley, Nevada County,  November 16, 1861. His father is L. M. Carr, a native of Maine, a well-known and prominent citizen of Grass Valley, a '49er, a carpenter and millwright by trade, and a miner in the early days. Dr. Carr was brought up and educated in Grass Valley, and pursued the study of his profession at Virginia City', Nevada, where he practiced until he removed to Los Angeles in 1884, and conducted a large business in partnership with Dr. W. R. Bird, now of Bird & Palmer, and one of the leading dentists then. Dr. Carr was married to Miss Scott at Sacramento in 188-. They have no children. Dr. Carr is a prominent member of the Native Sons of the Golden West, of which body he has been Second Vice-President. He is a popular and progressive young man with a bright future before him.


HENRY W. CRABB, the owner of the celebrated To Kalon vineyard at Oakville, Napa County, is one of the leading and most experienced and successful viticulturists of California. While others, such as Messrs. Krug and Pellatt, preceded him by a few years in the actual manufacture of wine, he is yet a true pioneer in the business, by virtue of the fact that he was the first to introduce machinery into the working of grapes (in 1874), and was one of the very earliest to import foreign varieties and improve the Californian stock. Pie searched all over the world, bringing in about 300 varieties, and as a result of his experience, finds that about the best white wine grapes are the Sauvignon Vert and Golden Chasselas, while in red wine grapes come Black Burgundy, Verdot and Cabernet Sauvignon. In addition to the grapes from the 360 acres of his own vineyard, Mr. Crabb buys extensively from the surrounding country, and his vintages range from 200,000 to 500,000 gallons, according to the season. The cellars at To Kalon are plain and unpretentious, but very spacious and scrupulously clean the machinery and appliances of the most approved pattern; and the very greatest care is taken in every process, from picking the grape to sending out the finest wines. Comparatively little wine is bottled at the cellar, most of it being shipped in bulk. What is bottled is all three years old and must be perfect in every regard. 


The tine display at Piatt's Hall, San Francisco, bearing the To Kalon trade-mark, will give an idea of the line wines bottled at this winery. Mr. Crabb has agencies as follows: Pohndorff & Co., Washington, District of Columbia; G. Zoll, Chicago; Napa Valley Wine Company, Minneapolis; Connor & Hughes, Kansas City, Missouri, and B. Forget, New Orleans. Through these he has a large and increasing trade throughout the United States. The estate is a fine one, stretching from the county road back to the foothills, and has all kinds of soil from which to select the most suitable for the different vines. Abundant supplies of pure water for all purposes is obtained in the hills. Besides the vines, there are also thriving orchards of almonds, oranges and lemons, per- simmons and general fruits  the whole place, indeed, being an orderly wilderness of vines and trees. The vines are chiefly foreign varieties grafted on resistant stocks, and the most celebrated wine is a Burgundy, produced from what is known as Crabb's Black Burgundy Grape, whose virtues Mr. Crabb was the first to discover. Most of the vines are from twelve to eighteen years old, and are well sheltered. As a successful wine-maker Mr. Crabb is without a peer in the State, and his ideas are frequently embodied in papers which are read at the meetings of the Grape-Growers' and Wine-Makers' Association in San Francisco, exciting much favorable comment. There is also a very complete distillery, with appurtenances. It should be stated further that Mr. Crabb ships the To Kalon wines frequently to England, Belgium and other European countries. He carried away a bronze medal at the Paris Exposition in 1889, and has taken gold and silver medals and awards of merit at every local or State fair at which he has exhibited.


Mr. Crabb was born in Jefferson County, Ohio, January 1, 1828, and is the eldest child of Henry and Esther (Walker) Crabb. When twelve years old the family removed to Adams County, Ohio, where he received his education at the schools of the district. January 4, 1853, he sailed from New Orleans for California, arriving in this State on the last day of that month. He went at once to the mines, and for six months worked in Placer and Nevada counties. He then settled in Alameda County, near Haywards, and followed farming, until in 1865 he came to Napa County and purchased his present beautiful and valuable property. He was married in 1851 to Miss Rebecca A. Donohoe, who died in 1862, leaving three children: Amanda M., now Mrs. AV. T. Johnson; and Adda H. and Horace A., both of whom assist their father. He married, secondly. Miss Elizabeth P. Carnier, a native of New York, and by this union they have one daughter, Cora Carmer.


THOMAS G. ROGERS, who is one of the older settlers on the Pacific coast, was  born in Eamsgate, Kent, England, April 18, 1818. The family removed thence to Shropshire, England, and there resided until, in 1888, they sailed for America, landing in the city of New York on Christmas day of that year. They stayed there through the winter and in the spring came on up into Ohio, where they suffered much, with the fever and ague. His father and sister died within six months. His mother took a farm and remained there for five years. They then went on to Iowa, settling on the banks of the Mississippi, two miles below Fort Madison. When the next purchase of Indian lands was made, they moved on to that, being the first settlers there. Here they remained for two years, when they moved to the Des Moines River opposite Fort Keosauqua Thence Mr. Rogers went back to England, remaining in the old country a twelvemonth and returning in 1846. He then got ready and crossed the plains by ox team to Oregon, the train consisting of eighteen wagons, and being called the Oscaloosa Company. They had a rather serious time, breaking up with the loss of forty head of draft cattle. He settled on the banks of the Columbia River opposite and above Fort Vancouver. In 1848 he came down to California and mined on the American River. He wintered at Hangtown, and upon his mother joining him next spring they came up to Napa County. They stayed successively at Bald- ridge's, Bale's, and Comb's, finally in 1851 purchasing his present place in the lower end of Conn Valley. He owns about 700 acres of land, some of the finest under the sun, of his own, and in addition his wife owns 300 or 400. This is devoted to the raising of cattle, horses, grain, hay, etc., and about 100 acres are farmed generally.


Mr. Rogers was married August 11, 1879, to Mrs. Cord, formerly a Miss Henson, of Indiana. She had four children, two sons and two daughters, of whom the oldest son and youngest daughter reside, with Mr. Rogers, the others being married and away. Mr. Rogers is a Republican, and a highly respected citizen.


H. CASTNER, Sr., grape-grower and wine-maker of Napa Valley, has been ' a resident of California since 1861, the last twenty years of that time having been spent in Napa County. Mr, Castner was born in Waldoboro, Lincoln County, Maine, March 8, 1829, his father being a ship-builder at that point. He was brought up to the business of shipwright, following that avocation until he went West, at the age of twenty-eight, to Wheat- land, Rice County, Minnesota. There he followed farming for two years, and then until the spring of 1860 he followed his trade on the Mississippi, when he sailed for San Francisco via Cape Horn. After a tedious voyage of 162 days he reached his destination and immediately began to work at his trade for the Pacific Mail Steamship Company, remaining with them until 1870. He then came to Napa County and purchased his present place. He owns a line tract of fifty-one acres, thirty-five of which are set out in vines, adjoining Krug Station. His eldest son, W. H. Castner, Jr., owns forty acres not far off, thirty of which is in vines. On this latter place is the winery and cellars conducted by the two, which are very solidly constructed of stone and have a tunnel dug into the side of the hill for the better storage of wines. The capacity is 70,000 gallons. Only dry wines, such as clarets and white wines, are manufactured, no distillery being connected with the establishment. For the purpose of securing the best market possible the son conducts a wholesale and retail wine and liquor store at No. 5, Ninth street, San Francisco, near Market.


Mr. Castner was married in Lincoln County, Maine, to Miss Sarah C. Soule, a native of that county. They have live living children: William H., Jr., born October 1, 1856, in Maine, who is married and has three children, named re- spectively, John William, five years old; Ralph Waldo, aged three, and Elmer, aged one; Lewis Preston, born 1858, is married and has two children, and resides at Weaverville; Frank Ellsworth, now twenty-one years old, and is in Washington Territory; Albert Wendell, nine- teen years old, in charge of the San Francisco store, and Mary A, fifteen years old and residing at home. J.


AIKEN, M. D., Medical Director of » the Veteran Home Association, was appointed to this position September 1, 1888, where he has for treatment cases especially of rheumatism, asthma, catarrh, etc. He was born in Ohio in 1841, and as he grew up he was employed for a time in the Fifteenth Pennsylvania Cavalry, afterwards in the United States Signal Service; was attending Washington (Pennsylvania) College when the war broke out; and he enlisted in 1862, at the age of nineteen years, and served until in 1865. He studied medicine at Jefferson Medical College, Philadelphia, and afterward practiced at Virginia City, Nevada, for five years; next at Winters, Yolo County.


He has four sons and two daughters. The eldest son is attending University, the second is at Yountville, the third is attending high school, and the fourth is at home.


FRED W. LOEBER is the pioneer in his department, namely, the breeding of standard and blooded horses, in Napa County, and it is chiefly to his exertions that the Napa and Solano Agricultural Association, with its unequaled fair grounds and speeding track at Napa City, owes its existence. When Mr. Loeber came to this valley in 1876, very little, if anything, was being done in the way of raising or breeding high-grade horses. He set the example, however, and already this portion of the State has attained a name for what is being done.


Mr. Loeber was born at Baltimore, Maryland, November 5, 1856, the son of John and Caroline (Sommerlatt) Lioeber. His father has a prosperous stock business in that city. Fred was educated for the life of a teacher, but did not pursue that calling, preferring to become his father's book-keeper. In 1876 lie came to California, finally settling at his present location, about a mile below St. Helena in the spring of 1877. While the home place is rather small, the owner controls a large number of acres on the bottom lands, where the grass is green almost all the year round, with a good water supply and plenty of trees to shelter the broodmares and the foals when they desire to get out of the sun's rays. In addition he has a mountain ranch above St. Helena, where he runs stock and other animals. His younger brother, Charles E. Loeber, has charge of this for him. The first stallion that Mr. Loeber used for breeding purposes was Naubuc, a full brother of the famous Thomas Jefferson. Now he devotes himself to Hambletonian stock altogether, being the owner of Whippleton, a stallion that has become famous as the sire of fast horses. He is a beautiful black stallion with tan muzzle and flanks, stands almost if not quite seventeen hands, and is well finished in every particular. He is an exceptionally well put-up animal, strong and muscular, with the well developed Hambletonian characteristics. His colts are uniformily cast in his own mould, and all of them are speedy.


On the same farm there are two other stallions standing for public service, both of which are worth more than passing mention.


The first of these is Alcona 730, by the great Almont the Kentucky horse, by Alexander's Abdallah (sire of Goldsmith Maid, 2:14), he by Rysdyk's Hambletonian, Alcona's dam, Queen Mary by Mambrino Chief, the celebrated Lillie Stanley, record 2:17^, belonging to Hon. Mr Coombs, and Homestead, 2:16^, belonging to Senator Hearst, are both of same get.


Alcona is a beautiful chestnut 16.3 hands high, of grand conformation and undoubted speed. Since his advent into California the mares served by him have not been gilt-edged, as far as fashionable breeding is concerned, yet his colts all show good speed, several of which are far above the average.


Grandissimo is a full brother to Grandee, 2:23^, made as a three-year-old. He is by Le Grande (son of Almont, and out of Jessie Pepper, by Mambrino Chief; dam Norma by Arthurton ; Grandam Nourmahal. Grandissimo is only three years old, is a magnificent mahogany bay, and will be when at full growth over sixteen hands in height. He is a splendid specimen of the perfect horse, and should be a valuable adjunct to the Vineland Farm.


Mr. Loeber has made careful selection of the mares on his place, and they are all individually of great merits, of which he has a large number. He has worked himself up from bedrock, as the saying is, beginning in a very small way, and gradually increasing his business as opportunity offered, and arousing a great deal of enthusiasm throughout the county. As already stated he was one of the most active movers in the organization of the Napa and Solano Agricultural Association as a distinct body from the well-known Sonoma and Marin Association. It is admitted on all hands that they have the best track in America, if not in the world, and is utilized by leading horse-breeders throughout the continent for speeding trials. Mr. Loeber was the president^ of the association for the first two years of its existence, and is still a director. He is on the high road to success, and he fully deserves it, for he is an earnest, conscientious horseman, liked by all who know him, and with well wishes, whose name is legion. He is an ardent and active Democrat, having taken part in all their conventions of late years, although refusing himself to accept office. He was married February 5, 1880, to Miss Alice Griffith, daughter of the well-known pioneer Calvin C. Griffith, of the Napa Valley. They have three children.


CAPTAIN M. G. RICHIE. We take pleasure in according herewith a position of prominence to the following sketch of the eventful and interesting life-history of Captain M. G. Richie, an Argonaut of California and one of the most esteemed and representative citizens of Napa County. He has the honor, moreover, to have visited these shores long before the tide of gold-seekers set in, con- sequent upon the discovery of the precious metal in 1848, and is consequently entitled to speak with authority upon all questions of the older days.


Captain Richie was born September 26, 1813, on the banks of the noble St. Lawrence River, in Jefferson County, New York, about two miles below the town of Cape Vincent. Being of an active disposition, he manifested a preference for the sea, starting out before the mast on the rivers and lakes first and afterward on deep water vessels. He made many long voyages, visiting, in the course of them, almost all portions of the globe. It was on a whaling voyage to the Pacific Ocean that he visited California, as already stated, running into Yerba Buena for water and supplies and wintering at Sausalito. This was in 1836, during the Mexican occupation, when Yerba Buena was a very insignificant little village, little foreshadowing the great city that was afterward to rise upon its site. Captain Richie was also for a number of years upon the great lakes, spending his summers there during the season of navigation, and the winters upon the Mississippi and tributary rivers, in command of schooners and of steamers on the Mississippi. He also spent considerable time in traveling over a great portion of Canada, making collections for a Connecticut firm of clock-makers, and in other employments. Captain Richie started at the bottom, without financial assistance of any magnitude from his parents, but honorably making his own way and earning every dollar he could call his own. The best part of his education has been gained in the practical school of experience, for being watchful and observant he was always ready to take advantage of every opportunity that presented itself. It is not to be wondered at, therefore, that upon the news of the discovery of gold flying over the land, he should turn his face again to this fair land of California; and accordingly, in the summer of 1849, he crossed the Isthmus of Darien, made his way to San Francisco, and at once went on to the diggings at Hangtown, now Placerville* He engaged extensively in the business of carrying goods by pack train throughout the northern diggings, also running trading posts at different points, such as Nevada City, Grass Valley, Minnesota Bar, etc., etc. He continued in the mines, meeting with fair success until 1857, when he came down to Sonoma County, purchased a ranch on Mark West Creek and engaged extensively in the stock business, raising cattle, horses and sheep. During his residence there he discovered the Mark West Springs, now so celebrated for their medicinal virtues, and popularity as a summer resort. Later on be engaged again in mining, making a trip through Mexico with an eye to investing in mining property, but finding nothing satisfactory. He got back to San Francisco on the very day the ship Aquilla was sunk at Hathaway's Wharf in 1865. The Captain then began the development of quartz mining at Agua Caliente, in the mountains back of Los Angeles, erecting a mill, and engaging extensively in business. He still owns mining properties in that section, but is not at present working them. In 1867 he came up to the Najia Valley and commenced farming on a ranch of 250 acres, which he rented of the Money estate, but has since purchased. Later on he bought the ranch on which he now resides, lying just south of the other place. The soil comprised in these ranches is the fertile black alluvium for which the valley is celebrated, there being no better land anywhere under the sun than it is. Here lie carried on general farming for many years, until feeling a desire to enjoy the pleasures of a quiet life during his latter years so amply deserved by his long, active and energetic youth and man-hood  he has given over the management of affairs to his step-sons, and is himself living the life of a retired gentleman in his comfortable home.


He was married September 28, 1S67, to Mrs. Elizabeth Money, in Napa County, she being a native of Illinois, and her maiden name was Miss Elizabeth Martin. By her first husband she has four sons, of whom two, John C. and Cornelius C, are engaged successfully in business in St. Helena; and the other two, Thomas P. and Joseph C, live on the ranches, and are carrying them on. They are all married, and are doing well for themselves, being sensible, energetic and deserving young men, in every respect. Captain Richie is a member of the Masonic order, of high standing. He became a member of Occidental Lodge, No. 22, F. & A. M., December 21, 1862,; of St. Helena Chapter, No. 63, R. A. M., June 16, 1886, and of Santa Rosa Commandery. No. 14, Knights Templar, August 2, 1886. He is a shareholder and director of the Carver National Bank in St. Helena. Captain Richie has led a very active and useful life, full of change and variety. In all he has been the soul of honor and uprightness, winning the respect and confidence of everyone, and is able now to look forward with calmness to a serene and happy old age, surrounded by his excellent family, and in possession of all the comforts of life.


GEORGE P. WALLACE. This worthy pioneer and respected citizen of Napa County was born October 6, 1812, near Murfreesborough, in middle Tennessee, his father, who was a native of the State of Georgia, bearing the same name. He is the sixth child of a family of nine children, of whom three sons and two daughters were older, and two sons and one daughter were younger. The boys were all tall and well-built men, having a united length among the six of them of thirty-nine feet and a weight of l,200pounds! Mr. Wallace was, until bowed down by sickness, a man six feet six inches in height, and of fine proportions. From the first he had to make his own way, being raised on his father's farm and taught to work hard. In 1835 he left Tennessee and went to Benton County in Northwestern Arkansas, where he farmed, until, in 1852, he determined to come to California with a band of cattle, his brother-in-law, Mr. Calvin Holmes, now of Knight's Valley, coming with him. They made the trip overland to Nicolaus, on the Feather River, in five months, bringing a band of between 500 and 600 cattle, — a pretty good record. From Nicolaus Mr. Wallace went to Mark West Creek, in Sonoma County and purchasing a place carried on general farming until, in 1862, he sold out and went to the Loconomo Valley, settling where Middletown is now situated. From there he came to Pope Valley in 1868 and bought 500 acres, which he still owns, and is now being farmed for him by his son George P., Jr. This is a very valuable piece of property, having a hill of limestone, upon which Mr. Wallace has constructed a lime-kiln, one of the few in the county. In October, 1887, he came to St. Helena and bought his present pleasant residence on Spring street, with the two lots adjoining, where he is spending in comfort and quiet the evening of a long, eventful, energetic and useful life. He is a decided, out-and-out, straight Democrat of pronounced principles. His hosts of friends have repeatedly solicited him to allow himself to be put up as a candidate for County Judge, for the Legislature, for Justice of the Peace, etc., but he always consistently refused, pi-eferring to devote himself strictly to private affairs. Mr. Wallace is a man of immense determination and an iron constitution, otherwise he could not have accomplished what he has and to go through what he has. On December 10, 1867, he had a stroke of paralysis, from which he is still a sufferer, but yet clear-headed, bright, and, considering the circumstances, remarkably active. He was married at Osage Prairie, Arkansas, to Miss Cynthia Holmes, and when he crossed the plains had four small children. His wife and two sons, and two daughters, now lie buried in the cemetery at St. Helena. Three sons and one daughter are still alive. They are: Clarence H., a civil engineer in San Francisco; Phineas, who is farming 320 acres in Pope Valley; George P., Jr., on the home place, also in Pope Valley, and Sarah P., with her father at home.  


A Memorial & Biographical History of Northern California: Chicago :

The Lewis Publishing Company, 1891

Transcribed by Martha A Crosley Graham,  06 October  2008 

Pages 790 - 804

J. J. McINTIRE.-The history of this worthy resident of the Napa Valley is one of the steady, consistent progress, of hard unremitting labor, it is true, yet crowned with success so amply deserved by him.  He was born in Ohio, December 24, 1835.  When he was but thirteen years of age he had the misfortune to lose his parents, and since that time has had to struggle for himself, making his way from the first.  He went to Kentucky and obtained work upon a farm, and continued at it until 1856, when he determined to come to California.  He set out with a train of some 100 wagons and a great many head of cattle.  There was much trouble on this journey, as the whole plains were covered with outfits and the stock so numerous that the grazing was worth less.  Indians, too, were very bad at this time, running off stock at every opportunity.  As a result, there was a great deal of dividing and parceling and much loss.  At one place Mr. McIntire helped bury three men who had been killed by the Indians.  The time consumed on this passage was about four months.  Young McIntire, for he was only nineteen, came directly to Napa Valley, and rented land from Mr. Yount, which he farmed, continuing to rent for fifteen years.  He then bought his present ranch of 750 acres, and has resided there since, putting up one of the finest residences in the section, surrounded as it is by a splendid grove of trees.  He has always been a farmer, attending to his own business and interfering with none.  He is a Democrat of decided views, but has never accepted office.  He was married February 4, 1864, to Mrs. Elizabeth Walters, in this valley who has since died.  He has one son named Henry Clay, after the great statesman.  He was born June 16, 1865, and is of the same open and engaging manners as his father.



C. D. HUGHES.-Like so many others of the older citizens of Napa Valley, Mr. Hughes has had a life of unusual activity and incident, one that is well worth both the telling and the hearing.  He was born in Gallatin County, Kentucky, in 1819, his father being a farmer of that section, and was raised and educated there.  For six years of his younger life he acted as pilot on the Illinois River, but at the outbreak of the Mexican war enlisted and served in the American army.  He saw active service during the whole contest, taking part in the battle of Buena Vista among others.  It was after this battle that the Mexican commander used the words now become historical that “it was the first time he had ever fought with men who did not know when they were whipped, for he had had the American forces defeated more than once.”  Yet they fought on and won the victory against odds estimated at ten to one.  In 1854 Mr. Hughes came overland to California by ox team, the journey from Independence, Missouri, to Chiles Valley in this county, his destination, occupying six months to the day.  He came at once down to the Napa Valley and stayed until the spring of 1855.  From there he went to the Putah Valley, and in 1857 to Spring Mountain with stock, where he remained until 1861.  That being the time of the Washoe excitement he teamed for a year from Sacramento to Carson City, finally in 1862 returning to the Napa Valley and taking stock over into Nevada.  In 1863 he moved his cattle into Idaho and stayed until 1867.  Coming back to California he went with a band of horses and mules to Oregon in the fall of that year.  In the following spring he took them to Idaho, and in the fall sold out and once more returned to California.  In 1869 Mr. Hughes went back to Kentucky and remained until 1872, taking to himself in the meantime, in 1870, a wife in the person of Miss ____ Brown, herself a native of Kentucky.  They came direct to St. Helena, when Mr. Hughes took a band of jacks and jennies up to Oregon.  On his return he bought a ranch of 160 acres, which he still owns, in Chiles Canon, and put stock on it.  For twelve years he remained in the stock business there, when the encroachments of settlers so limited the mountain ranges as to force him out of the business on anything but a small scale.  He accordingly removed to St. Helena in 1882, and has lived here since in a comfortable residence on Kearney street, surrounded by all of the comforts of life amid a circle of warm friends.  They have only one son, James Neil Hughes, born in 1870 and residing at home.  Mrs. Hughes carries on the leading general millinery and dressmaking establishment on Main street, in St. Helena, being the oldest of its kind in the town.  She employs from six to twelve persons according to the season, and commands a large and fashionable trade.



WILLIAM HAWES, one of the leading and most influential ranchers of Shasta County, was born in New York, May 8, 1836.  His father, Michael Hawes, was a native of Germany, born December 25, 1811, was an industrious farmer and blacksmith in the fatherland, and came to America in 1830, settling in the State of New York.  He married Martha Hoffon, a native of Pennsylvania, and they had ten children, six of whom still survives. 


The subject of this sketch was raised and educated in his native State, attended the public schools in winter, and in summer helped his father on the farm and in his blacksmith shop.  When twenty-four years of age he decided to try California, and in 1859 reached the Pacific coast.  He went to Shasta County and at Horsetown engaged in mining and cutting logs.  A year afterward he removed to Oregon Gulch and worked in the mines eighteen months without losing a day, and received for his work $900.  He then went to the American ranch and worked six months.  April 20, 1862, married Miss Rebecca Foster.  They had six children five of whom are living, namely: John L., Henry N., Grandville, Daniel R. and Alice, al born in Shasta County.  


For a year, Mr. Hawes ran the Anderson Hotel.  That was before the farm of Anderson was started, and it was then called the American ranch, and many teamsters and travelers stopped there.  Then Mr. Hawes came to his present locality, and purchased 120 acres of rich farming land for $700; and since then he has purchased 1,400 acres, 1, 200 in one body.  On this property he is carrying on stock and grain farming on a large scale; keeps improved machinery.  He raised in one year, from 400 acres of wheat, 7,200 bushels, and his smallest crop of wheat has been 3,000 bushels.  He built a good ranch residence in 1876; has surrounded himself with fruit of nearly every description and is also turning his attention considerably to raisin grapes.  He has four-year-old vines from which he has picked from forty to sixty pounds to the vine.


In 1875 it was his misfortune to lose his wife by death, and in 1876 he married Miss Henrietta Young, a native of Germany.  They have one son, Jacob.  Mr. Hawes has belonged both to the Grangers and Odd Fellows.  In politics he is a Republican.  He has frequently been trustee of his school district, and in 1890 was elected a delegate to the Republican State convention at Sacramento, which nominated Colonel Markham for Governor.  Mr. Hawes is a man full of enterprise, eager to help in every undertaking intended to improve and benefit his county, and he is one of its most successful ranchers.



GEORGE C. FOUNTAIN, a viticulturist, was born at Tompkinsville, Staten Island, New York, January 19, 1826, at a point only a 100 yards from the bay, now used as a quarantine station.  His father was an extensive vessel owner, having many schooners trading on the bay and sound.  The son received his education in the schools of the section, and when sixteen years of age entered the employment of a mercantile firm.  Later he went to Wisconsin, where he remained for some time, and in the summer of 1849 sailed one of his father’s schooners.  Finally, in February, 1850, he set out for California via Panama, coming upon the first trip of the old Tennessee.  After two weeks in San Francisco he set out for Humboldt Bay on the schooner J. M. Ryerson, in charge of a stock of goods which he was to sell for another party on shares.  They had the terribly long passage of twenty-six days, but crossed the bar safely, the Ryerson being the second vessel to do so, and at Uniontown (now Arcata) landed to begin business.  His partner sold out without consulting him, however, leaving him stranded.  He set out for the Klamath mines, but was driven back by the Indians, and at the end of summer returned to San Francisco.  He then engaged in the draying and lighterage  business, which at that time was very profitable.  This he continued until 1852, when the construction of wharves, etc., destroyed his business.  The hay, grain and feed business was his next undertaking, carrying it on upon one of his lighters, which he turned into a feed-boat and moored at the corner of Jackson and Sansome streets.  A few months later he removed to Pine street, near Sansome, and with a partner, under the firm name of Chase & Fountain, conducted business until 1852.  In the spring of that year he rented the old Niantic, corner of Sansome and Clay streets, and did a great business in supplying water to ships and those who needed it.  The water was drawn from a pile which had been sunk deep and then bored through.  He used to water horses at fifty cents a week, and sell the fluid at fifty cents a barrel.  In a year he sold his interest and opened up a feed store on Davis street, where he continued till 1856.  Mr. Fountain is now the last of the old hay, grand and feed dealers of San Francisco’s early days that is left alive.  His accounts of the quick gains and the equally quick losses of those times and the strange shifts to which they were often reduced, is very entertaining.  In 1856 Mr. Fountain went to Sacramento and carried on the feed, storage and commission business in the Old Carpenter building, the firm being Fountain & Ferral.  He resided there until 1860.  Being an active Republican he naturally took a great interest in political matters.   It was chiefly on money supplied by him that the newspaper, The Republican, so well known to old-timers, was started.  In 1860 he went back to San Francisco and under the firm name of Place & Fountain, at the corner of Stewart and Folsom streets, was engaged in the hay trade until 1863.  He then went to Vallejo and purchased the farm upon which is now situated the Vallejo Water Company’s reservoir.  After farming there until 1872 he came up to St. Helena, bought his present snug little place and engaged the growing of grapes and making wine, having forty acres of vines.  He has a substantial concrete wine cellar, wherein is stored the wine made from grapes grown on his own place and that of his wife, on the other side of town.  He has occupied a position on the Board of Town Trustees for three terms, being one of the first board ever elected.


He was married July 3, 1858, in Sacramento, to Miss Sarah Sidegraves , who was born in St. Louis.  They have a family of four children, two sons and two daughters.  The eldest son, George, is with Whittier, Fuller & Co. in San Francisco; the younger, Bud, is at home.  Maggie, the eldest daughter, is married to Dr. Sabin, of St. Helena, and the younger, Alice, is at home.



MRS. LOSINA E. DAVIS, proprietor of the Ladies’ Millinery and Fancy Goods Store at Redding, is a native of New York, born August 29, 1840.  Her father, Henry Davis, was a native of the Green Mountain State, and her mother, Nancy (Sherman) Davis, of the Empire State.  She was the first-born of a family of five children, all of whom are living.  She received her education in New York city, and learned millinery and dressmaking there, and also for five years she taught school in New York.  She was united in marriage with Mason L. Davis, a gentleman of her own State and name.  They had five children.  A son and daughter only are living, namely: Franklin Mason and Gertrude Luthers, both born in New York.  Mr. Davis died in Ogdensburg, New York, in 1873 and he was buried there.  In 1878 Mrs. Davis went to Boston and opened a millinery establishment, which she conducted successfully for three years; then spent a year in Texas; next went to Los Angeles, and then to San Francisco, and for a year had charge of the cloak department of the Samuels Lace House.  In 1884, hearing of a vacancy in her line of business at Redding, she went there and opened her present fine establishment, which has from the start grown in favor with the best citizens of Redding and adjoining country.  She has connected with her store a dressmaking department, and during the busy season of the year employs eight hands.  She also has a branch business at Anderson.  In July, 1890, the block in which her establishment was located was consumed by fire.  Her insurance had expired and she was a heavy loser, many of her goods being injured and lost in the removal; but a portion was saved, and with the most commendable courage and enterprise she opened in a temporary place the next day and continued the business.  The people of Redding, seeing her loss and her commendable enterprise, helped her in many ways.  A nice new brick block was erected and she now has a fine stock on the ground where she was before the fire, and enjoys the patronage of the best customers in the city and county.  She is an active and obliging sales-woman, well informed on the quality and value of goods, skilled in both millinery and dressmaking.  She not only knows how, but has also a most exacting aesthetic taste.  This makes her a valuable acquisition to the business of her city.  Then there is added to this the fact that she is so liberal in her ideas of business that she is satisfied with moderate profits.  From all of these things there has sprung up between her and her customers a mutual pleasant understanding that is worth a fortune. 


It has been said that it were “better to be born lucky than rich;” but is not all in luck by any means: there is a great deal more in natural talent and enterprise than in luck.  However, it has been Mrs. Davis’ good fortune to become the possessor of $20,000 paid up as inaccessible stock in a rich tellurium gold mine recently discovered within three miles of the city.  A stock company has been formed, and she is one of the directors.  They are now opening the mine and getting on the machinery for a mill.  Everything connected with the enterprise betokens a grand success, both for the stockholders and the city.  Two assays of the ore have been made: one showed $3,333 to the ton of ore, and the other, made at the United States Mine, went $3,000 to the ton.


The history of the life of an honorable and self-reliant woman like this one should inspire every lady, who should see it with more faith in herself and in the capability of her sex.



HON. S. W.  COLLINS.-In the following pages will be found sketched briefly one of the most interesting and eventful life-histories that it has ever been the good fortune of the writer to hear related, and not alone a busy one either, but full as useful also, many of the incidents being an intimate portion of the early pioneer history of the old-time Western States.


Mr. Collins is a Kentuckian by birth, dating his nativity at a point some two miles from Carlisle, Nicholas County, on June 13, 1829.  When a child of two and a half years the family removed to Green County, Illinois, where his father took up a farm.  His father’s name was John W. Collins, of Danish descent, born near Snow Hill, Maryland, and raised in Baltimore.  His mother was a Miss Piper, of Irish descent, born and raised in Kentucky.  For thirty years Mr. Collins remained in Illinois, some of his brothers and sisters still residing there.  Mr. Collins was brought up to the life of a farmer, and afterward started a store, carrying on a farm as well.  Living, as he did, on the margin of the Indian country, he became thoroughly acquainted with Indian life and character, learned to speak their language thoroughly (the Osage), and came to wield over them a great influence, - an influence, let it be said, that was always exerted for good.  As a consequence he was much employed by the Government in their deals with the redskins, especially during the war and later.  For many years, Mr. Collins was post trader in the Neosho Valley in Kansas, and in all important matters represented the United States Government as interpreter, negotiating for the sale of lands, etc., etc.  He assisted in raising Colonel Phillips’ Indian Regiment in 1861, and was one of the most active and effective workers for the Union cause.  In connection with these times Mr. Collins has many soul-stirring incidents to relate.  Indeed, he is one of the most interesting talkers whom it is possible to meet, possessing a good memory and rare descriptive powers.  He has also many mementos of early western times and ways.  Twice he was taken prisoner during his war experiences, and has sustained and overcome a wound that would have laid out a man of lesser mettle.  As is but proper under the circumstances, he is an active and enthusiastic member of the Grand Army and a stanch supporter of good government.  He recollects well the days when buffalo roamed over the plains by the million, and has hunted and trapped when the Indians and a few hunters and trappers were about all west of the Missouri.  In 1875 Mr. Collins tired of life on the Western plains changing so rapidly as it was with the influx of population, and accordingly he set his face westward and came to the Pacific coast.  Choosing Calistoga as his home, he purchased fifty-five acres in the outskirts of town, and settled down to enjoy the quiet so deserved after his long and busy years.  He has laid out a vineyard of twenty-five acres, has a small but choice orchard for house use, and possesses a magnificent water privilege, having an abundant spring 1,400 feet above the house, with a water-head of 400 feet as piped down.  Five acres of his property he laid off as a Calistoga cemetery, the cemetery of the town.  Mr. Collins is one of the incorporators of Calistoga, this useful move taking place in 1885.  For two terms now Mr. Collins has been Supervisor of the county from his district, six years in all.  During the later term he has been Chairman of the Board, and the most active and useful member of the Board.  Indeed, it is customarily said that he is the best Supervisor the county has ever had.  For eight years he has been Justice of the Peace for his township, from which circumstance he acquire the honorable title of “Judge,” by which he is generally known.  There is not a more popular man in the county than he, and no one gifted with more energy or sound common sense on all matters.  He is a worker, and cannot help coming to the front.  He is too useful to his fellow-citizens to be let go by himself.


Mr. Collins was married in December, 1850, to Miss Sarah E. Dickerman, a native of Mount Holly, Vermont.  She died March 26, 1867, in Kansas, leaving the following children: Miriam H. (now Mrs. Piper), born December 30, 1852, living near Lawrence, Kansas.  Samuel A., born September 18, 1855, living in Labette County, Kansas.  Nelson W., born January 29, 1862, now in business in Calistogs.  All of the above were born in Illinois.  Major Clinton, born in Labette County, Kansas, February 20, 1866, the first white child to be born in that county, now working on the railroad.  By the way, it should be stated that Judge Collins helped organize Labette County, and gave it its name.  He was married, secondly, March 10, 1869, in Labette County, to Mrs. Mary A. Howe, nee Connor, a native of Miami County, Indiana.  They have one daughter, Annie C., born October 14, 1870, in Kansas.  A singular circumstance in connection with Judge Collins’ family history is the following:  His mother died, leaving one daughter and three sons, the daughter being the eldest.  His first wife died, leaving also a daughter and three sons, the daughter again the eldest.  His son Samuel A. has also lost a wife, who left a daughter and three sons, the daughter being again the eldest.  Judge Collins is a member of Governor Morton Post, No. 41, G. A. R., and also of the I. O. O. F., having joined the latter order so long ago as October 10, 1850, when just of age.  He has held every honor conferrable by the order.



HON. J. H. WHEELER.-The history of the work of the Wheeler family can not be told in a few words.  It has been too important and too far-reaching in its effects.  A plain statement of facts, however, will be found both readable and instructive and accordingly we herewith present them.  Mr. Charles Wheeler, father of R. M. Wheeler (now deceased), and the gentleman whose name is seen at the head of this article, is a native of Vermont, being born at Vergennes, February 22, 1818.  He removed to Oswego, New York, and there for a number of years carried on the grain and milling business, being largely interested also in the elevator business at that point.  In Oswego both his sons, Rolla M. and J. H., were born, the former in 1854 and the latter in 1856.   In 1867 Mr. Wheeler removed to California with his family, and at Vallejo engaged here also in the grain business, endeavoring also to introduce here the elevator system which was found so successful in the East.  In these undertakings he was connected in partnership with such men as Friedlander, putting up the first elevator ever erected on the coast.  This attempt proved unremunerative, and in 1869 Mr. Wheeler came up to the Napa Valley and purchased the beautiful vineyard at Bello Station, now managed by his son.  This vineyard consists of thirty-five acres of rich loam soil, unexcelled in fertility anywhere in the world.  An instance of this may be noted when twenty-two tons of grapes per acre were taken from the vines.  Grapes were selling at $30 a ton that year- what we should call a satisfactory return.  This vineyard was originally planted to Zinfandel, Riesling, Burgundy, etc., but has mostly since been grafted into choicer improved stocks.  We noticed that the vines in this place were fully a week ahead of the average vines of the valley, justifying entirely any praise that can be given to the spot.  Mr. Wheeler has lately added fifty more acres on the corner opposite his own, and, notwithstanding the depression that seems to cripple so many, is launching in other directions.  Business tact and management, coupled with the splendid convenience of everything, as will be seen when the winery and cellar is described, is the secret of it.


Mr. Charles Wheeler retired from active business some time ago, the vineyard and cellar being managed by Mr. Rolla M. Wheeler with great success.  Unfortunately, he was accidentally killed by a kick from a horse March 1, 1889, his death being felt to be a severe loss to the community.  His widow and two little sons reside in a handsome cottage adjoining Bello Station.


Hon J. H. Wheeler came to California in 1867 with his father.  He received his education chiefly in this State, graduating in 1879 from the University of California as a mining engineer after a course of four years.  He went at once to Bodie, but a few months of frontier life satisfied him that there was better fields for his ambition, and he returned to San Francisco.  After some desultory work, Mr. Wheeler began the study of law, but being offered the Secretaryship of the State Board of Viticulture upon its formation, in 1881, and the work of his life was fortunately won for the bettering of the wine industry of the State.  Mr. Wheeler began the work, and with the energy inherent in his nature worked for the general benefit of the cause he represented.  Until May, 1888, he continued to serve the Viticultural Association as Secretary, and was then appointed its Chief Executive officer, in this duty visiting all parts of the State and regulating the many complicated affairs of the department.  Meanwhile Mr. Wheeler had been watchful also of his own interests.  He purchased and planted the Cornelia Vineyard and Orchards (named after his eldest daughter).  Mr. Wheeler has also another vineyard and orchard higher up the valley.  Upon this estate there is a large winery, fruit dryers, etc.  It is owing to Mr. Wheeler’s efforts that the only effectual fight is being made against the destructive pest, phylloxera.  Perceiving the need for something to be done if wine raising were to become a permanent industry in California, he established at Melrose, Alameda County, his carbon-bisulphide manufactory, this chemical being the only effective remedy.  His efforts in this direction have been very highly appreciated by every one interested in the welfare of the coast, and the substance is being called for largely not alone by vineyardists  but also by wheat farmers and others, for the destruction of gophers, squirrels, etc.  This is the only manufactory of the kind on the coast.  During the winter Mr. Wheeler manufactures sufficient to meet the demands of the season, shipping it out as called for.  Upon the unfortunate death of his brother, Rolla W., Mr. Wheeler came up to Napa Valley, and in addition to his multifarious duties, has taken upon himself the management of the vineyards and cellar at Bello Station.  The cellar is a well constructed one, of a capacity of 300,000 gallons.  In addition to making up his own grapes he buys largely from his neighbors, taking last year 2,000 tons of grapes in this way, and making up the largest vintage of any one in the valley.  The cellar is located right at the station and thus handling of full casks is avoided, the empty casks being first placed in the car and the wine being pumped directly into them.  In the distillery connected with the cellar from 6,000 to 10,000 gallons of brandy are annually made.  Sales are made chiefly to the wholesale dealers in San Francisco.


Mr. Wheeler was married to Miss Frankie V. Jones, of Chico, a sister of Senator A. F. Jones, and a graduate of Mills Seminary in 1879.  Her father was a pioneer of 1849, and was a partner formerly of such men as Mayor Pond of San Francisco, and others.  They have two children: Ella Cornelia, the eldest and Elliott H., both hearty, promising little folks.  Mr. Wheeler has settled down at Bello Station to build up a business for himself, having thoroughly identified himself with the welfare of Napa County.  The benefit of his labors will be felt for good in the future as in the past.  Mr. Wheeler is at the beginning of a brilliant career, following up the energetic and useful careers of his father and brothers.  He has worked always quite as much for the welfare and general interests of the State as for self, a splendid instance of our better younger citizens.



W. M. LEE, proprietor of a furniture store in Woodland, was born in Massachusetts, the son of John and Mary (Buckman) Lee, natives of Maine:  father was a dentist in New Hampshire, and his mother died in 1878, in Sacramento, this State.  Mr. Lee received his education in Boston, and in 1853 came by way of the Isthmus to California, and, like nearly all others, tried his hand first at mining.  He followed this for two years in El Dorado County; then for a time he was employed at painting buggies and carriages in Sacramento; next he went to Chicago, Butte County; then until 1858 he was in San Francisco, where he ran the largest photograph gallery in the city; next until 1662 he was a boatman on the Sacramento River, making Sacramento his headquarters; next he purchased a blacksmith shop in Placer County, and while there he was appointed Postmaster under the administration of President Lincoln, and after filling this office four years he went upon a ranch on Dry Creek in Sacramento County, where he remained three years.  Returning to San Francisco he worked at odd jobs for several years.  He then built a large wagon for the purpose of traveling through California in the photograph business but he quit that at Woodland, and resorted at carpentering for the Goble Bros., and was employed on their house 130 days.  He then opened his present place of business, on a cash capital of $7.50, and he now carries about $2,000 worth of goods.  He has several lots in Woodland and a nice dwelling, all of which he has earned by the hard knocks of a life of business vicissitudes.  He is a member of the order of Good Templars.

November 3, 1884, he married Emma Graft, in San Francisco.  She is a native of Sacramento County, this State.



LEONARD W. KIDD, a “Native Son of the Golden West,” is publisher and proprietor of the East-Side Times, published at Millville.  He was born at Placerville, February 2, 1852, of good old Scotch ancestry.  Archibald and Edgar Kidd, brothers, came from Scotland to America in 1810 and settled at Pittsburg, Pennsylvania.  Archibald Kidd, his grandfather, was a civil engineer at the coal mines of Pennsylvania, and there his father, Captain John Kidd, was born.


Mr. Kidd, the subject of our sketch, was one of three children, himself and his sister being the only survivors; she is now Mrs. Grace E. Hussey.  He was educated at Sacramento city, and when a boy worked two years in a drug store, and after this went to learn the printers’ trade in the State printing office.  Was there two years from March, 1866, till January, 1868, when he went to San Francisco to complete the trade, and there he served an apprenticeship on the Overland Monthly, continuing with them until February, 1874.  Next he went to Portland, Oregon, and worked in a job office.  From there he went to Seattle, Washington, and worked six months; then he returned to San Francisco and worked at intervals.  For a time he was foreman for the “patent outside” Newspaper Union.  After this he worked for the Pacific Newspaper Union until 1882.  He was then engaged, at the mission at San Francisco, in a job office and on a local paper called the Saturday Local.  In November, 1883, he went to Millville and started his own paper, the East-Side Times, publishing the first issue November 10, 1883, and successfully continuing it since.  He has purchased a residence and two other houses and his office, and is interested in a farm and in stock-raising, and also in lands at Seattle, Washington.


He was married December 24, 1872, to Miss Cora M. Pepper, a native of Sonoma County, this State, and they two boys and a girl, - Leonard L. and Grace A., born in San Francisco, and John Arthur, born at Millville.  Mr. Kidd is one of the oldest native sons on the coast, and his paper is the first published on the east side of the river in Shasta County.  He is president of Millville Parlor, No. 165, Native Sons of the Golden West, and was one of the charter members of Pacific Parlor, No. 10, San Francisco.  He is a Republican, a member of the State and County Central Committees, and in 1888 was elected Justice of the Peace in Millville, which office he now holds.



ROBERT SPENCE HASTIE, deceased, was during his life one of the most energetic and valuable citizens of Napa County, a man of extended views, of large undertakings, and in soul of justice, honor and uprightness.  He was born in the city of Edinburgh, Scotland, in 1830.  When twelve years of age, being a lad of independent and romantic disposition, he ran away from home, crossed the ocean, and in New York learned the carpenter’s trade.  In 1860 he came to California and made his way to Napa city, working at his trade in that place until 1862.  He then came up to St. Helena and for a time worked at his trade.  Being of too enterprising a disposition for this, however, he soon afterwards engaged in the mercantile business, dealing largely in real estate, etc., in later years.  He took a great interest in the mineral wealth of the section as well as of other parts, being interested in Idaho and elsewhere, and being intimately acquainted with the country, and at one time was possessed of much property.  Unfortunately he died in 1883, but cut off in his prime, regretted and mourned by all.

He was married in 1862 to Miss Lizzie Hudson, a most estimable lady, who made him a good wife, and has since his death shown herself a capable manager and good business woman, educating her children well and bringing them up to habits of thrift and diligence.  She was born in Napa County, and is the daughter of William Hudson, who crossed the plains in 1849 from Missouri, and was one of Napa County’s most honored pioneers.  Mrs. Hastie has six children living and two deceased.  The names of the former are: Ernest, who is now the manager of Colonel Carr’s place near St. Helena; William, now in Alaska; Alexander Hudson, Lillian May, Lewis Elgin and Robert Spence, all at home.



W. F. MARCH.  This gentleman is the genial proprietor of the Villa Hotel at Rutherford, and also of the livery and feed stables of that thriving little town.  The hotel is well fitted and furnished and contains accommodations for about twenty-five persons.  A good table is set, and every care taken to suit the wishes of the guests.  Under its present management it is becoming popular as a summer resort, for which it is well suited both by the attractiveness of the house itself and of the beauty and salubrity of this portion of Napa Valley.  Regular stages leave the house for Walters, Soda Springs and other mountain resorts.  Its convenience of position to the railroad at Rutherford is not the least recommendation, permitting east access to the city and elsewhere.  Mr. March has the house on lease since January 1, 1890.  He is a native of Scotland County, Missouri, where he was born May 3, 1849, but came to this country with his parents when but six years of age.  His father, Mr. R. B. March, was engaged in mining at different times, and also ran a livery stable at Elmira, Solano County, which he still owns, but is now retired from active business, caring only for his orchard.  He was assisted in the livery business by his son, Mr. W. F. March, until the latter came over to this county.  It should be stated further, however, that the family resided for some time in the earlier years in this valley, coming here in 1857, where Mr. March carried on farming, so that he is no stranger to the beauties and capabilities of this section.

Mr. March was married at Rutherford, in 1887, to Miss Mary Cavanaugh.  They have one child.



C. W. CHAPMAN, a prominent farmer and sheep-raiser of Yolo County, was born April 29, 1829, in Wilcox County, Alabama, and was three years of age when his father W. M. Chapman, moved to Macon County, that State, where he lived until January 18, 1854.  Then he came to California, crossing the Isthmus, February 18.  He spent nearly three years in the mines near Georgetown, El Dorado County, not striking very rich diggings, however.  September 2, 1856, he arrived in Yolo County, where he has since followed farming and stock-raising, making sheep a specialty; and in this enterprise he has done well, keeping about 5,000 head through the winter seasons.  To his industries he devotes 18,000 acres of land, on which there is no mortgage.


May 4, 1870, is the date of Mr. Chapman’s marriage to Miss Zilpah Stephens, of Cooper County, Missouri, and they have three sons and two daughters, ranging from ten to eighteen years of age.



FRANCIS SIEVERS purchased a ranch of 286 acres in Chiles Valley three years ago, and came here to reside one year ago.  He has a fine vineyard and orchard of twenty-five acres, chiefly prunes and peaches, which have grown wonderfully and are already beginning to bear.  The vines also are thrifty.  He is grafting this year on resistant stock and expects to put up a wine cellar and also a fruit cellar.


Mr. Sievers was born November 4, 1829, in Holstein, Germany, and came in 1857 to California by way of Cape Horn.  In the old country he was in the military service in the German-Danish war.


In 1857 also he was married in San Francisco to Miss Klenwort, of Altona, Holstein, Germany.

After spending a year in San Francisco, he went to San Mateo County, where he was engaged in farming and stock-raising for eighteen years, paying $5,000 a year for rent; but he spent a part of the time at San Pedro.  In 1870 he visited Germany, returning in 1875, when he became a book-keeper in the Anglo-California Bank.  His youngest son, Henry, is assisting him; his son, Otto, is in the employ of Tileman & Bendel; and his daughter is the wife of Henry B. Russ, who is the treasurer of the Olympic Club and formerly its president.  Mr. Sievers has been a Supervisor of San Francisco County and has held other public positions.



J. A. DOWNEY.- This gentleman is the superintendent of “Inglebourn,” the magnificent lower ranch of Mr. W. B. Bourn, situated a short distance north of Rutherford in the Napa Valley.  It consists of 325 acres of the splendid fertile land of the valley, running from the county road across the creek to the opposite side and comprising all classes of soil.  Of this acreage eighty acres is in hay, twenty in pasture and the balance in grapes of the better varieties, all presenting a fine thrifty appearance and well taken care of.  On this place too are the carriage and repair shops belonging to Mr. Bourn, as well as his blacksmith shop, paint shop, etc., all the repairs, etc., for the great wine cellar as well as for the two vineyards being done here.  There are never less than ten, and during the season, as many as ninety, men employed about the place.  The first of the vines were put out about nine years ago, care being taken to select only the best varieties.  Mr. Downey, the superintendent , has been with the place since 1879, beginning when only sixteen years old and learning the whole business from the ground floor up.  For the past eight years he has been superintendent, everything flourishing under his hands.  He was brought up on a farm and has made grape-growing a practical and life-long study, and is worthy of his position.  His father is Mr. D. Downey, the owner of a vineyard just below Rutherford, and an old and respected resident of the valley.


J. A. Downey was born in Calistoga, October 20, 1863, on his father’s ranch up there.  He was educated and raised in Napa County and has spent his life so far at farming, stock-raising and vine-growing.  He is a great lover of good horse-flesh, having a record on that point.  He has three as good horses as are in the vicinity, one of the, a four-year-old mare, being a very handsome animal.  He is unmarried, is a member of the N. S. G. W., St. Helena Parlor, and is one of the most popular young men of the county, the fortunate possessor of a level head, a handsome figure and a genial disposition.  He is Mr. Bourn’s trusted and confidential man, having at one time had charge of all three of his places until compelled by overwork to give up the other two.  During Mr. Bourn’s many necessary absences he leaves all buying, selling, etc., to Mr. Downey, knowing it is in good hands.



H. A. PELLET.-It is with pleasure that we accord herewith a leading position to this worthy pioneer of wine-making in California, one who, by hearty, earnest work for the business of his life and the country of his choice, has accomplished much in the past with still greater promise of the future, and is to-day regarded as one of the foremost wine men of our State, being thoroughly acquainted with every detail of the business and an authority second to none other.  A visit to his charming home, situated amid a splendid grove in the center of the valley, with an unequaled view on every side and surrounded by flowers, will long be remembered by the writer as one of those pleasant occasions that come all too infrequently to mankind.  Very much of the general information to be found in another place in this volume has been verified and amplified from his ready stores of information.  About his place nothing for show alone was found, but in every instance, in cellar arrangements and all else, utility and convenience was evidently first consulted.  In the twenty-seven years since Mr. Pellet purchased and began the improvement of his charming place, he has done a very great deal of work, not alone for himself, but as well the State at large.  From time to time he has imported and experimented with something like sixty varieties of grapes for the purpose of testing their adaptability to our climate and conditions.  As a result, his experience limits him to about ten varieties, in which he is followed generally by others in the valley.  These are, for red wines, the Zinfandel, Mataro, Grenache, Grosse Blanc, Carignane, St. Macaire and Malbec, and for white wines, the different varieties of Riesling, the Chasselas and the Burger.  These are grafted upon native resistant stocks.  The cellar, which has a capacity of about 80,000 gallons was erected in 1866, being sunk partially beneath the surface of the ground.  That it contains samples of some of the grandest vintages ever grown in California, will be asserted by any one who visits Mr. Pellet and profits by his generous hospitality.


We draw largely for the details of Mr. Pellet’s busy and useful life from the history of Napa and Lake counties, which gives them fully and succinctly.  Henry Alphouse Pellet was born February 6, 1828, in Canton, Nenfchatel, Switzerland, and is the second son of John Samuel and Elizabeth (Javet) Pellet.  He remained with his parents until he was fifteen years of age receiving in the meantime the rudiments of his education, and also working in his father’s vineyards.  At that age he entered the high schools which he attended for two years.  He then studied surveying for one year.  In 1846 he accepted the position of book-keeper for Messrs. Perret & Co., watch manufacturers in La Chaux de Fords, which he held until February, 1848, when he resigned the position, and served as a volunteer in the revolution that freed the canton of Neufchatel from the sovereignty of the King of Prussia.  In May of 1848, he emigrated to the United States, and having brought a stock of watches, clocks, etc., with him set up in business in St. Louis.  In the fall of that year he returned again to Switzerland, having disposed of his previous stock, and in the following spring came once more to St. Louis, bringing with him a replenished stock of watches and watchmaker’s goods.  In the spring of 1850, determining to follow the tide to California, he fitted up two six-mule teams, and organized a company of twelve men for the trip overland.  The trains were sent to St. Joseph, whither he followed by steamer; and on May 16th they set out for the tedious journey.  They chose the northern route, coming via Sublette’s cut-off and Fort Hall to the Humboldt River, thence down that river to the sink, across the desert to Truckee and across the Sierras, reaching Nevada City, September 6, 1850.  The trip was a hard one, much suffering being felt for lack of provisions and loss of cattle, necessitating the abandoning of one wagon.  For six weeks they were without bread, and for four weeks had to subsist on jerked beef, procured from the abandoned cattle along the route.  Mr. Pellet engaged at once in mining, and met with good success.  In February, 1851, he with five others went to Rich Bar on the north fork of the Feather River, and worked for five months, returning then to Nevada City.  In the fall of that year he with others opened a quartz mine, erected a mill, and in less than six months found the whole undertaking a failure.  With the dauntless spirit of the early days, this disaster served only to nerve him to greater efforts.  He accepted a position as foreman in a quartz mill at $8 a day, holding it until the fall of 1852.  He then came to San Francisco, where in partnership with J. L. Cabanne he put up a flour-mill at North Beach.  This they carried on for a year with varying success.  In the fall of 1853 the mill was removed to Napa City, being the first steam grist mill in the county.  This mill Mr. Pellet carried on until June, 1855, with no very large profit to himself, although an immense convenience and benefit to the farmers, who came many miles to have their grain reduced to flour.  He then returned to the mines, going to Siskiyou County.  In 1858 he came back again to Napa County, and engaged in farming.  In 1860 he leased John Patchett’s vineyard near Napa City, and entered upon the making of wine.  This was the second wine made in the county, Mr. Charles Krug having preceded him one year on the same place.  In 1863 he purchased his present beautiful place, the whole of which (forty-five acres) is in vineyard, saving only the site of his comfortable home, the winery, barns, stables, etc.  Until 1866 he had charge of Dr. Crane’s vineyard and cellar, when he built his cellar and, in partnership with Mr. D. B. Carver, now a banker, he went extensively into the wine business, buying grapes and making wine.  The firm of Pellet & Carver was dissolved in 1878, since which time Mr. Pellet has continued the business alone, but on a like large scale.  Mr. Pellet is now also the Superintendent of the wine cellars for the Natoma Wine Company, the most extensive makers of wines in the vicinity of Sacramento.  He makes the wine for the company, attending to every detail from the moment the grapes come in from the vineyards until the wine is sold.  He has always been actively identified with every movement that looks to the betterment of the wine industry of the State, being a leading figure in the formation of the Viticultural Commission.  He has also held more than one elective office, in which he was able to serve his beloved industry to great purposes.  In the session of 1885-’86, he was chosen a member of the State Legislature.  During this time he was Chairman of the Committee on Viticulture, and was the author of the Sweet Wine Bill, and also aided largely in promoting Congressional action on the subject.  Previous to this he had served his county and district as Supervisor for several terms, and was also for several terms a member of the Board of Trustees of St. Helena.


Mr. Pellet was married February 5, 1856 to Miss Sarah S. Thompson, of Sandusky, Ohio.  They had three sons, Frank and Louis, now in the lumber business in St. Helena, two of the most worthy citizens of that town, who are following closely in the footsteps of their father, and John S.  Mrs. Pellet is deceased, and Mr. Pellet has again married.


Such in brief is the record of a busy and eventful life, the characteristic feature of which is energy, indomitable pluck, and the strong determination that compels success - an example worthy the emulation of the young.



HENRY FRIEDERIKS.- This worthy old pioneer has had an eventful career and most interesting history, making his way up from very small beginnings to wealth and comfort by hard work and shrewd, common sense.  Mr. Friederiks was born in Hanover, Germany, August 7, 1814, and is the son of Christian Friederiks, a native of Hanover.  Here the subject of our sketch resided until thirty years of age, being brought up to the trade of butcher.  In 1844 he came to America and opened a butcher shop in New York.  In the spring of the following year he sold his shop and removed to Cincinnati, Ohio, being engaged there in the manufacture of Bologna sausages.  Two years later he went to Chicago, then a very small place, and being without means was compelled to ask employment at his trade.  The best he could get was $8 a month, not sufficient to support his family, and therefore he refused it.  Then he and his wife went to a dry-goods house and asked to be allowed to have some goods on trust, with the promise to pay for them on the following day.  They got the goods and proceeded to sell them from house to house, succeeding very well, and continuing the business all summer.  In the fall they started for St. Louis, Missouri.  On the way they stopped at Peru, Illinois, and bought three acres of land in the city, paying $80 an acre.  At St. Louis Mr. Friederiks was taken sick, and having but scant means his wife continued to sell goods.  On recovery of health Mr. Friederiks could not obtain profitable employment, but his shrewdness stood him in good stead.  Going to a pork-packing house, he inquired what they would sell him the hogs’ tongues for.  They gave them to him for one cent apiece, provided he would cut them out.  For some time his business was cutting out hogs’ tongues, ranging from 1,000 to 1,200 per day.  These he salted down in barrels supplied by the company.  When he had fifty barrels he sold a portion of them for five cents a tongue in St. Louis, and shipped the rest, consisting of forty-five barrels, to New Orleans, when he sold the whole lot at ten cents a tongue.  Then he went back to Peru, built him a home on his three acres of land, and engaged in the butcher business in partnership with George Zimmerman, now of Petaluma, California.  He remained in this business for three years, being very successful.  He then decided to cross the plains to California.  In May, 1852, they left Missouri, reaching Hang town (now Placerville) September 14, 1852.  After spending some time in that vicinity he came to Yolo County, took up some land near Madison, and by strict attention to business is to-day one of the wealthy and respected citizens of the county.  He owns a fine ranch of 2,408 acres, in addition to his fine residence in Woodland, where he is spending the comfortable evening of a busy life.


He was married first to Miss Caroline Huffman, They had five children: Paulina, Emily, Jennie, John J. and Rhoda.  Mrs. Friederiks died in 1863.  Secondly, Mr. Friederiks was married in 1874, to Miss Mary Matten, a native of Germany, a most excellent lady, a worthy helpmate to her husband.



CALIFORNIA LUSTRAL COMPANY: J. M. Mitchell, Superintendent.-The California Lustral Company has been formed with a capital stock of $100,000 to work a deposit of mineral rock discovered a short distance above Calistoga, Napa County.  Its president is Luke Dow, of Oakland; its Secretary, S. F. Burbank, of the same place, and its superintendent, J. M. Mitchell, who has his residence at the mine.  The purpose of the company is best expressed in their own words, as follows: “The mineral is used in the manufacture of soaps, also for cleansing, scouring, and polishing compounds, and has already been sufficiently used to prove its quality superior to any other substances, except a similar deposit in the immediate vicinity.  The product being of universal use, the market extending throughout the world, and the supply being for the most part limited to this mine, the advantages of a participation as a stockholder can be readily appreciated.  The mineral which this company has is practically inexhaustible.”


When visited by the writer, the mill, 30 x 40 feet in size, with engine-room 20 x 26 feet, adjoining, was in course of erection, and a gang of men were engaged in opening out the mineral on the hillside adjoining, matters being so arranged that the mineral can be shot down by gravitation into the mill.  They have a Dodge rock-crusher, capable of crushing a large amount of rock per day, although it is expected that the capacity of the mill will be about five tons per day.  The engine is twenty-horse power, and the boiler of thirty-horse power.  On the hill is a 5,000-gallon tank, filled from a No. A Dow pump, with a fall of thirty feet, affording an ample water supply for all purposes.  There is also an auxiliary pump for the boiler.


Mr. J. M. Mitchell, the superintendent, is a thoroughly capable and experienced man, having a long experience in the practical working and arrangement of machinery, etc.  He was born in London, England, in 1850, the son of Henry Mitchell.  In 1861, he came with his father to San Jose, in this State, where his father is now the superintendent of the San Jose Foundry, J. M. was brought up to the machinists’ trade and became a thorough mechanic in every department of the business, having long held positions of responsibility and trust.  For several years he was in charge of the ice works at San Diego, ranking as one of the southern city’s enterprising and successful citizens.  He is taking hold of the California Lustral Company’s enterprise in a thoroughly practical manner, and will assuredly carry it through to success.  He is a married man, and is possessed of ample energy and “go”.


C. L. LA RUE.-”El Cuesta,” for such is the beautiful and appropriate name of the vineyard and property of Mr. C. L. La Rue, has one of the best and most admirable locations in Napa County.  It is fortunately situated in the gap or path between the western side of the valley and the hill above Yountville, thus possessing a most equable temperature and a delightful position.  It is a part of the old Hopper place, consisting of 140 acres in all, of which l24 are in vines.  Mr. La Rue has owned it for five years, and during that time has made many improvements in the way of replacing his vines with resistant stock, so as to withstand the attacks of the phylloxera.  He has now eighty acres already in resistant stocks and will gradually replace all.  He has no cellar as yet, but hopes to have one before long.  At present he sells all his grapes.  Mr. La Rue is the son of Hon. H. M. La Rue, so well known all over the State as a public man, the firm of H. M. La Rue & Sons owning a place also in Yolo County.  C. L. La Rue was born in Colusa, in January, 1862, and was educated and brought up in California.  He took a course of two years at the State University in agriculture, paying attention especially to practical agriculture and chemistry.  He has spent all his life on a farm, and has made a practical study of grape culture, being one of the best informed men met.  Much important information was obtained from him.

He was married in Woodland to Miss Spires.  They have one son, Elwin, now three and a half years old.



NIELS P. FRIEDRIIKSEN, the junior partner of the firm of Tocker & Friedriiksen, proprietors of the Fashion Stables at Pleasanton, was born in Holstein, Germany, July 7, 1869, and brought up there, upon his father’s farm.  He is the second son of Niels P. and Netta Maria (Nielsen) Friedriiksen, natives of Schleswig, who had four children.  The subject of this brief sketch came to America in 1883, sailing from Antwerp to San Francisco.  He first located in Solano County, where he worked upon a farm for a few months; then he settled near Haywards, Alameda County, where he was engaged in agricultural pursuits until 1888, when he made a visit to his native land.  A year afterward he returned to Haywards, and in March, 1890, he settled at Pleasanton, in the business already mentioned.  He was naturalized, in 1889, is unmarried and is a member of Haywards Lodge, No. 14, Sons of Hermann.



JOHN THOMANN.-It would be impossible to select for description a more complete or successful winery in the whole of Napa County than that belong to Mr. John Thomann, one of the oldest and most experienced wine-makers of the State.  The cellar is situated at Vineland Station on the railroad, and possesses the advantage, enjoyed, we believe, by no other establishment of the kind in the county, of having a switch or side-track into the grounds, thus allowing the handling and shipping of the wine with the least possible disturbance.  Although the cellar is a wooden building, thus at first glance not comparing with some others in the valley, yet it is found to be constructed for its purpose by a man skilled in the business and so thoroughly adapted to the uses of wine-making that we doubt if any other cellar can be reckoned with it.  The excellent flavor of the wines made within its walls and their increasing popularity are perhaps the best proof of this fact.  The capacity of the cellar is about 200,000 gallons of wine.  In the rear is the distillery, also a like complete establishment, having a daily capacity of 800 to 900 gallons of brandy.  The machinery in the cellar is all of late construction and approved merit, there being two presses, one of them hydraulic.  Pumping throughout the cellar is done by steam power.  The processes of elevating the grapes to the steamer, of crushing, and all other operations are such as are approved and adopted by all the best wine-makers.  An abundant supply of clear, cold water is piped to all parts.  Mr. Thomann’s vineyards, consisting of forty-five acres of the best varieties and known as the Howell Mountain Vineyard, are situated on Howell Mountain, thus securing the advantages in quality and bouquet of the mountain-grown wines.  In addition to the grapes from his own vineyards, Mr. Thomann also buys extensively from growers, for the purpose of distilling, etc.  Most of his wines find a market in California and on the Pacific coast, although of late some is being sold in the East, sales being effected entirely through his own salesmen.  The brandies go throughout the Union, - to New York and other Eastern cities, to Salt Lake and to points on this coast.  The grounds surrounding the handsome and modern residence of Mr. Thomann are some of the handsomest in the valley, and the whole appearance of the establishment with its fine trees is very pleasing.


To gain a just idea of the importance of this establishment to the right understanding of the history of wine-making in California, we must refer back to Mr. Henry Thomann, an uncle of the gentleman whose name heads this article.  Henry Thomann was one of the very oldest of the pioneers of the State, having crossed the plains from St. Louis in 1845, at the same time as the Donner party.  On reaching California he entered the employment of General Sutter, and later went to Sonoma, and was with General Vallejo.  Upon the discovery of gold in 1848, we was one of the first to engage successfully in washing for the precious metal, as he had during his youth had practical experience in washing the sands of the river Aare in Switzerland, his native place.  He fell sick, however, and had to return to Sacramento.  In 1852 Henry Thomann established a vineyard at that city on land bought from Sutter, probably the first vineyard planted in California for the purpose of wine-making, the first being manufactured in 1856.  Henry Thomann died in 1883.  His nephew, John Thomann, was born at Biberstein, Canton Aargau, Switzerland, in 1836.  He was thus brought up in the wine districts of Europe, and to the practical business of wine-making.  In 1858 he came to America, coming via New York, and then to San Francisco by the Isthmus of Panama.  For two years he assisted his uncle I the wine business in Sacramento, when he rented the business from him, purchasing it later.  In 1859 he was of the first to make brandy in this State, making peach and grape brandy.  After sixteen years in Sacramento he removed the establishment to Napa County, in order to take advantage of the superior adaptabilities of this valley, and has built up its present splendid proportions from the first.  Mr. Thomann is one of the best known and most public-spirited citizens of the county.  From 1880 to 1882 he served as a Supervisor of the county from Hot Springs Township.  He has been a Director in the St. Helena Bank, in the St. Helena Bonded Warehouse, in the St. Turn Helena Verein, and a shareholder in the Water Company, an active worker and prominent figure in all he undertakes, but only now retains his connection with the Turn Verein.  While in Sacramento he was a Democrat, but helped organize the Independent Taxpayers’ party, and was elected Supervisor here by the Republican party.  He is a thorough business man and is hold in general esteem.


Mr. Thomann was married first in Sacramento, in 1862, to Miss Josephine Esch.  She died in September, 1888, regretted by all.  Four daughters remain as the fruit of this marriage, all of them at home, one son and two daughters being deceased.  The names of those living are: Louisa, Annie, Laura and Bertha.   Miss Annie is married to Mr. R. Hoehn.  In October, 1889, Mr. Thomann was married a second time, to Miss Mary Miller, of Dixon, Solano County, a most estimable lady.



JEROME BARDOT.-This gentleman is the cellar-master for Hon. A. L. Tubbs at his beautiful summer residence at Hillcrest, Napa County.  Mr. Bardot is a native of Arbois, in the Jura, France, where he was born in 1858.  He was born and brought up in the center of the wine districts of France, to the practical business of vigneron, and is a thoroughly skilled and experienced man.  He was educated at the celebrated Arbois College for wine-making, graduating under eighteen professors.  In 1878 he came to California and to Napa County, entering the employment of J. Schram, with whom he remained as cellar master for six years and eight months, doing very much to establish the high reputation that the Schramsberger wines have attained.  His wines here took gold medals at Sacramento and at London, England, for superior excellence.  In 1885 Mr. Bardot went back to Europe, and made an extended visit throughout all the wine regions.  He carried with him samples of the California wines, and caused considerable surprise among his friends by their excellence.  He returned to California in time for the vintage of 1885, and worked for the Napa Valley Wine Company.  In 1886 he entered the employment of Mr. Tubbs, and came up to Hillcrest to take full charge of his cellars and the business of wine-making.  Mr. Bardot is an ambitious man and is determined to succeed.  He is active, energetic and in every wise successful, and under his hands we predict great success and high reputation for Mr. Tubbs’ wines.  He is an American citizen.


Mr. Bardot was married in San Francisco, June 6, 1887 to Miss Marie Vescheidt, a native of Cincinnati.  They have one child.


A Memorial & Biographical History of Northern California: Chicago : The Lewis Publishing Company, 1891

Transcribed by Carol Andrews, 6 September 2008 - Pages 804-820

J E. LA RUE, a farmer near Davisville, Yolo County, is a son of H. M. and Elizabeth (Lizenby) La Rue, and was born four miles from Sacramento, September 19, 1859. In 1870 he moved into Sacramento city, where he received his education, graduating in 1880 from the University of California at Berkeley with the degree Ph. 15. He then went into Yolo County and took charge of his father's farm near Davisville, a beautiful place of 2,100 acres, in which he now has an interest. There are ninety acres in grapes and sixty in almonds, but his attention is chiefly devoted to the rearing of horses and mules and grain-raising.


April 20, 1887, he was united in matrimony, in San Francisco, with Miss Addie E. Rankin, who was born in that city October 29, 1860. They have one child, born May 6, 1888, named Morgan E. [Page 496]



SAMUEL L. MONDAY, a farmer of Yolo County, is a son of James and Elizabeth (Burdon) Monday; mother a native of New Jersey. The nativity of his father is not known. He obtained his surname from the fact that he was found on Monday as an infant on board of a wood-boat at Philadelphia. He was a farmer during his life, finally locating in Ohio. Mr. Monday, the subject of this sketch, was born December 6, 1813, in Philadelphia, and was but two years of age when his parents moved with him to Ohio; in 1838 he went to Illinois and bought a soldier's warrant to a piece of land, settled upon it, ,as he supposed and after gathering one crop from it he found  that he had located on the wrong quarter. He then rented twenty acres of land and improved that for four years. Next he went back to the vicinity of his old place and purchased 160 acres, which he occupied until 1850. He then came toCalifornia, and in 1852 he returned by water to his Illinois home, and in 1854 came overland to the Golden State with a quantity of live-stock, but from 1856 to 1859 he was a resident again of Illinois, when he came again to California with his family to remain. Being well experienced in traveling upon the plains, he was appointed captain on the last journey. On all the wagons was written in large letters " Monday's Delegation." Arriving in this State, he located first in Sacramento, where he ran a hotel eight months, and then for fifteen years he followed teaming between Sacramento and the mountains. In 1868 he settled upon the ranch in YoloCounty of 160 acres, which he now occupies. He also owns 160 acres at Lake Tahoe and 140 acres in Ohio. Mr. Monday has been Coroner for two years, Constable four years and Public Administrator two years. He was married in Ohio in 1837 to Miss Harriet Gramen, born about twenty-two miles from Cincinnati, in Ohio, and they have had two daughters, namely: Anna, who is now the wife of W. E. Parker, and Hattie, now the wife of C. Scott. [Pages 608-609]



WILLIAM HATCHER.— This gentleman is an early resident of Yolo County, and one of its representative wheat- growers and stock-raisers. He has lived a busy and eventful life, experiencing many toils and hardships, but always actuated by the manly resolve to make the most of every opportunity, and to deal fairly by his fellow men. Mr. Hatcher was born February 6, 1828, inSevier County, East Tennessee, and is the eldest son of John and Eliza (Taylor) Hatcher. His parents were not wealthy as the world regards wealth, but possessed what is better than lands or gold, namely, rectitude of life and energy of purpose, — traits of character fully inherited by their son. They came of good family, also, the  father being of English and German descent, and the mother of German and Scotch ancestry.


They were married April 15, 1827, and for two years lived at Wear's Cove, where their son was born. Afterwards they moved toMonroe County, Tennessee, among the Cherokee Indians, remaining there four years. The next move was to Callaway County,Missouri, where they arrived November 11, 1834. Here his father occupied a position as overseer for Captain Boone, a nephew of the celebrated Daniel Boone. After a residence there of three years, the family removed to the northern part of Missouri, settling in what is now Linn County, but which was then inhabited by the Sioux Indians. There Mr. Hatcher grew up, being  brought up to the life of a farmer, but ready to turn his hand to any kind of honest labor, and working at times at tanning leather, making shoes, weaving, spinning, knitting, sewing, school-teaching, etc. It was at this period that he was married to his estimable wife, who has been a true partner in all his ups and downs, and is now peacefully enjoying the evening of life with her worthy husband, and surrounded by children and grandchildren. Her maiden name was Sarah Frances Mullins, and she was born in Howard County, Missouri. Her grand-father, Thomas Rawlings, settled in Missouri at an early day, and was well known throughout the west as " Old Uncle Tommy." Mr. Hatcher married his wife March 27, 1849. They continued to live in Missouri until in the spring of 1852, they determined to set out for California, setting out with ox teams upon the long, hard journey across the plains on April 20th of that year. They had one child with them, Columbus W., now a man of forty years of age, residing on a farm of his own of eighty acres adjoining that of his father. He himself is the father of three children, one boy and two girls. The family arrived in AmadorCounty after the tedious trip, on the first day of September. They had made the journey by the Central route, and Mr. Hatcher had been much impressed by the beauty and possibilities of the country through which he passed, and resolved to become the owner of some of its fertile soil, but like most of the early pioneers he must first take a turn in the fascinating lottery of hunting for gold in Nature's rock-bound repositories. Accordingly he went to mining in Amador County, and after six months spent in that employment returned from the scene the richer by $150.


In the spring of 1853 Mr. Hatcher went to gardening with good success, and coming to Yolo County on September 5, 1853, he bought for $750 the magnificent property where he still resides. When he located there thirty-six years ago, there were only fourteen women between his place and the town of Washington, opposite Sacramento, and just children enough to organize a small school. He was a prime mover in putting up the first small school building in that large section, where now are flourishing high schools and colleges. Mr. Hatcher's ranch is a fine tract of 200 acres, devoted chiefly to the raising of grain and stock. Mr. Hatcher has had seven children, of whom four are living. The names of those living are: Columbus W., Hannah, now the wife of J . D. McLeod ; George Pierce and Asa B. Of those deceased: Mary E., John D. and Nancy H., wife of J. T. Nimmo. Mr. Hatcher has also six grandchildren, four boys and two girls. George P. has two sons, and Nancy H. one. [Pages 607-608]


F. S. FREEMAN.— No name has been more intimately associated with the history of Yolo County, and especially of Woodland, than that which heads this sketch. Major Freeman, as he is familiarly and generally known, was born in Knox County, Kentucky, December 25, 1832, his parents being J. W. and Mary (Parman) Freeman. The father, who was a fanner, was probably born in Kentucky, but was of Virginian parentage.   

The mother was also a native of Kentucky. Our subject was but a little over a year old when his parents removed to Missouri, locating in Buchanan County, before the " Platte purchase," and while the country was yet teeming with Indians. The farm, which lay along the banks of Black Snake Creek, is now entirely within the limits of the city of St. Joseph, one of the great Western trade centers.  

F. S. Freeman was but a little past fourteen years of age when in 1847 he secured, through the influence of friends, an appointment in the commissary department of the army then operating against Mexico. He went with Van  Fleet, quartermaster of Doniphan's regiment, and was stationed at Santa Fe until 1848. He then went back North, and when the Oregon Battalion," 500 strong, was organized at St. Louis, he went in the Commissary Department, the train of Rodney Hopkins, wagon- master, which was one of the five formed to supply the battalion. While Mr. Freeman was with them they built Forts Kearney, Childs and Laramie, and later in 1848 they were sent back to Fort Leavenworth, were they were discharged. Mr. Freeman then returned home, where however he remained but a short time He determined, upon feeling assured of the genuineness of the reported discovery of gold in California, to try his fortune in this new and far-away land, and in April, 1849, he joined a company of some fifteen or twenty men, which was made up at St. Joseph for the westward trip, he being interested in one of the wagons of the outfit. He knew the route chosen as far as Fort Hall, and hence was of much assistance to the party in many ways on that portion of the journey. Without especially noteworthy incident they completed the trip, coming into California by the Carson route, and landing at Placerville, August 15, 1849. He remained there, at Coloma, Georgetown and other places in that vicinity until the following spring, when he gave up that occupation, $3,000 in pocket. He then came down to Yolo County and located land on the north side of Cache Creek, about sixteen miles west of Woodland, where he engaged in the stock business, buying, selling and raising cattle and horses.  

He has ever since continued to deal more or less in cattle and sheep, and has been exceptionally successful. In 1851 he and two partners planted 100 acres of barley. To attend to and harvest this it required the combined efforts of the three owners and a hired man. They cradled and threshed it in the old-fashioned way, the grain going fifty bushels to the acre, and found a market for it in Sacramento and Grass Valley, where it brought six cents a pound. Such an undertaking was in those early times, before the advent of improved machinery, considered a daring one, but their reward was commensurate with their ambition and enterprise. They found "hungry" markets, so to speak, in Sacramento, Grass Valley and other places, and their profits were enormous. From that year until the present one, inclusive, Mr. Freeman has never failed to sow and reap a crop. He remained on that place thus employed until 1857, when he bought a place of 160 acres (then Government land) in what is now "Woodland. The land is now bounded on the east by the railroad track, and on the south by Main street, and all now lies within the city limits. He opened a store for the sale of general merchandise where the brick school-house now stands, west of the railroad track, which was the first store in what was destined to be a prosperous city. Shortly afterward, in October, 1857, he was married to Miss Gertrude G. Swain, a native of Michigan who came to California with her aunt, Mrs. C. W. Crocker, now of San Francisco. The Crockers were at that time living in the vicinity and Miss Swain had been teaching school in this county.  

The tide of immigration kept steadily flowing into the State, and Mr. Freeman with keen foresight perceived that other industries would ere long contest with mining for the supremacy. He foresaw that such grand soil, as for example that of Yolo County, would one day be eagerly sought for and be thickly peopled with busy husbandmen; and he felt certain that here was an opportunity to implant a town which would be the center of trade for a large and a rich region of country. He accordingly determined to build one. He put up a building where Lindner's store is now located, and removed his business into it in 1860. During the same year he laid out the town, which, at the suggestion of his wife, he named " Woodland." He next set about securing a postotiice, and, having accomplished this object, he was appointed Postmaster, and he also secured the agency for Weils, Fargo & Company's Express. Thus he had established the nucleus of a town, and the next move was to bring people and business here; but this was found to be a more difficult task. People were not eager to invest money in establishing a business where there was nothing but a store and a postotfice, so, taking the initiative; he began to establish new enterprises himself, opening a blacksmith shop where the Exchange Hotel now stands, also harness and butcher shops, which he disposed of when a suitable buyer came along. Soon the town boasted a gristmill, which he started, and sold after running it two years. He also started and conducted for two years a stove store and tinware manufactory. Dry goods, clothing, shoe and grocery stores followed in order, Major Freeman sometimes owning several stores in different parts of the town, but never losing an opportunity to sell, thus bringing to Woodland additional capital, more business men and a larger population. He found people ever ready to purchase a business after it had been established and its success assured, but the enterprise and energy necessary to bring about such an end had to be furnished by Major Freeman. The pushing tactics alluded to proved successful, and the town was yet in its first year when its prosperity induced its friends to seek for the location of the county-seat at their place, then established at Washington. Major Freeman of course led the movement, and with that object in view a petition was circulated through- out the county. Intense opposition was naturally encountered from the friends of Washington, but the State Legislature passed an act under which the transfer was made.  

With the advancement of the town Mr. Freeman's business advanced rapidly, and about 1864, the postoffice business being in his way, he resigned the post-mastership and had the office moved out of his store. In the same way, and for the same reason he gave up the express agency, after he had held it eight or nine years.

Such is the early history of Woodland. There is scarcely a line of trade here of which Mr. Freeman was not the originator.  

In 1868 the need of a solid banking institution was much felt, and negotiations were entered into with D. O. Mills, of Sacramento, to start a branch in this town. Before a final arrangement had been consummated, John D. Stephens, who had been living in Virginia City, came to Woodland and proposed to help start a bank here, and to take half the stock himself, and his proposition was at once accepted. Major Freeman was principally instrumental in placing the other half among the citizens and was elected vice-president, which office he has ever since held. In 1872 he built a brick block on the south side of Main street, where Diggs is now located, and established there a hardware store, that department of his business having grown too large to be longer kept with the others. He carried on both establishments until 1884, when he sold them and withdrew from mercantile life. Besides his merchandising business he has carried on and yet conducts stock-raising, farming, banking, etc. He has watched with pride the growth and prosperity of the town and enjoyed the fruition of his early aim and ambition. He has never allowed his interest in Woodland or the surrounding country to wane; he has not purchased large tracts of land to hold vacant for purposes of speculation and thus thwart his own highest ambition, the prosperity of the county, as many short-sighted, un-philanthropic, grasping men would do; on the contrary, he has done all in his power to induce immigration, dealing' in real estate At present his principal land possession is a 1,000-acre tract on Cache Creek.  

Major Freeman has had a public career which will ever redound to his credit in the history of this county and State. He cast his first presidential vote for James Buchanan in 1856, that being his first and last Democratic vote. Though born a Southerner and reared in the semi-Southern State of Missouri, he cast his lot with the Republican party and was a supporter of Abraham Lincoln in his first race for the presidency, and he has ever since been active in the party's councils. In 1870 he was elected to the State Legislature of California, and in that body served on the Swamp Lands and Ways and. Means Committees. His unselfish independent course as an advocate of fair play for the people attracted the attention of his fellow members, and thus greatly delighted his constituents, and consequently assured his re-election in 1872. During that session he was chosen Chairman of the Ways and Means Committee, and served also as a member of the Committee on Swamp Lands. This session witnessed even greater advancement of Major Freeman in popular esteem, and he proved a stumbling- block in the path of monopoly. He advocated about thirty-eight measures which became laws, and signalized his second term in the Legislature by accomplishing as much work as was ever done by a member of that body. The " Freeman Freights and Fare Bill," which he carried through the lower House after a long fight against tremendous opposition and which was lost only through defeat in the Senate, on account of the great pressure brought to bear by the railroad companies, achieved even national notoriety for Mr. Freeman, and his efforts in this direction were encouraged by the leading newspapers of California, including the San Francisco Examiner, Bulletin, Chronicle and others and the Sacramento Onion. This fight Created more excitement than any other contest made before or since on any measure before the Legislature of this State. Among the many laws which he had passed at this session was one to reorganize the Yolo County government, making the compensation of officers payable by salary instead of fees. He also had passed the bill providing for a form of government for Woodland, whose citizens wished to incorporate, and the affairs of the municipality were conducted under his system until it was reincorporated in 1890 under the general laws. The effect of this measure was to secure for Woodland through all these years a remarkably low rate of taxation and to turn it over to the new regime out of debt. Major Freeman was the regular candidate of the Republicans for Speaker of the House during the last session he was a member. His able efforts in behalf of the people gave him a strong hold upon their esteem and affection, and he could undoubtedly have had the nomination for Governor on either the Republican or the Independent ticket in 1874. He would not have entered the independent ranks, however, under any circumstances, and knowing that there were troublous times ahead for the regular Republican ticket, he would not consent to the use of his name before the convention. He has always remained true to the Republican Party. During the war be was one of the staunchest supporters of the old flag to be found in California. He held a Major's com- mission in the State militia from Governor Downey, and while his services were never called for he would have been found under the banner of his country if the trouble had occurred that many anticipated in the State. The title of " Major " which came to him through this commission has always clung to him. He is a Knight Templar in Freemasonry, belonging to Woodland blue lodge and chapter and being a life member of Sacramento Commandery.  

Mr. Freeman's family consists of his estimable wife and one daughter. Miss Lillian, who is at present pursuing a collegiate course at Mills' Seminary. His beautiful residence was built in 1870, and is one of the many of which the town is justly proud. It is surrounded by a magnificent lawn, beautified by sub-tropical trees and shrubbery. South of the house is a large orange tree, which was planted by his baby daughter some years ago. In 1889 it was found necessary to pluck a large number of the oranges from it to prevent the branches from breaking.  

Yet- in the prime of life, a resident of the beautiful city which has grown up from his own beginnings and under his fostering care, Major Freeman holds a secure place in the hearts of his fellow citizens. Genial in his nature, he ever maintains a youthful spirit that makes his company a constant pleasure to his large circle of warm friends. Generosity has always distinguished him. It is said by his old neighbors that when he was a merchant no one was turned away for want of funds whenever he knew that that was the reason of their failure to ask credit. It would be an almost endless task and now an impossible one to collect all the testimonials of this nature that have been occasioned by the Major's generosity. [Pages 609-612]


W G DUNCAN, a farmer near Capay, Yolo County, was born October 1, 1828, in Amherst County, Virginia, the son of John I. and Margaret (Toler) Duncan, natives also of that State, who moved to the northern part of Missouri when their son was a small boy. Remaining with his parents until 1850, the subject of this sketch, in company with his brother, William H., came overland to California, with Dr. Lane, who supplied the penniless boys with the necessaries of the journey, in consideration of half their earnings for a year. They followed mining at Mud Springs for three months, but with little profit, and Dr. Lane agreed to release them with three months' work for him, which proposition was accepted and the work done. The brothers then followed mining again, until the spring of 1853, when they took up a tract of land two and a half miles from their present place. In 1869 they disposed of that farm to Mr. Woodard. During the previous year they had bought the place where they now reside, a mile from Capay, where they now have 7,300 acres, besides eighty acres near Woodland.  Mr. Duncan was married in Woodland, March 13, 1879, to Miss Mary Franklin, a native of California, and they have one child, who was born in 1883 and is named Elvira G. [Page 620] 

D VAN ZEE, farming near Woodland, was born in Holland, September 14, 1828, son ' of Garret and Mary (Dikop) Van Zee. His father, a farmer, died there in 1878. In 1851 Mr. Van Zee came to America. For the first two years he was employed on a farm in Iowa. He then came to California, and followed mining four years, at Gibsonville. In 1857 he came to Yolo County, rented a piece of land seven miles from Sacramento and engaged in farming one year; then, taking up a piece of land near Willow Slough, six miles from Woodland, he engaged in farming. In 1869 he bought half a section of land two and a half miles from Wood- land. In 1879 he bought his present place, and now owns there 395 acres of land, of which forty-one acres are in grape-vines.  For his wife he married, in Yolo County, 1869, Ernestina Fourch, who was born in Germany in 1851, and their six children are: William, Mary, Fred, Sarah, Garret and John. [Page 621]


WILLIAM G. ANDERSON, Superintendent of the New York Mine, near Jackson, Amador County, was born in St. Andrews, New Brunswick, May 7, 1835. His parents, Josiah and Susan (Turner) Anderson, were natives of the United States, born and reared in the State of Maine. They removed to New Brunswick in 1824, where they remained until the time of their death, which was about four years ago. His father never withdrew his allegiance to the United States. They raised a family of twelve children of their own, besides two that were adopted. William G., when quite young, served a regular apprenticeship in the ship- yards of St. Johns, New Brunswick, where he learned the trade of ship- carpenter. In 1854 he went to Maine to visit relatives, when he concluded to go to work at his trade at Bath, in that State, where he worked from March 1 to November of the same year. He worked for Berry & Richardson on the ship Commodore, one of the largest vessels built on the Kennebec River at that date. In November, 1854, he went to Minnesota and settled at St. Paul, where he engaged in the lumber business. In 1855 he was appointed by the board of aldermen, as Marshal of the city of St. Paul, and a few months later was appointed Deputy Sheriff of Washington County, under Sheriff Johnson. During the same year he went to the Lake Superior country, during the copper excitement, and in August returned to Stillwater, Minnesota, making the trip down the St. Croix River, about 260 miles, in a birch-bark canoe. In 1858 he started for the Fraser River gold mines; but on reaching St. Louis, having heard discouraging reports from that country, he concluded to stop at St. Louis and work at his trade. While here he assisted in building the steamer W. G. Gay. He then went to Paducah, Kentucky, where he was employed by Tom Scott, the originator of the Southern Pacific Railroad enterprise, building the steamer Autocrat, a noted vessel that plied between Louisville and New Orleans. After being launched she was towed to Evansville, Indiana, where she was fitted up with the machinery and furnishings formerly used on the Southern Belle, one of the finest boats on the lower Mississippi River. When the Autocrat was completed he was employed on her for several trips as ship carpenter. In the fall of 1859 he went to Louisville and assisted in fitting up the steamer T. D. Hine, for Captain John Akerson, of Franklin, Tuckepaw Parish, Louisiana, and after she was completed served for some time in the capacity of carpenter, mate, etc., on her regular trips, after which he was employed at various points along the river in building boats, barges, etc. In 1861, the civil war having been inaugurated, he concluded to go north. On arriving at New Orleans he found it difficult to get away, but through the influence of Theobald Forestall, an influential hanker and business man of New Orleans, he finally succeeded in shipping as ship carpenter, on the Moses Davenport, for Boston, where he arrived on May 1. He then went to New Brunswick to visit his parents, where he remained about nine months;3then returned to New York city. From New York he went to Fairhaven, Connecticut, where he assisted in building a gunboat for Poke & Bushnell, Government contractors. From Fairhaven he went to New York City, where he was employed in building a Panama steamer.  

In 1864 he went to Boston, where he was married to Miss Isabella Boggs, a native of St. John, New Brunswick.  In about three months after his marriage he sailed for California. He settled in San Francisco, where he worked at his trade for seven years. In 1872 he went to San Mateo County and engaged in farming and the dairy business, in which he continued for six years. In 1878 he came to Amador County and engaged in mining. In 1884 he went to Mare Island, where he was employed by the Government as ship carpenter. In 1886 he returned to Amador County and resumed work on the New York mine, in connection with his partner, John W.' Stewart, of San Francisco.  

Mr. Anderson's family consists of his wife and four children, two boys and two girls. His wife and three of the children are in New Brunswick, where they have property. One son is with Mr. Anderson and is engaged on the mine. Mr. Anderson owns a half interest in 560 acres of patented land, on which the New York mine is located, and also a half interest in a water ditch six miles long, that supplies water sufficient to irrigate the land and also furnish power for all milling purposes. [Pages 698 - 699]


ALBERT E. AKERMAN, one of the old and respected tradesmen of the pleasant and prosperous town of Haywards, was born at Portsmouth, New Hampshire, June 14, 1824. His father, Barnett Akerman, was a natis'e of the same State, and a wheelwright by trade. The subject's mother, maiden name Margaret Whidden, was also a native of New Hampshire. Albert learned his trade in Ports- mouth, and went to Boston, Massachusetts, in 1845, and followed his trade there until 1849. Then he continued in the same business at Can- ton, Illinois, until 1851, when he came across the plains to California, by way of the South Platte. After arriving here he followed his trade for a few months in San Francisco; then six months in Nevada County; next he followed mining at Alta, Placer County, until 1856; then he pursued his vocation at Redwood City, San Mateo County, for about four years; then in San Jose one year; returning to Redwood City, he established a shop there and carried on his business until 1864, when he sold out and went to Stockton; a year afterward he went to Alvarado, Alameda County, and was there until 1869; next he spent a short time in Haywards, and then three years at Redwood City again; and finally he located permanently at Hay wards, where he carries on a good shop and has a good business on B street, painting carriages and wagons. He is at present one of the Town Trustees; is a Republican, and a member of Crusade Lodge, No. 93, I. 0. O. F.. of Alvarado. Mr. Akerman and Mrs. Priscilla Patch were Joined in wedlock in Oakland in 1867, and their two children are Sarah and William. [Page 741]


F N. ATKINS.— In the year 1812 N. A. Atkins, a native of Massachusetts, and * his wife, nee Lydia Waters, a native of Connecticut, both of Welsh extraction, emigrated to the Western Reserve in Ohio, then a wilderness. Here they purchased a farm and helped to clear up the country, and here they reared their family of eight children, only two of whom now survive. On the 20th of August, 1831, their son Quintus Narcissus was born. He received his education in Ohio, at Albion Academy, Pennsylvania, and at Poland Institute, Ohio.  At the age of twenty Mr. Atkins left school to join the ranks of the people who were coming from Ohio to the new El Dorado of the West, and arrived in California August 20, 1852. He first mined in Gold Kun and then in Grass Valley. In June, 1853, he came to Shasta, after it had been burned to the ground. With a company lie went to Horsetown. They conceived the idea of turning the river from its bed by building a dam.

Mr. Atkins worked there, and contracted the ague, from which he did not fully recover for eight years. The enterprise of turning the stream proved unsuccessful. He continued to mine and at times with fair success, but, like many other miners, did not save his money. In 1858 he was united in marriage to Miss Martha A. Hughs, a native of Wisconsin. Her father, Andrew Hughs, a native of Missouri, came to  California in 1853. Mr. and Mrs. Atkins reared a family of four- teen children, eleven sons and three daughters, all of whom are living. The second son and one daughter were born in Star City, Humboldt County, and all the rest were born in Shasta County. Their names are as follows: Benjamin W., Frank M., Emma J., William J., Jesse, Warren G., Octava and Flora (twins), Irwin, Dewitt C, Clarence, Quintus Narcissus and Cleveland and Harrison (twins).  Mr. Atkins worked at the carpenter's trade until 1862, when he went to Star City to the mines, remaining there until 1864-'65. At that time he went to Silver Lake, Idaho, going in wagons and being three months on the road, the delay being caused by high waters and bad sloughs. He worked there a year on the quartz mills. The first winter he paid $20 per sack for flour. In 1866 Mr. Atkins returned to Shasta County. He owns 320 acres of land on Clover Creek, where he resides with his family. He also has a mill and a home in the mountains on the Tamarack road, where his family spends the summers. Mr. Atkins claims to be a dyed-in-the-wool Democrat,' but is not of Democratic stock. Three times he has been elected County Surveyor. He has also held the office of Deputy Assessor, has been twice elected to the office and is the present incumbent. He is one of the old, reliable stand bys of the county, and is deeply interested in its growth and prosperity. Mr. Atkins is a Master Mason. [Page 747]

F S  LANGAN, attorney at law, at Hay- wards, is a prominent member of the " Alameda County Bar. He was born at Wellsboro, Pennsylvania, June 19, 1857, attended the State Normal School at Mansfield, and in 1876 graduated at La Fayette College, at Easton, that State. From 1876 to 1880 he studied law and was admitted to the bar during the latter year in New Jersey. After practicing a short time there, he came, in 1881, by rail, to California and located at San Mateo, where he became tutor in the military academy of that place for one year. Lastly he located at Haywards, where he has been elected, and has served for a period of three years, as principal of the public schools. In 1884 he went to Livermore and took a course of law study for one year under the eminent counselor G. W. Lang, of that city, and in 1885 was admitted to practice in the" State courts. For a few years following he visited various sections of this State, hoping to recuperate from his im- paired health. In 1887 he again located at Haywards, where he has built up an excellent practice in his profession. He is the attorney for the Electric Light and Knox Water Companies; also he is the City Attorney. Being a decided Republican he has rendered his party considerable service, having been a delegate to every county convention since 1881 ; and he has been twice chosen delegate to State conventions. He afhliates with the F. & A. M. and the I. O. O. F.  Mr. Langan and Miss Lydia Breckwell, a native of California, were Joined in marriage at Haywards, September 3, 1885, and they now have two children, — Giirdon S. and Anna M.[Page 748 - 749]  


PATRICK H. GEARY, a prominent farmer and dairyman of Alameda County, near Siifiol, owns 1,500 acres of farming and grazing land seven miles south of that place and keeps thirty-five to forty milking cows, and makes butter for the San Francisco market. Pie has also a tine prospect of gold and silver bearing quartz on his land, which he is now prospecting, the indications being good for a bountiful supply of the precious metals. He was born in Cork, Ireland, February 22, 1840, and was a babe when the family emigrated to America, locating at Syracuse, New York, where he was reared and educated. His parents were Maurice and Mary (Cronan) Geary. In 1856 he came across the plains to California, taking two seasons for the journey and wintering in Salt Lake City. He was one of a number who handled the stone in the monument erected to the memory of the emigrants that were murdered at Mountain Meadows, Utah, in 1858. From that place he came to this State by way of San Bernardino and Los Angeles, where he worked at teaming for a time. Afterward he superintended the salt works of Salinas for two years. In 1860 he came to Mission San Jose, Alameda County, where he worked upon a farm for a short time. Then he engaged in the livery business. Selling out the latter eight months afterward, he located upon 160 acres of land near the Mission and followed agriculture there two years. Then he sold his claim there and moved upon his present farm. He was one of the gentlemen who formed the Kosedale School District, and has been one of its trustees for nine years. He is a Democrat and takes a lively interest in local affairs. He is a member of Triumph Council, No. 177, O. C. F., of San Jose.  While at Mission San Jose he was married to Miss Mary A. Kell, February 15, 1863. She is a native of Canada, and came to California by way of Panama in 1851. They have ten children now living: Maurice, Mary R., Annie, Ellen, Daniel, John, Thomas, Patrick H., Maggie and Elizabeth. [Page 748-749]    

EUGENE PROLETTI is the proprietor of the livery, feed and sale stable of Ander- son, where sojourners will find lively road- sters and well equipped turnouts at the most reasonable prices, the proprietor being a man of practical experience in the business and of a gentlemanly nature, who studies to please his patrons, and by that method has gained for him- self and his stables a reputation second to none in Shasta County. Mr. Proletti was born in Crevia, Piedmont, Italy, in 1855, where he was educated and reared to farm life. His parents were Vincenzo and Annie (Anderlina) Proletti, both natives of Italy. He came to America in 1869, locating in Sonoma County, California^ where he engaged in farming and stock-raising. In connection with his ranch he also conducted a dairy, being successful in this enterprise during the years he was connected with it. Selling out his ranch in 1879, he next came to Ander- son, Shasta County, and engaged in his present business.  Mr. Proletti is a Republican in principle, but takes no part in politics, devoting his entire time to the business he believes himself best adapted for. He is a single man, and the fifth of ten children in his father's family, three besides himself being in America, and the remainder of the family residing in their native land. [Page 748]   

WILLIAM DEVIN, of Tehama County, is a native of Pike County, Missouri, born at Frankfort, December 17, 1846, the son of William and Elizabeth (Lewelling) Devin. The father was a native of Virginia and came to Missouri in 1820, where he died in 1864; the mother was a native of St. Louis, Missouri, born in 1817, and died in 1878. Her ancestors on the paternal side were Scotch-Irish, and on the maternal side were Welsh, who were persecuted and finally driven from Wales on account of their religious views. Our subject learned the machinist's and blacksmith's trades, and left his native State in 1873, coming by rail to California, locating in Colusa County, where for a few months he received $5 per day as a journeyman blacksmith. He next opened a shop at the town of Durham on his own ac- count. Selling out a few months later he came to Vina, and is now established in a general re- pair shop for blacksmithing and wheelwrighting.  In 1874 Mr. Devin was elected Justice of the Peace, and has also served as Deputy Sherifi", and is now Deputy Constable. He was School Trustee of Lason  District from 1884 to 1886. Politically he is a Democrat, and takes an active part in all political matters.  He was married at Vina in 1879, to Miss Fannie Moore, a native of California, and a daughter of the late J. P. Moore, an old California pioneer. Mr. and Mrs. Devin have one child, Ray. [Page 748] 

WALTER D. NUNAMAKER, one of the business men of Redding, California, is a native of the State of Minnesota. He was born August 19, 1865, of German and American ancestry. His grandfather, Peter Nunamaker, a native of' Germany, came to the United States many years ago and settled in Pennsylvania. There Isaac Nunamaker was born. He married Miss Lucy Shepherd, by whom he had five children, the subject of this sketch being the third. He was reared, educated and learned the jeweler's trade in Minnesota. He went to Dakota and worked a year at his business, after which he returned to Minnesota. From there he went to Ellsworth, Kansas, where he was in business three years. January 10, 1888, he came to Redding, Cali- fornia, and opened a jewelry store. He keeps a fine stock of goods, does satisfactory work, and, by his obliging and gentlemanly manner of dealing with his customers, has established a fine business.  August 19, 1888, when twenty- three years of age, he married Miss Nettie Derby, a native of Dakota. Their union has been blessed with a son, Raymond, born in Redding.  Mr. Nunamaker is a member of the National Guards of California, and also of the Knights of Pythias. He is enthusiastic over his adopted State and especially over the city of Redding. As a worthy citizen and reliable business man he enjoys the good-will and respect of all who know him. [Page 749]   

WAYNE PLUMB, the senior member of the firm of M. & C. S. Plumb, prominent merchants of French Gulch, was born in Kentucky on the seventh of September, 1851. His early education was obtained in New York. In 1865 he cane to California and finished his studies at the Stale University at Oakland. He has had large experience in the mercantile business, having served twenty years as a clerk. The Messrs. Plumb inherited the store and stock from Thompson Plumb, who established the business at French Gulch in 1868. He conducted it successfully until 1886, the time of his death. At that time his son, Wayne Plumb, took charge of the store. His partner, Charles S. Plumb, is his cousin.   

They are both enterprising business men and are doing a lucrative business. Their stock consists of general merchandise, and their trade extends for forty miles into the country and is constantly growing.   - Mr. Wayne Plumb was married, in 1880, to Mrs. Allie Blair, a native of Ohio and a daughter of Dr. John Smith, now of California. Mrs. Plumb has one son, Eddie L , by her former husband. Mr. Plumb is an Encampment Odd Fellow, and has passed all the chairs in his lodge. He is also a Master Mason. His political views are Republican.   Charles S. Plumb, the junior member of the firm, is a native of Michigan; was educated in Illinois, and followed railroading for the Michigan Central Railroad until he came to California in 1877. After his arrival in this State he was engaged for a time in a livery in French Gulch, but gave it up to enter the mercantile business with his cousin. They are agents for Wells, Fargo & Co. [Pages 750 - 751]  


A CARLTON RUGGLES was born in Erie County, Ohio, January 27, 1831, a son of Salmon Ruggles, a native of Connecticut. His mother's maiden name was Rebecca Nyman, and she was a native of New York State and of German descent. The tradition is that the Ruggles family in America originated with three brothers who came to this country from Scotland, one of whom settled in Connecticut, one died shortly after his arrival and one went to the Southern States; and the latter is the one from whom nearly all the people by that name in the South have descended. Nearly all of them in former times were slave owners and some of them participated in the Rebellion. The northern branch were all anti- slavery and Union men. Some entered the Union army and some were killed in battle. The father of the subject of this sketch, a master mechanic, ship-builder and ship superintendent, had an important position in the Union army, in the department of the Mississippi. He had a shipyard and dry-dock at Milan, Ohio, about eight miles from Lake Erie, where he built a great many vessels fur the lake trade.  

Judge Ruggles, the subject of this sketch, was brought up in his native State. He was nineteen years of age when he was educating himself at an academy called the Huron Institute, at Milan, and the gold fever brought him to this State, with the consent of his father. In company with friends, he purchased and completed a large outfit of wagons and horses with provisions to make the long journey across plain and mountain. They also started with a Considerable quantity of clothing, hats, caps, etc., but had to abandon it fifty miles west of the Missouri River. The wagon was taken back to Weston, Missouri, and sold, and the party came on with pack horses and mules. There were nine in the party, divided into two messes, and they traveled together until they" reached the South Pass of the Rocky Mountains, when, as is natural and usual, they disagreed and separated. The party of five, of whom Mr. Ruggles was a member, by a little stratagem the night before the separation, said they were going by way of Sublette's Cut - often rising early next morning, they started towards Salt Lake instead. The other mess, thinking they had taken the other route, saw none of them until they reached California. Mr. Ruggles' party reached Salt Lake July 4 and Placerville August 14, 1850, having the usual experiences of the journey, spiced with a little trouble with Indians, etc. The redskins attempted to steal their live-stock, and one of them was killed. In crossing the desert they had to kill all of their horses, to put them out of their misery, which was induced by want of nourishment and water.  

During the first five years in California Mr. Ruggles was engaged in gold-mining at different  points, a part of the time with excellent success; but he afterward lost his little fortune in a mining operation. The second year after his arrival he was offered $10,000 for his interest, which he refused. After he quit mining he followed farming about four miles south of Woodland, from 1856 to 1866; he then sold his place and since November 6, that year, he has been a resident of Woodland. Here he has been Postmaster six years, — 1866-72; also at the same time he ran a drug store, the first one in the town, also a variety and jewelry store, having a partner in his business.

After his term as Postmaster expired he continued in his mercantile business three years longer, when he sold out. Next for two years he prospected around the State; then he was appointed Public Administrator for Yolo County, by the Board of Supervisors, and he also went into the real-estate business and collection agency, in which he has since been engaged. In the fall of 1879 he was elected Justice of the Peace, in which position he was ex-ofiicio Police Judge, and in this double capacity he served for three years; then for a time he confined himself to the real-estate business and the duties of a Notary Public. He has been elected to his judicial seat three times. He is a thorough Republican, and the fact that his district is at the same time strongly Democratic shows his popularity. At the present he is secretary of the Republican County Central Committee, taking a lively interest in political matters. As a Re- publican, however, he is not radical. In religious matters he has been for many years a member of the Methodist Church. As to the liquor traffic he believes in regulation instead of prohibition.  Judge Ruggles was married in 1859, to Miss Mary Elizabeth Maddux, a native of Illinois, and they have one son and three daughters. [Pages 751 - 752] 

GOTTLOB RAYER, proprietor of the Ger- man baker}- on Castro street, Haywards, was born in Wirtemburg, Germany, Octo- ber 27, 1842, where he was educated and brought up to the baker's trade until 1864, coming then to America. He stopped for two months at Detroit, Michigan, and then was in St. Louis, Missouri, until 1868, when he came to California by way of the Isthmus of Panama. After arriving here he followed his trade a year in San Francisco, and then moved to San Lean- dro and conducted the same business there five years. His next location was at Haywards, where he is now conducting a successful trade in bread, pies of all kinds, and pastries, which can be had fresh from his ovens daily; also fancy and domestic confectionery, candies, etc., at wholesale and retail.  Mr. Rayer affiliates with the Sons of Hermann, Lodge No. 14, of Haywards. He was married at San Francisco August 1, 1868, to Miss Caroline Fitzer, a native of Germany, and they have three children, namely: William, Frederick and Charles. Mr. Rayer is the son of Lenhardt and Catrina (Finley) Rayer, the father a native of Germany and a horticulturalist, and the mother also a native of the same country; both are now deceased. [Page 752]  

CHARLES E. FISH.— Among the prominent and substantial farmers and stock-borrowers of Tehama County we make particular mention of the subject of this sketch, who was born in Scott County, Iowa, March 27, 1852, the son of Erskine and Cordelia (Freeman) Fish, both natives of New York. His maternal grandparents, Samuel and Balinda Freeman, were natives of New York, and moved to the State of Iowa in 1844. His paternal grandparents, P. William and Lois (Grover) Fish, were born in the State of Vermont; the former died in 1854 and the latter in 1870.  Mr. Fish is a self-educated man, being quick of perception and unflagging in his efforts to improve the mind, and he certainly has raised himself to the level, if not beyond that, of the average man. He accompanied his parents across the plains to California in 1860, locating in Tehama County, where they followed farming for several years. In 1871 he moved to the town of Tehama, and was tor several years connected with the butchering business. He then went to Red Bluff, continuing in the same business for a short time, and then engaging in the mercantile pursuits for one year. For live years he was Deputy County Assessor. In 1886 he again engaged in farming, and is now located twelve miles north of Red Bluff, where he and his partner, Frank L. Jelly, own 1,900 acres of land, and jointly carry on farming and stock-raising. Politically Mr. Fish is a Republican, and is the regular nominee for County Sheriff.  He has been twice married, the first, September 3, 1871, to Miss Mary C. Weitemeyer, of Iowa, who died in 1881, leaving one child, Cordelia D. The second marriage was at Red Bluff, to Miss Maggie C. Goodridge, a native of California, and they have three children: Frank A., Erskine and Charles. Mr. Fish affiliates with the F. & A, M. of Vesper (blue) Lodge, No. 84, Chapter No. 40, and Commandery No. 17, of Red Bluff. [Page 752]

D P. DIGGS, a rancher of Yolo County, and a worthy old pioneer of '49, has had  life-history of more than usual variety and interest, and it is with great pleasure that we give, the biography a prominent place in the pages of our work, as is due to its historical importance.  

Mr. Diggs was born April 8, 1827, in Montgomery County, Missouri, and is the son of Captain and Jane (Pace) Higgs. Captain Diggs, his father, was born in the State of Vermont, while his mother was a native of Madison County, Kentucky. The father served his country throughout the war of 1812, being in command of a company of soldiers. He was a farmer by trade, and was one of the earliest as well as most respected settlers in Missouri. The subject of this sketch was brought up in Montgomery County, arid received his education in the schools of the section. In 1848 he went to New Mexico, in connection with the Mexican war, but returned to Missouri in 1849, and set out at once for California, crossing the plains with ox teams. He went directly to Coloma and found work for six months, driving a team at Sutter's celebrated mill, being employed by the owners of the mill at $350 a month and board. Mr. Diggs built the corral that stood beside the old warehouse in those early days. On the Fourth of July, 1849, Mr. Diggs and others, did honor to the day by hoisting a home-made American flag on the gable end of their cabin. It was constructed out of red, white and blue shirts, with oak leaves for stars. In 1850 he went to Yolo County, there being then just three settlers on Cache Creek, when he went there. He is now the owner of 350 acres of exceedingly fine land, all well improved and under fence. It lies five miles northwest of Woodland. In conclusion, we should say that Mr. Diggs is a type of our best American citizen, diligent, progressive and prosperous.  

He is married to Miss Janet E. Hines, who was born in Ray County, Missouri, in 1837. They have six children, as follows: Mary A., Elnorah A., Irvine P., Sarah S., Maria H. and Marshall M.  [Pages 701 - 702]

G W. WHITMAN, a well-known farmer of Contra Costa County, was born in Green-briar County, Virginia, September 21,1809, the son of William and Elizabeth (Erwin)Whitman. The father, a farmer by vocation, was a native of the State of New York, and the other was a native of Virginia. At the age of seventeen years the subject of this notice went to Chillicothe, Koss County, Ohio, and four years subsequently' to Richmond, Wayne County, Indiana, where he studied law for three years; he then made his home at Cambridge, that State, until 1849, when, in October, he sailed from New York State to California, byway of Cape Horn, landing in San Francisco May 6 following. He followed mining at various points throughout this State, mostly in Merced County. In 1863 he went to Sonoma County and, owning a large tract of land there, he devoted all his attention to his fruit-raising and wine-making. In 1883 he settled upon his present place of 228 acres eight miles from  Martinez, where he has a fine orchard of thirty acres and a splendid vineyard of fifty acres, de-voted to table grapes. 

Mr. Whitman married Miss Nancy Smith, who was born in Tennessee, January 1, 1809, and they have two children, — Henry H., born January 5, 1837; and Addie, August 7, 1831.Mr. Whitman was State Controller of California  in 1854; and previously, from 1842 to 1847, he was Judge of the Probate Court of Wayne County, Indiana, resigning his office during the latter year. [Page 701]

GEORGE W. PARDEE, a native of England, was born in Liverpool, February 18, 1852. His father was a seafaring man, and was captain of a vessel. In 1854 he emigrated to America and settled in Maryland. Here George W. received a limited education in the common schools. When quite young he went to Baltimore, where he served an apprenticeship, learning the blacksmiths' trade, remaining in the same shop for seven years. He then went to Pittsburg, Pennsylvania, where he worked for a year and a half as a journeyman. In 1869 he went to Denver, Colorado, and remained three years, working the first year for Ed. Westcote, and the next two years for George Tritch and William  Allender. He then went to Georgetown and worked for Hood & Burnett, who were running the New England mine, a year and a half. He then went to Rosita, Colorado, where he worked at his trade two and a half years. In 1874 lie came to California, remaining about eight months in San Francisco. In 1875 he came to Middletown, Lake County, and worked till 1877, then came to Lower Lake. After working two years here, he engaged to work for the Sulphur Bank Quicksilver mine, in Lake County, where he remained for four years. He then returned to Lower Lake and engaged in business for himself where he has remained till the present time. Being industrious and honest, he has been successful and has the confidence and esteem of the com- munity in which he lives. He owns three houses and lots, beautifully located in the best part of the town of Lower Lake, one of which he occupies as a home: the others are occupied by tenants.  

He was married in 1879, to Miss Mollie Allen. They have two children, William and Lucetta, aged ten and five years respectively. Mr. Pardee is a member of the I. O. O. F. Page [700-701] 

F A. ALLEN, a farmer northwest of Woodland, is a son of Ambrose and Valeta " (Clark) Allen, natives of New York State who moved about 1836 to Illinois, where the father, a farmer by occupation, died in 1875, an exemplary member of the Christian Church and of the Odd Fellows' order; the mother died in 1876. The subject of this sketch was born in 1855, in Pike County, Illinois, where he grew up and received his education. In 1871 he went to Missouri, where he remained three years, and then he came to California by rail. In 1879 he purchased his present place of eighty acres, six miles and a half northwest of Woodland, where he is engaged in the raising of grain, clover and live-stock.  

For his wife he married Miss Susan F. Crellin, in Yolo County; she was born in 1857, in that County, and both her parents are now deceased. Mr. and Mrs. Allen have three children: John R., Maud and Eentie. [Page 700]

CROCKETT M. CRAWFORD, a native of Lake County, California, was born in Lakeport, April 14, 1860. He received his education in the public schools and the Lakeport Academy. He has been teaching in the schools of the County since 1881. He was elected to the State Legislature, November, 1888. He introduced a bill in the last session of the Assembly to provide free text-books for the public schools of the State, which passed both houses, but was vetoed by Governor R. W. Waterman. He also introduced what was known as the "Omnibus Educational bill," which be- came a law. The object of this bill was to perfect the school law. He has been principal of the Upper Lake schools for the past three years.  

He was married June 6, 1885, to Miss Nora Graham, who is also a native of California. They have two children : Velma and Amy, aged five and two years respectively. He a member of Lakeport Parlor, No. 147, N. S. of G. W. [Page 700]

I J. ELY, a farmer at Cacheville, Yolo County, is a son of Warren E. and Emily (Uthsbock) Ely. His father was born in Ken-tucky in 1811 and settled in Ralls County, Missouri, in early day, and continued there in his occupation of farming until his death; he was a Freemason of high standing. Themother, born also in Kentucky, in 1818, died in Ralls County, leaving five children, all sons. 

The subject of this sketch, the eldest of these sons, was born in that County, March 6, 1856,and received his school education there. In1857 he came overland with ox teams to California, being about six months on the road and suffering much privation. He earned his way by driving cattle the first three months and acting as cook the remainder of the time. At Genoa, Nevada County, he left the train and walked to Placerville, better known in those days as Hangtown; but three days after ward he went to Folsom and mined in Placer County, near by, for three months. Soon afterward he located at Cacheville, Yolo County, where he has since remained. His first work in that County was baling hay, which he followed five years, and he then, in 1864, purchased his present ranch of 800 acres of well improved land. He has also 330 acres in Sutter County, which is rented; a part is in clover and a part in pasture. 

In 1866, in Yolo County, he married Miss Mary Strode, who was born in 1842 in Missouri, and died in May, 1886, leaving the following five children: Emily J., Belle, deceased, Nora, Ervin, deceased, Cheston, deceased, Frank E., Rodney E. and Leslie S. [Page 699]

WILLIAM S. MONTGOMERY was born in Marion County, Missouri, December 25, 1848. His father, Alexander Montgomery, died in California, April 1, 1885, at the age of sixty-three years. His mother, Susan (Martin) Montgomery, is still living and resides in Woodland. They had a family of fifteen children, eleven of whom are living. Four died in infancy. Alexander Montgomery came to California in 1850, and engaged in mining for about one year. In January, 1851, he came to Yolo County, and took up Government land and began to improve it. The next winter he returned to Missouri, and in the spring of 1854 he started across the plains with his family, for his new home in California, where he arrived in September.

William S. received his education in the public schools of Yolo County and in the Hesperian College at Wood- land. In 1876 he went to Willows, Colusa County, where he built a business house and engaged in the hardware trade. In 1877 he sold out his business and went to Lassen County and took up land, on which he remained seven years. He then found out that his claim to the land was worthless, owing to the negligence or dishonesty of the land agent. He therefore disposed of his improvements for what he could get, and vacated the land. He then returned to Yolo County and took charge of his mother's farm, which he has superintended ever since. It contains 320 acres, which is principally devoted to the raising of grain. He owns forty acres of land, which he is preparing to plant in fruit.  

He was married March 7, 1872, to Miss Ralls, a native of Missouri. They had four children, three of whom are living. Adela, Etta and Elmer. In 1883 Mrs. Montgomery died. In 1885 Mr. Montgomery was married a second time, to Miss Magdalena Glockler, a native of California. Two daughters have resulted from this marriage — Gertrude and Caroline. Mr. M. is a member of the order of K. P. and I. O. O. F.  [Page 702]

WILLIAM THOMPSON, Justice of the Peace of Napa Township, has been a resident of California since 1856, and of Napa for about five years. He was born in Houston, Texas, in 1848. His father, Major J. H. Thompson, a native of Kentucky, was an officer in the army of the Republic of Texas, serving in the war of Texas against Mexico, under General Sam Houston. His mother was Miss Absola Thompson, a native of North Carolina, who died while Judge Thompson was an infant. His father soon removed to Arkansas, and in 1856 crossed the plains to California, settling at Benicia, Solano County, where he engaged in the practice of law. In 1857 he removed to Fairfield, in the same County, where he built the first house, continuing his law practice and serving as District Attorney for several years. Young Thompson was educated in the Fairfield public schools, and at the age of seventeen commenced to learn the drug business with Stockman Bros., where he remained for two years. After acting as agent for Wells, Fargo & Co. at Lakeport for eighteen months, he returned to Fairfield and took charge of T)r. M. S. McMahon's drug-store for four years. He studied law for three years with his father, and then engaged in the law office of Murphy, Shackleford & McPheters, at Salinas. In 1874 he went to Arizona, and became identified with mining interests about fifteen miles from Globe, in what was known as the Mineral Creek mining district. He became the first Recorder of that district. After remaining their three years, for the next three years he was engaged in prospecting through New and old Mexico and Arizona. Returning to California he located in Tulare County, where he farmed for a year, and was then for two years in charge of the Kaweah Canal. In 1874 he came to Napa, and engaged in the furniture and auction business, in which he continued until elected to his present office. While living in Tulare County he was married to Mrs. Anna J. Enlow, a native of Arkansas. They have three children : Annie Belle, Charles H. and an infant. One child, Benton Merlin, died in his second year. Judge Thompson is a member of the Ancient Order of Druids, of the Improved Order of Red Men, of the United Endowment Associates and the Royal Argosy. In 1871-'72 he was Assistant Engrossing Clerk of the State Senate. Is a member and secretary of the County (Central Committee of the Democratic party. The fact that he has been twice elected to his present office in a strong Republican town is a gratifying evidence of his personal popularity. He is now again reading law, and expects, when he shall retire from his present position, to permanently engage in the practice of his chosen profession. [Page 702-703]

BENJAMIN DEWELL, one of the earliest pioneers of California, emigrated from Indiana in 1845. The company with which he came started for Oregon, but, on ac- count of there being no roads or ferries, their progress was necessarily slow, and after passing Salt Lake their guides advised them, on account of the lateness of the season, to cross the mountains into California, which they did, arriving near Sonoma in October. They were six months and one day on the journey. Mr. Dewell made his first permanent settlement in 1850, in Guilicos Valley, lying between Santa Rosa and Sonoma, where he commenced improving land which he had selected for a home. He planted an orchard and vineyard, and many other valuable improvements, which he had to abandon after two years, as his location proved to be within the limits of a grant.  

In 1846, the war with Mexico having been inaugurated, the few Americans who had come to settle in California organized into a company for self-protection. In the spring of 1846 they captured Sonoma, which was held by General Vallejo and a small garrison. There were thirty-three Americans, who surprised the garrison at daylight, and effected a capture without difficulty. Mr. Dewell, with the assistance of two comrades, were the manufacturers of the celebrated Bear Flag. In 1854 he came to Upper Lake with his family and located on his present farm, his being the second family to to settle in what is now Lake County. He has 160 acres of as good land as can be found in any country, on which he raises grain, hay and stock. He also has a large orchard. He was married in 1850, to Miss Celia Elliott, a native of Missouri. They have nine children, living: Samuel M., Orlena and Luella (twins), Elmer E., May, Lottie, John, Charles W. and Irene. Sarah E. and Jane are dead. Mr. Dewell is a member of the I. O. O. F., of long standing. Politically he is thoroughly Republican. [Page 703-704] 

LOUIS SCHAFFERS, the proprietor of the Fashion Stables and a prominent citizen at Livermore, was born in the city of New York, October 30, 1854. In 1875 he came to San Francisco by rail, and was for a while employed in Oakland as a butcher for other parties, and then until the fall of 1882 he carried on the business there for himself. Then selling out he went to Livermore and continued in the same business for a year, and finally purchased the well-known Fashion Stables of Jones & Wilkinson, which he now conducts with a fine patronage, as he is able to furnish a goodly number of handsome “turn-outs," etc. He is Republican in his political views, and has been of considerable service to his party, taking a prominent part in politics for fifteen years. In 1885 he was elected Town Marshal; in 1886 Town Trustee, and in 1888 re-elected; in 1889 he was appointed Chief Engineer of the Fire Department, which position he now holds.  

He was married in Oakland, October 24, 1889, to Miss Caroline Fougure, and their two children are named Arthur L. and William. [Page 704]

A L. MARTINELLI, whose vineyard and dairy ranch is six miles from Napa, on the Carneros Creek, known as the Falk- land Ranch, has been in California twenty years, and for the past fourteen has been a resident of Napa County. His ranch comprises 1,360 acres, mostly rolling land, on which he formerly kept from 300 to 400 head of dairy cattle, but during the past two years he has reduced his dairy stock, and has engaged more extensively in general farming, having at present only about seventy head of milk stock. Most of the dairy product was butter for the San Francisco market, of which he used to ship from 1,200 to 1,400 pounds per week, but on account of the low price he has reduced production to a comparatively small amount. He is now putting in about 300 acres of wheat. He had on this place the first vineyard panted in Napa County, by Mrs. John B. Scott, the wife of the original owner. This vineyard was of the Mission variety, and being an inferior grape Mr. Martinelli has finally rooted them out. He has now only about five acres in vines.

He was born in the town of Maggia, Ticino, Switzerland, his parents being Fidele and Maria (Riccioli) Martinelli, natives of that country. He attended the usual schools of the town until he was fourteen years of age, when he came to America, proceeding directly to California by way of the Isthmus. He obtained employment at once in the dairy business in Marin County for two years, then for one year in Sonoma, finally en- gaging in dairying on his own account in Sonoma County. In the fall of 1875 he removed to his present place, renting at first and later purcliasing the ranch, where he has lived ever since.

He was married in 1881, to Miss Ida Welch, a native of Vallejo, and daughter of Philip and Elizabeth (McConnell) Welch. They have four children, Marj, Edward, Loretta and Rosa. Mr. Martineili is a member of the Young Men's Institute, of Napa, and is a firm adherent of the Democratic party.  [Pages 704-705]

N CADENASSO, a well-known orchardist of the faiuous Capay Valley, was born  in Genoa, Italy, in February, 1835, a son of Angelo and Mary Cadenasso. He came to America in 1862, proceeding at once to this State, landing at San Francisco, where lie remained several years, engaged in vegetable gardening on rented ground. He was afterward in the livery business, which he sold out, and in 1872 went to Yolo County, where he rented land until 1878. He then purchased 160 acres in the Capay Valley, of which he has since sold a portion. His ranch at present contains about thirty-five acres, all in choice fruit trees and vines, now producing crops. On a part of his place is located the railroad station named in his honor, Cadenasso, which promises to be a thriving town.  

Mr. Cadenasso was united in matrimony, December 16, 1876, to Miss Antoinetta Daneri, a native of Chiavari, Italy, who came to America and to California in 1872. They have six children, namely: Silvio, Clelia, Atilio, Aurilio, Ida and Mantio. [Page 704]

C S THOMAS, deceased.— This gentleman, who came to Yolo County in an early ‘ day, was associated with her business interests for many years, and his career, therefore, becomes of special interest in this volume. The following sketch is gleaned from data now available:

He was born in Connecticut, December 20, 1810, but at an early age accompanied his parents on their removal to New YorkState, where he grew to manhood. He was there married, October 12, 1840, to Miss J L. Wallace, a native of New York State. About 1835 they removed to Wisconsin, and from there, in 1853, Mr. Thomas crossed the plains to California with his family, making the trip by the usual methods employed in those days. He located at Placerville, where he tried his fortune at mining for one day only. This limited ex- perience satisfied him, however, and he was soon thereafter engaged in merchandising. In 1855 he left Placerville and removed to Yolo County, located at Knight’s Landing, where he established a store and engaged in the grain business, building a warehouse for that purpose.  While there he was associated, at different times, with J. D. Laughenauer and W. W.  Brownell, the businesses being, respectively, Thomas & Laughenauer and Thomas & Brownell. About 1868 he sold out his business interests at Knight’s Landing, removed to Oakland, and while there entered into partnership with W.  G. Hunt in the grain business, with head-quar- ters at Woodland, their office being where the Bryns Hotel now stands. After a residence of one year atOakland, Mr. Thomas removed to Vallejo, where the firm built a large grain ware- house, and thereafter carried on business at both places. Two years after removing to Vallejo, Mr. Thomas disposed of his warehouse interests there, and came to Woodland, which was thereafter his home. He still remained a member of the firm of Thomas & Hunt, which be- came widely known throughout the Sacramento Valley, and was in active business until the time of his death, which occurred August 10, 1882.  He was a stanch Republican in his political preferences, but was in no sense a politician.  However, while a young man in Wisconsin, he had held the office of Sheriff of the County in which he resided. He was an enterprising, public-spirited man, and besides his handsome residence built several brick blocks there, which are still the property of his family. He was a man much respected for his sterling traits of character, and was honored and greatly respected by the entire farming community, with which he had long been engaged in business, as well as by his neighbors in Woodland. His death was mourned and deplored as a loss to the County.  His widow is yet a resident of Woodland Mr.  and Mrs. Thomas were the parents of two children, both of whom have grown to maturity, and are residents of this city, viz.: Addie E., wife of F. E. Baker; and C. F., whose sketch follows: [Page 704]

C F. THOMAS, one of the foremost young men of this community, who holds no less a position than that of cashier of that great financial institution, the Bank of Wood- land, was born in Sutter County, California, January 22, 1859. Soon after his birth the family removed to Yolo County, and with the exception of a year at Oakland and two at Vallejo, he has been a resident of this County ever since. After receiving a common school education he was, at the early age of fourteen years, placed in charge of the extensive grain ware- houses of Thomas & Hunt, at Woodland and Black’s. At the age of sixteen he embarked in the merchandise business, which claimed his attention until October 1, 1877. He was then but eighteen years of age, yet was tendered the position of accountant in the bank. Considering his youth and the importance of the position, this office would seem as novel as it was flattering, yet his business success already won justified the judgment of [the bank officials in their selection. He assumed the duties of his new post with his accustomed matter-of-fact determination, and so ably and satisfactorily were his duties performed that in 1883 he was advanced to the position of cashier. It is probable that lie was then the youngest man serving in that capacity in a bank of such prominence in the United States, yet the position was well filled to the entire satisfaction of the bank’s officers and customers, and it is safe to say that there is not in California a more popular bank official.

Mr. Thomas is deeply interested in the welfare and prosperity of Yolo County, and is. always ready and willing to identify himself with any movement having for its object the advancement of the interests of this community.  The business ability which won for him his position in the bank has also been called into play in the handling of outside investments, a number of which he has. Besides considerable Woodland realty, he has 5,000 acres of country land, located in Yolo, Colusa, Stanislaus and Tehama counties.

Mr. Thomas was married, January 26, 1880, to Miss Agnes Bullock, daughter of the late J.  P. Bullock, who was one of this County’s oldest and best citizens. Their cottage on First Street is a model of beauty and comfort.

Mr. Thomas enjoys the fullest confidence of his employers, and is deeply interested in the welfare of the bank, as he considers it a great honor to be connected with an institution of such standing, which, as is well known, is second to none in this State.

He enjoys the highest respect of the people of Yolo County, and people of all classes, rich and poor, are proud to call him friend. [Pages 704 - 705]

J MONGINI has a ranch of 140 acres about three and a half miles from Napa, on which is a small family orchard of various fruit and nut-bearing trees, and forty acres of vineyard. He has also a small winery, with storage capacity for 25,000 gallons. He purchased this place about eleven years ago, and began planting it out in grapes and his family orchard. Fifteen acres have been in fruit for about ten years, and the remainder has come into bearing at intervals since that time. He was born in Toriglia, Province of Genoa, Italy, in 1839, and worked as a lad in the silver and quicksilver mines of Sardinia until he came to America in 1868. He was married in 1866 to Miss Theresa Navonia, a native of the same province in Italy. There are three children living: Louise, Joseph and Frederic. Remaining in New York for some time after arriving in this country, he reached San Francisco in 1870, and at first worked in San Jose and Livermore, and a few months in Napa. He then returned to San Francisco, where he remained for about eight years; but, remembering the beautiful vineyards of his native land, and its wonderful resemblance in soil and climate to that of Napa Valley, he decided to settle there, and purchased his present ranch, in the cultivation of which he has been very successful. Mr.  Mongini has heretofore sold the most of his grapes to the wine cellars in Napa, but this year (1889) he has made them all into wine, and has on hand about 12,000 gallons. [Page 707]

HIRAM BAILEY, of Livermore, is a native of Ontario County, New York, born January 10, 1832, and was there reared and educated. In 1852 he came to California, leaving New York on the steamer United States, making the trip via Panama, and landing at San Francisco from the steamer Isthmus, March 24, 1852. He first went to Marysville, where, however, he did not remain long, but soon went to Contra Costa County, near the Alameda line, were he remained six months. He then went to the Moracra red- woods, where he was engaged in making shingles, posts and rails, and hauling the lumber by oxen into the valley. He came to this County on the 29th of August, 1855, and having learned the carpenter’s trade in his New York home he undertook and carried to completion the building of a house for Jose, son of Robert Livermore. That house was located on what is now known as the Robertson ranch, some three miles or more east of Livermore.  After a couple of years in this vicinity as a carpenter, he gave up that trade and embarked in cattle dealing, which engaged his attention un- til 1860. lie then commenced farming about four miles and a half northeast of Livermore, and so continued until 1874, when he moved into Livermore. In the spring of 1874 he was elected Assessor of Murray Township, being the first one elected in that capacity for the town- ship under the new law. Retiring from that position two years later, he was for the next year in the butchering business. Later, he held the position of Deputy Assessor for two years. In the fall of 1882 he was elected Supervisor of this district, and served a term of two years with credit in the board, in which he was chairman of the Franchise Committee. In 1886 lie was elected to the General Assembly of California, and in that body was chairman of the Committee on Agriculture, and a member of the Enrollment Committee. In the fall of 1888 lie was again chosen by the electors of the district to a membership in the Board of Supervisors of Alameda County, in which he is an influential and active working member. He is chairman of the Hospital Committee, and a member of those on Roads and Bridges, Franchises, and Auditing.

Mr. Bailey was married in this County, on the 24th of June, 1860, to Miss Cassimira Funtes, step-daughter of Robert Livermore. They have had live children, four living, viz.: Josie, Albert (who died at the age of twenty -two years and live months), Rebecca, Willie and Mamie.

Mr. Bailey is a member of Mosaic Lodge, No. 218, F. & A. M., and of Doric Chapter, R.  A. M., of Livermore; of Oakland Command- ery, K. T. ; of Livermore Lodge, No. 219, I.  O. 0. F., and of the local lodge, A. O. U. AV.

Mr. Bailey has always taken an active part in public affairs, and has lent his best efforts in behalf of the people’s interests; hence he has always been popular, and the interests of the County are considered thoroughly safe in such hands as his. [Page 707]


O M ADAMS has for the past twenty-five  years been a resident of California, and for the past live years an occupant of his ranch two and a half miles from Napa, on the Sonoma road, where he has an orchard of twenty- five acres and a vineyard of fifty acres. In the orchard are French and English prunes, two acres; peaches, two acres; apples, two acres; and the remainder in Bartlett and Winter Nelis pears; while the vineyard comprises mostly Golden Chasselas and Zinfandel grapes.  Mr. Adams was horn in New Hampshire, in 1837, and in his youth completed a course at Amherst (Massachusetts) College, graduating in 1856. He then came to Chicago, where he engaged in teaching for about four years in the public schools. Next he was engaged in the wholesale coal trade for Price, Morris & Co.  In 1862 lie enlisted in the Chicago Mercantile Battery, with which he served under Sherman at the battle of Arkansas Post, in a severe skirmish on Black River, and in four other sharp engagements before arriving at Champion Hills, In the noted engagement at the latter point he suffered a bullet wound in the leg, which required two years to be healed. About four months after receiving this wound he was discharged for disability. As soon as it was possible, he went to work, taking the position of Chief Clerk for the First Commissary at Chicago for about two years. He then came to California, by the Panama route, arriving in San Francisco in 1866. First he engaged in mining for two years, in both Nevada and California; next he was a teacher in Oakland College, — an institution afterward purchased by the State and converted into the preparatory department of the State University. After a service there of nearly four years, he was for eleven years principal of the high school at Sacramento. In 1884 he purchased his present home of 160 acres. Mr. Adams is a member or the Masonic order of Sacramento Commandery, No. 2, K. T., and of the Chapter; and he holds demits, as his lodges are too distant for his attendance. His parents were O.  M. and Fannie (Stearns) Adams, natives and residents of New Hampshire. [Page 708]

JACOB HANNA, proprietor of the Liver- more Roller Mills, is a native of Illinois, born in Warren County, near Monmouth, August 18, 1853, his parents being William and Rebecca (Cresswell) Hunna, the former a native of Indiana, and the latter of Ohio. The father removed to Illinois in an early day, and opened up one among the first farms near Center Grove, in that State. In 1860 the family came to California by water, landing at San Francisco from the steamer Golden Gate. The steamer was destroyed by fire on her next trip.  After one year without permanent settlement in the State, the family located at Gilroy, Santa Clara County, where Mr. Hanna, Sr., embarked in the lumber trade, and was so engaged until his retirement from business a few years ago.

Our subject grew up in Gilroy, and there received his education, with the exception of a commercial course taken at the Pacific Business College, San Francisco, in 1875. He then re- turned to Gilroy and was connected with the lumber business there until the summer of 1879, when he went to Texas. He engaged in the cattle business, not far from Austin, which employed his attention until the summer of 1886, when he returned to California. In the spring of 1887 he came to Livermore, for the purpose of buying an interest in the roller mills, and has resided here ever since, being known as one of the most enterprising citizens.

Mr. Hanna was married at Gilroy, April 30, 1879, to Miss Clara R. Rea, daughter of Hon.  Thomas Rea, one of the leading citizens of Santa Clara County, and sister of State Railroad Commissioner Rea. They have three children, all boys, viz.: Thomas R., “Walter J. and Samuel C.

The Livermore Roller Mills, which Mr.  Hanna has conducted successfully, were built about the fall of 1884, by W. F. and Antone Laumeister. They carried on the business until the summer of 1887, when Jacob Hanna purchased the interest of Antone Laumeister.  In the spring of 1889 he also bought out W.  F. Laumeister, and carried on the milling business alone until May, 1890, when he took into partnership Mr. George Orbell, a practical miller. The mill building has a frontage of sixty feet by a depth of seventy, and is two stories in height. The plant is equipped with three stand of rolls, and has a capacity for turning out fifty barrels per day. The mill runs mainly on custom work for the local market, the principal output being wheat flour, though considerable barley is also ground. Recent improvements have been made in the way of re- fitting and remodeling, and the mill is now considered to be excellently equipped for the work before it.

The mill is equipped with a forty-horse- power engine, which Mr. Hanna uses in operating his electric light system for Livermore. The A Waterhouse arc system is. in use here, and the plant was put in by Messrs. Hanna and Laumeister in 1888, the latter’s interest being subsequently purchased by Mr. Hanna. He uses a twelve-light machine, though but eleven lights are used in illuminating Livermore, which is done under a contract with the city.

Mr. Hanna is certainly deserving of credit for his enterprise, which has redounded to the benefit of Livermore. Though but a young man, there is no one who has been more active in the matter of improvements and advancement. [Pages 709 - 710]

D F MAJERS, one of the well-known farmers of Contra Costa County, dates his birth February 22, 1831, in Madison County, Kentucky. His mother, whose maiden name was Ellen Harris, was a native of Ohio, and is now aged seventy-four years; his father, Isham Harris, a native of Madison County, Kentucky, is a brick-mason by trade, and is still .living, at the age of eighty-five years, in Cass County, Missouri. When the subject of this sketch was but ten years of age, he was taken by his parents to Ashtabula County, Ohio, where he grew up, attending school, etc. At the age of twenty-five years he started for the land of gold, then apparently situated in the region of the golden sunset. Leaving Kansas City, Missouri, May 1, 1854, with a train of several wagons and twenty- six persons, he worked his way by driving stock, and landed in Martinez November 1, 1854; and ever since then he has been a farmer of Contra Costa County. He has prospered in his business, and now has a tine residence and is enjoying a beautiful home, three miles from Pacheco in Ygnacio Valley. This place of 263 acres he purchased in 1880, known then as the old H. K. W.  Clark’s place. Clark was a great land lawyer in Oakland, who was accidentally shot on this place by his son. Mr. Majers has put upon this place all the improvements now visible there.

In 1867 he returned to Ohio and brought back with him to California his newly wedded wife, Sarah Darmon, a native of the BuckeyeState, born October 1, 1841; and tiiey now have one son. by name Edward, who was born April 19, 1869. Mr. Majers is a member of Facheco Lodge, No. 117, L O. O. F. [Page 710]

F M BEE, a farmer of Yolo County, is the son of Frederick and Katherine (Maxwell) Bee, natives of the State of New York. The mother died at the home where her only son, the subject of this sketch, resided, August 18, 1889; and the father is now at San Francisco, acting as Chinese Consul. The farm, belonging to both father and son, is now man- aged by the latter. Born in New York State, he was brought to California when an infant by his parents, who came by way of the Isthmus.  On arrival in this State, the family was first located in Hangtown, where the elder Mr. Bee engaged in mining and in the management of a provision store, employing a large number of men in the former industry. Arriving at the age of sixteen years, Mr. F. M. Bee attended a boarding-school at Oakland and quit at the age of eighteen, intending to follow book-keeping; but his health failed and he began work upon his father’s ranch in Sonoma County, near Petaluma. Two years afterward, November 1, 1888, he came to his present ranch, intending to remain faithful in the service and care of his father, as he had already done for his mother up to the time of her death. She was fifty-eight years old when she died. Mr. Bee is yet un- married, and is the only child. Upon the ranch of 140 acres of well-improved land, he is engaged principally in the raising of wine and table grapes. [Page 710]

EDWIN Z. HENNESSEY has resided in this State and in Napa since 1884. He was born in Decatur, Illinois, in 1863, his parents being William and Susan (White) Hennessey. His father was one of the brothers whose name has become famous the world over as the distillers of the celebrated Hennessey brandies in various parts of Europe, and he established a distillery at Paw Paw, Michigan, which lie conducted for a number of years. The Doctor received his early education in the public schools of Decatur, and began his preparation for a medical career by becoming proficient as a druggist. He then entered the office of Dr.  E. S. Elder, of Indianapolis, Indiana, who was at that time secretary of the State Board of Health, and Professor of the Theory and Practice of Medicine in the State Medical College of Indiana. While with Dr. Elder he attended lectures and graduated as an M. D. in the class of 1883. He acted for some time as interne at an orphan asylum, after his graduation, and coming to California he commenced the practice of medicine in Napa in 1884. Here he has been fortunate in building up a large and successful practice, especially in surgical operations, holding the position of Surgeon of the County Infirmary, and meeting with exceptional success in the conduct of that institution. Dr. Hennessey has an elegant home in Napa as the result of his extensive practice.  He was married in 1884 to Miss Lottie Fisher, a native of Indiana, and daughter of Andrew and Nellie (Farrie) Fisher, of Indianapolis.  He is a member of Napa Lodge of the Improved Order of Red Men, of the Napa County and State Medical societies, and of the Sydenham Medical Society of Indiana. [Page 711]

THEODORE GORNER, a prominent business man of Livermore, was born in Hamburg, Germany, October 31, 1850, and emigrated to America in 1866. Arriving in San Francisco October 3 of the latter year, he began the trade of harness-maker and followed it there two years; and then he was in the same business in Oakland until 1873. In 1874 he located in Livermore, purchasing the harness  establishment of George Beebe, which he still carries on. He is also in the general auctioneering business in company with other gentlemen, and deals in real estate and other property, under the firm name of Dutcher, Gorner & Mc- Donald. Mr. Gorner also carries a large stock of wagons, carriages and other vehicles, in which he has about $3,000 invested. His business is growing upon his hands. He also has a furniture and upholstering establishment, established in 1884, and now, with a partner, under the firm name of Gorner & Wilkinson, has a stock of $8,000. Mr. Gorner has been City Treasurer three years, and in 1878-‘79 he was Town Clerk one year. He is a member of the I.O. O. F., is a charter member of the society of Sons of Hermann, of Livermore, which was established in 1887, with a membership of eighty. He is also an active Republican.

Mr. Gorner was married in Oakland, March 28, 1874, to Miss Katie Pink, of that place, and they have five children: Dora, Katie, Walter, Alma and Elsie. [Page 711]

V SLADE, a farmer near Winters, Yolo County, was born December 8, 1822, in Baltimore County, Maryland, a son of Abraham and Elizabeth (Pierce) Slade, natives of Maryland. The father, a farmer by occupation, remained a resident of that County until his death, which occurred in 1856; the mother died at the same place a few years later. Mr.  Slade was brought up on a farm, working on the home place until he was thirty years of age.  He then spent two years in Illinois as a farm laborer, and in 1859 he came overland by ox teams to California, the journey occupying the time from April to September. The first two years in this State he was in Solano County, and then for some time alternately in Solano and Yolo counties; and then he purchased land in Sonoma County, which he occupied for two years; then he sold out there, in 1875, and purchased his present property, three and a half miles east of Winters. This is a very tine place; the residence is so situated that an observer there obtains a very tine view of all the country around. The farm comprises about 260 acres of choice bottom land, well set to vines and other fruits. He also raises a great many vegetables. He has packing sheds and all necessary equipments for carrying on the fruit business.

He was married, in 1843, to Elizabeth Mathews, a native of Maryland, and of their seven children two sons and three daughters are living. [Page 712]

PATRICK CALLAHAN, engaged extensively in the rearing of live-stock, especially sheep, near Livermore. He was born in CountyDonegal, north Ireland, February 21, 1840, and was brought up in agricultural pursuits. In 1862 he went to Melbourne, Australia, and was engaged in mining in that vicinity five years. In 1867 he left that country and landed in San Francisco August 28, 1868, where he was occupied for a year in water delivery. In 1869 he went to Livermore and purchased a ranch, where he carries on general farming and raises live-stock, especially sheep, of which he always has on hand 3,000 to 8,000 head. The fleece is an annual average of fif- teen pounds to the head. Mr. Callahan has been identified with several prominent enterprises in the County, among them the Farmers’ Union. He is a stanch Democrat, and has been for nine years one of the Town Trustees.

He was united in matrimony May 21, 1873, in San Francisco, to Miss Mary McBride. The names of their four children are: John R., Mary E., Margaret A. and William H. [Page 712]

GEORGE C. STANLEY, a prominent citizen of Livennore, was bon November 15, 1839, in Randolph, Vermont, where he was educated and learned the trade of wood- turning. In 1860 he came to California by way of Panama, landing in San Francisco. For the first year he was engaged in various occupations, and then he went to the Cariboo country and followed mining about a year. Then he came to Centerville, this State, and engaged in teaming over the Sierra Nevada mountains for a period of three years; next he followed ranching for a abort time near San Jose; then he located at Pleasanton for three years, in the same business; and finally, selling out that place, he went to Livermore and purchased another farm, which he still occupies. He also deals in real estate, and has been engaged in general mercantile business. He is a member of Vesper Lodge, No. 62, A. O. U. W., atLivermore.

In November, 1870, in Livermore. he married Mellie Patterson, who died leaving one child. Mr. Stanley, October 20, 1879, married Miss Emma Reed, and they have two children: George R. and Leiand. [Page 712]

WILLIAM A. PRYOR is a native son of the Golden West and an enterprising “3 business man of Shasta. He was l)orn Vallicita,Calaveras County, California, June 16, 1853. His father, Joseph Pryor, was one of the well known and highly respected pioneers of Calltbrnia. He was born in Cornwall, Eng- land, June 16, 1826, of English parents. In 1846 he emigrated to Australia and engaged in mining. He married Miss Priscilla Thomas in 1849. She and her ancestors were English people. Soon after their marriage they came to California, where Mr. Pryor was successfully engaged in mining for some time in Tnolumne and Calaveras counties In 1854 they came to Shasta County and purchased a ranch, located twelve miles west of Shasta, known as the Dr.  Hulen  Ranch. This they farmed for nine or ten years. In 1863 they came to Shasta and lived here for several years, until 1878, when they removed to Red Bluff. They were residing there in 1879 when Mr. Pryor’s death occurred. His bereaved family and the Masonic fraternity, of which he had been a worthy member, gathered around his last resting place and repeated their beautiful and impressive burial service. He was a kind and affectionate husband, an indulgent father and a most worthy citizen, and he died in the full strength of matured manhood, in his fifty-fourth year, lamented by all who knew him.

William A. Pryor, the subject of this sketch, was the second son of a family of four children.  His education was obtained in the public schools of Shasta. When fifteen years of age he went to learn the drug business and remained in one store eight years. Then for a time he was prescription clerk in a drug store in Sacramento.  After this lie was clerk and book-keeper for J. E. Church, of Red Bluff. In 1884 he purchased his present drug business in Shasta, where he has a nice, well kept stock and enjoys the trade of the town. In 1885 he was appointed Postmaster at Shasta and served until 1889, when he resigned.

In 1885 he was united in marriage to Miss Josephine Litsch, the daughter of Mr. and Mrs.  Charles Litsch, also well known early settlers of this County. Mr. Litsch was a native of Ger- many, born at Renchen, Grand Dutchy of Baden, in 1823; came to theUnited States in 1849, and across the plains to California in 1851. Upon his arrival in this State he engaged in mining inPlacerville, El Dorado County. In 1852 he worked at his trade, that of baker, in Sacramento, and in the same year went to Colusa, where he was employed as a baker until the middle of 1853. After the fire at that place he purchased a team and was engaged in teaming for a time, when he located in Shasta, where he purchased a bakery’ of Messrs. Potts & Muff. In 1854 he built the two-story brick store in which Mr. Pryor’s drug store is now located. In 1870 he engaged in the brewing business and carried it on success- fully until the 28th day of May, 1884, when his death occurred.

Mr. and Mrs. Pryor have one daughter, Alice Maud, born in Shasta. Mr. Pryor is manager of the Shasta telegraph office. He is a charter member of Shasta Parlor, No. 35, Native Sons of the Golden West. He is also a member of Castle Lodge, No. 62, K. of P, Red Bluff.

Mr. Pryor’s mother, an amiable lady, resides with her son in Shasta. [Pages 712 - 713]

B F. THOMAS, a resident of Livermore, was born in Boston, Massachusetts, November 7, 1885. After receiving his school education he worked there in railroad shops for a year. In 1855 he came by sail around Cape Horn to the Golden Coast, arriving inSan Francisco the next year, after a voyage of six months and a quarantine of four months at Rio Janeiro, where eighteen of the twenty-four of the ship’s crew died of yellow fever. The first two years in this State Mr.  Thomas was a grocer in San Francisco; next he had charge of William Hayward’s boat in freighting between Haywards and San Francisco by river, and driving stage between Haywards and San Antonio, now Oakland, while he made his home in Oakland, until 1858, when he began work as a carpenter. After being employed as a journeyman for three years, he began contracting and building, and acted in that capacity for ten years, and then he purchased and began to operate a steam thresher throughout Alameda County, and he is still connected with that business, giving steady employment to twenty-two men and the same number of horses to each machine. He has been a resident of Livermore six years; is a member of Livermore Lodge, No. 218, F. & A. M.; of Sycamore Lodge, No.  129, I. O. O. F., of Hay wards, and of the Encampment also of that place. [Page 713]

PATRICK FLANAGAN, wagon and carriage manufacturer at Livermore, was born ^k. in County Galway, Ireland, February 28, 1850, and when he was a small child his parents left him with relatives while they emigrated to America. Some years later he came also and joined them at Litchfield, Connecticut, where they were residing. He learned the black- smith’s trade at Salisbury,Connecticut. In 1868 he went to Bridgeport, same State, and was engaged in the manufactory of Hoskis & Sons, in the building of wagons and carriages, blacksmithing, etc. In 1875 he came by rail to California and worked as a journeyman blacksmith in the shop of John Aylward at Livermore for about four years, and in 1880 he established himself in business in that town.  For his wife he took in wedlock Miss Annie Nevin, October 2, 1884. The names of their three children are Annie M., Thomas E. and Mary. [Page 713] 

A Memorial & Biographical History of Northern California :  Chicago : The Lewis Publishing Company, 1891

Transcribed by Martha A Crosley Graham, 10 October 2008 - Page Numbers listed with Biography


JOHN ALLMAN, the pioneer stage owner of the Pacific coast, has been a resident of California since 1850. He was born on shipboard in the harbor of Queenstown, and his parents, who were about sailing for America, were Thomas and Elizabeth (Doughty) Allman, natives of Bandon, Ireland. Arriving in Boston, his father immediately took out his papers as a citizen of the United States, and was soon after appointed, through American friends he had made while a young man attending the Corn Exchange in London, to a position in the appraiser’s department of the custom house in Boston. The son was educated in the public schools of their adopted city, and at the age of fourteen years he accompanied his father on a trip to New Orleans, where he was engaged in buying sugar and molasses for the Boston market. He there decided to strike out for himself, and shipped on a boat running up the Arkansas River, and later for a trip to Cincinnati and return.

On the discovery of gold in California in 1849, he determined to come to this State, and shipped as a boy on the Caroline C. Dow for home. After visiting his family, he and an older brother were to come to California, but the brother weakened at the last moment, and John got the benefit of his ticket, arriving in San Francisco, via Panama, on the first trip made by the steamshipTennessee, in 1850. He went immediately to the mines, and panned dirt in almost every digging in the Sierras, seeking for the place where gold could be shoveled up clear. During some three years of varied experience at Horse -Shoe Bar, Grass Valley, Murderer’s Bar, Rough and Ready, and Nevada City, he accumulated about $4,500 and the rheumatism, and succeeded in getting rid of both at about the same time! His money being exhausted he made another attempt in the mines, building a wing dam on theAmerican River. This brought on a relapse, which satisfied him with mining, and he decided to remain in San Francisco. In those early days that city was tilled with men for whom employment was scarce, and having given up the search for gold as arduous and uncertain in its results, they were returning to their homes in the East.

For several years Mr. Allman engaged in any employment that required well developed muscle, a clear understanding and a cheerful, buoyant spirit, and these qualities especially fitted him for the position, which he afterward took as passenger agent for one of the steamship lines then competing for the travel back to the States.  His unassuming but strict attention to business soon attracted the attention of Commodore Garrison, who gave him a position of trust as well as profit in connection with his lines. This connection continued until 1857, when the commodore returned to New York, where he established what became the largest steamship business in the world up to that time. Mr.  Allman returned home in 1855 and was married by the Rev. Bishop Eastburn, to Miss Mary Jean Dodson, a daughter of John W. and Henrietta Dodson, natives of the north of Ire- land, but who had long resided in Boston. She was a Sunday-school companion and a friend of his early youth, whose memory and the hope of making her his wife had been the guiding star of his existence and the inspiration of his labors and efforts in California.

He brought his wife to California and opened a hotel, which he conducted for some time. In 1859 he went to Healdsburg and engaged in the livery business. Horace F. Page, likewise engaged, began to run in opposition by letting rigs at starvation prices; but the very next year Mr. Allman sold him out by sheriff’s sale, and Page then left the place; and was after, ward Congressman from El Dorado County.  Mr. Allman established stage routes on the Russian River, and also from Healdsburg to Shasta City. .Two years later he extended his lines to Sacramento, covering about 160 miles, being then only twenty-seven years of age. At the same time he was carrying on livery stables at the White Sulphur Springs, at Healdsburg, and in order to maintain supervision over all he drove one side of the road himself, three times a week, thus keeping an eye on each stable every day. In addition he was agent for the Sacramento stages, and did all the business for the others himself.  During this time he had opposition on nearly all his lines, but finally by superior management he succeeded overcoming the opposition and forcing the Sacramento lines to be sold out by the sheriff. During this light the fare was at one time as low as one dollar from Napa to Sacramento, out of which he paid two tolls on the road. The very first year (1859) he sold out his opponent, Jonas McKensey, by sheriffs sale; and on the very day of the battle of Bull Run, at one o’clock in the afternoon, the latter stole up behind Mr. Allman and shot him twice, and both bullets Mr. Allman carries in his body to-day! Up to that time of iiis life he had never carried a weapon. Two years after the above event the men met again on a steamboat at Benicia bound for San Francisco, and on ar- rival at the wharf in that city McKensey commenced firing at Mr. Allman, one shot passing through the hand of officer Spooner, who was standing near. McKensey was struck twice.  Mr. Allman was tried in Judge Campbell’s po- lice court and at once acquitted.

In 1860 he went to Virginia City, and located ground on C Street, where the Metropolitan livery stable was afterward built, and adjoining Wells, Fargo & Co.’s express office of a later date, on which he built an ordinary stage barn, and paid $900 for three tons of common grass hay. He formed a partnership with Major Ormsby, who had been previously engaged in the stage business, to stock the road from Virginia City to Placerville. He had at that time one eleven-passenger stage coach, which he had taken apart and packed on mules a distance of seventy-five miles over the Sierra Nevada Mountains through the snow. He re- turned toCalifornia to purchase 150 head of horses and more coaches, and had bought a small part of his outfit when the news came by pony express that Major Ormsby had been killed in the Piute Indian war of Nevada.

Not having sufficient money to carry on this enterprise alone, Mr. Allman was obliged to dispose of this property to the best advantage.  On the breaking up of the California Stage Company’s business in 1866, he purchased six- teen eleven-passenger coaches, which, with swing-poles and harnesses for as many six-horse teams, he shipped to Sacramento, where he had the coaches painted, and advertised that he would buy 200 head of horses, which he did in two days. He had learned from parities coming from Montana that on account of the Missouri River being frozen, staple goods could be introduced into the territory only from California.  But Montana was tilled with robbers and high-waymen, making it dangerous to transport either goods or treasure, the Portmouth Canon robbery having occurred about this time, in which six men had been killed and $200,000 captured. These parties were outfitting with cattle from Los Angeles, to carry their goods to Helena, Montana, and Mr. Allnan bought the same class of goods and took the chance of beat- ing them into Montana by means of his fine horses, notwithstanding that they had ten days the start. His stock consisted of about 175 cases of Hayward long-legged gum boots, two tons heavy California clothing, 2,500 pounds long-handled shovels, one ton prospect pans, 1,000 pounds pick handles, and three tons of black gunpowder tea. He paid six dollars, six and one-fourth cents per pair for the boots, and sold them at an average of $24.50 per pair, and everything else in about the same proportion, having beaten the ox teams by over two weeks, and finding the territory empty of goods.

Before leaving for Montana he advertised to take passengers with 50 pounds of luggage for $150 each, including board, and shrewdly secured enough, with the drivers, to guard the train. Judge Burson, afterward nominated for Chief Justice of Montana, was one of his passengers, with 500 pounds of law books, and paid $600 for his passage, with the privilege of riding with Mr. Allman in his division buggy. He made Salt Lake from Sacramento in twenty-nine traveling days, scouring Utah in advance of the train from one end to the other, buying hay and grain, and making arrangements for the camp at night; and he never found one person in the Territory who could figure up in the morning what was due him for hay. They recruited but two days at Salt Lake, after traveling 700 miles, ail the men and horses being in good health and condition.

Starting on the next stage of the journey, 720 miles, to Helena, all went well until they crossed the Bear River, and reached the east Mormon settlement. He there bought a stack of about eight tons of hay for $40. This Mormon demanded his pony at night, contrary to the usual custom. During the night the horses became perfectly wild, and in the morning when hitched up they would not pull a pound ; and there was not a Mormon to be found in the settlement. The hay was “crazy grass.” Ten of the horses could not be moved, and were traded off for hay. The others recovered slowly, and the whole train was delayed for four days.  Meanwhile they reached the crossing of the last range of the Rocky Mountains, with about nine miles of soft snow ahead before entering theTerritory of Montana. They cooked Chili beans and pork enough for all hands, packing them in gunny-sacks, and allowing five days for the trip across the snow. It took them nine days, on some of which they did not make a quarter of a mile, the snow being so deep and the men and horses nearly exhausted. Two of the men and several horses succumbed to the hardships of the passage. Every passenger, even Chief Justice Burson, was pressed into the service of driving these six-horse teams, and Mr. Allman paid a man living in the neighborhood, who had a sled and a yoke of steers, $150 to help him through the last quarter of a mile. Had he not been a man of herculean strength and iron nerve he could never have accomplished it.  When every other man lay down at night exhausted he would carry goods in his arms ahead of the wagon and pile them up for the coaches when they reached them the next day. They had to feed the horses on flour and snow water, while the men lived on beans, which were frozen solid in the sacks, and had to be cut off in chunks with axes.

At one time he found there was a conspiracy among some of the passengers to take the horses and push through, leaving the coaches and goods in the snow. This was nipped in the bud by knocking the ringleader on the head with his revolver and disarming him; this prompt action bringing enough of the other passengers to his support to overawe the conspirators and crush out the attempt.

He sold out his whole outfit at Helena, with a clear profit of about $48,000 on the venture, but with no means of getting hither himself or such a quantity of gold dust out of the Ter- ritory. After the Missouri River opened he was able to reach St. Joseph,Missouri, by boat, and carried his dust and securities with him. The Vigilance Committee at Helena had vouched to him for two others who had a large amount of gold, and to the others for him. Each of these gentlemen took his regular watch over the dust. At St. Joe they took the train, and on the afternoon of July 4, 1866, they arrived at the. Continental Hotel in Philadelphia, where a large and intensely excited crowd blocked up the street to watch these gentlemen carry their sacks of gold-dust into tlie hotel. Mr. Allman then went to Washington, and secured from Postmaster General Randall a contract for carrying the mails from Hellgate, otherwise known as Missoula Mills, Montana, to Wallnla, Washington Territory, the head of navigation on the Columbia River. This route covered a distance of 600 miles, passing through Flathead Agency on Kansas Prairie, Vermilion Creek, to Pendoreille Lake, where they ferried the mails across the lake from Pendoreille City to Cabinet Landing, crossing Snake River three times, and so through Walla Walla to Wallula.

For a number of years after this Mr. AUman was a very prominent mail contractor, opening up new routes to many parts of the great country which had never before had the benefit of postal or any other reliable means of communication with the outside world. He has invariably secured his mail contracts by personal efforts at headquarters in Washington, returning to the coast to see that they were properly executed. For the past thirty years he has owned and operated stage routes more or less continuously, and meeting the most celebrated men of the period from all parts of the world, who have at one time or other traveled on the Pacific coast. Besides this he has al- ways been a large operator in mines and real estate.

In 1880 he obtained the Government mail contracts from Dayton, Nevada, by way of Neason Valley to Belleville, ninety miles, and from Virginia City, same State, to Bodie, California, 125 miles, and also from Aurora to Independence, California, 150 miles, and stocked all of them.  The National Stage Company were running from Carson City, Nevada, to Bodie, and also to Belleville, and the two lines were therefore in competition. They commenced cutting fare.  Mr. Allman, however, made but one cut, and that was from $17 to $7, when hay was worth $60 a ton and barley four cents a pound. The opposition company soon came to Mr. Allman and purchased 400 miles of his service, coaches, horses and harness.

In 1884 J. L. Sanderson & Co. extended their service over Mr. Allman’s roads on the north coast by misrepresentation atWashington.  Mr. Allman warned them, but in vain. Nevertheless, lie stocked every road they had where there was good travel, and in less than two years he had them sold out. They were attached by their creditors and left the State, $30,000 in debt, to their drivers, hostlers, etc.

There are three children in his family: John Henry, a graduate of the Golden Gate Academy, Oakland, and now superintendent of a large milling plant in Washington; Emma Jean, a graduate of Mills Seminary, and now the wife of Major Tompkins, of Oakland; and George Dodson, also a graduate of the Golden Gate Academy, and a merchant of Washington. [Pages 540-542]

JOHN ALLYN, capitalist, in St. Helena, a truly representative and most highly respected citizen, has resided in this place for over twenty years, always taking a forward part in matters of public benefit, and standing prominently before his fellow townsmen. He is an unusually good instance of the self-made man, — one who by diligence, economy and rectitude has made his way upward from narrow circum- stances to affluence, who has won a superior education by his own efforts and by the native force of his mind has taken a leading part in every position in which he has been placed. As a writer of polished and forceful English, in the domain both of poetry and prose, he has been much noticed and admired.

Dr. Allyn was born in 1820, in Litchlield County, Connecticut, w here his father was a respected but not wealthy farmer. In his sixteenth year the family removed to Ohio, where Mr. Allyn took the full advantage of his educational opportunities. After reaching the age of twenty he obtained a school, which he taught during the winter, working during the summers and all the time carrying on his studies at Oberlin College. He went thence to Illinois, and thence to Cincinnati, and graduated at Lane Theological Seminary. At that time Dr. Lyman Beecher was at the bead of that institution, and Dr. Stowe was one of the professors. His health failing, young Allyn was forced to abandon his intentions of entering the ministry of the Presbyterian Church, and he began to practice law at Carrollton, Greene County. Illinois.  He was admitted to practice before the Supreme Court of Illinois, May 5, 1846, his name being enrolled April 8, 1850. His health failing again, however, he decided to try a change of climate, and accordingly came to California in the summer of 1851, reaching San Francisco, September 1st of that year, after the great fire that devastated that city. He did not stop there but went on at once to Tuolnmne County.  Whilst in Stockton on his way, his money gave out, and he had to walk ail the way to Sonora meeting while on the way three men with blankets on their backs who informed him that the dirt at Sonora had been worked over three, times already. He pushed on, however, and found that after the rains came many did well.  Not being strong enough to mine, Mr. Allyn went into the manufacture of rocker;:, “ long- toms,” etc., and afterward engaged in store- keeping, at the same time paying some little attention to real estate. In 1858 he went to  the Fraser River, following the excitement of that year. The rush was tremendous, a large proportion of those going losing money. There were no less than 10,000 people in Victoria in one day during that season. Mr. Allyn went up to Fort Yale and from there to Fort Hope, on the Fraser, and in the latter place stayed for the winter, going into business at that point.  He then returned to Victoria, going into business first for a year, and afterward for the remaining two years of his residence in that city, buying and selling real estate. During the year 1861 he lived at Port Townsend and followed the profession of dentistry, f<^r which he had fitted himself.

In 1864 he went to Oakland and located in that city, it having then a population of only 2,000 people. In the summer of 1870, as already stated, he came to St. Helena, bought a tract of twenty acres in the town, built his comfortable residence and set out twenty acres of grapes. When the vines were six years old the vineyard yielded ninety-six tons of grapes, or eight tons per acre. The following year the return was $200 per acre in grapes. These facts show the value of vineyard land in the vicinity of St. Helena, and although fluctuations in prices have made a difference, yet there is always a demand for better varieties. To further illustrate the fertility of the soil it may be stated that Dr. Allyn, in the presence of the writer, measured some gum trees which he had planted along Scott Avenue in 1873. They ranged up to six feet and a half in circumference, or over two feet in diameter, with heights of over sixty feet, and tops cut off every three years; this is the growth of sixteen years without irrigation, the trees being simply planted and left to get along as best they might.

In his own person, however, perhaps Dr.  Allyn is the best recommendation of California that can be given, as he is a splendid instance of what our climate is capable of. Although never a man of robust health, yet he has attained the age of seventy years with still a capacity for close and continuous care to his multifarious business interests or to literary effort, and is never deterred by weather or circumstances from going out to everything that may need his attention.

Dr. Allyn has never sought political life, but has always had the confidence of his fellow citizens. He has been School Trustee and a member of the Board of Town Trustees for eight His first marriage was unfortunate and resulted in a divorce. In June, 1851, he married Miss Sophronia Scott, daughter of the late William Scott, of Peterboro, New Hampshire, with whom he still lives. Twins were born to them, but died in infancy. He has one son, living in Ventura.

In religion Dr. Allyn is liberal and a firm believer in a future life from his own investigations of spiritual phenomena. He claims that he has repeatedly received from deceased friends directly into his own hands writings between closed and sealed slates in broad daylight! {Page 361]


FRANK L. COOMBS, attorney at law, and now for the second term representing his district in the State Legislature, is a native Californian, having been born in Napa, December 27, 1853. Attending the public schools until sixteen years of age he was then sent to Boston, Massachusetts, where he attended the High School. He received his legal education at the Columbian School, Washington, District of Columbia, being admitted to practice before the District Supreme Court in 1875.  Returning to California he engaged in the practice of law, and was elected District Attorney of Napa County for two terms. He served five years, holding over for one year on the first term, until the provisions of the new constitution should take effect. His parents were Nathan and Isabella (Gordon) Coombs, his father a native of. Massachusetts and his mother of New Mexico. His father crossed the plains to Oregon in 1842, arriving in this State a year later, and settled in Yolo County, where he engaged in cattle-raising. He was one of the original “Bear Flag” party, which in Sonoma in 1846 first raised the flag of Californian independence of Mexico. In 1845 he acquired a Spanish grant, which included the present site of the city of Napa, and much of this land is still in possession of his children.  He represented the county for two terms in the State Legislature..

Mr. Frank Coombs was married in 1879, to Miss Belle M. Roper, a native of Boston, whom lie had met while attending school there. Her parents were Foster and Sophia Roper, now residents of .Napa. They have three children, Nathan, Amy and Frank. Mr. Coombs and family are attendants of the Presbyterian Church. He has always been an ardent supporter of the Republican Party and its ideas.  He is largely interested in stock-raising, agriculture and horticulture. He has one ranch of 350 acres and another of 1,200 acres in the vicinity of Napa. On one of these he has an orchard of twenty acres of peaches, the fruit of which is mostly sold in San Francisco. The balance of these ranches is devoted to the raising of line stock, and the necessary hay and pasturage for them. His cattle are mostly dairy cows of fair grade, but his horses are of line trotting strains, of the Dexter, Wilkes, Mambrino, Patchen, Almont and other leading families. One of these, Lillie Stanley, has made 2:17-| on the Patchen course. Those still too young for the track are giving promise of great speed. But his enthusiastic interest in his work as a legislator has given Mr. Coombs his greatest prominence in public affairs. During the two sessions in which he has been a representative, he has never missed a morning roll-call, and in the last he was the Republican nominee for Speaker of the Assembly. Among other important measures with which he has been identified was the passage of the ‘• pure wine law,” which he framed, and which promises to be of great benefit to that interest in the State. He conceived the idea that as the citrus fruits matured too late to take advantage of the county fairs, there should be held in the winter season a series of citrus fairs, and to that end introduced an item into the general bill appropriating $10,000 to aid that movement, and in order to prevent any conflict arising from local jealousy provided that one-half should be ex- pended in Southern and one-half in Northern California. He assisted materially in the passage of the Wright Irrigation Bill, to which although representing a district that does not require irrigation, he extended his friendly aid.

He was largely instrumental in passing the Mutual Insurance Bill, designed for the protection of the public against the exorbitant rates of the Insurance Compact. This important bill, which would have given great relief to the people of the State, was unfortunately vetoed by the Governor During the excitement in reference to hydraulic mining, when the differences between the valley agricultural interests and those of the miners seemed almost impossible to be reconciled, and about the time that the Waiworth Impounding Bill was defeated in the Senate, Mr. Coombs introduced a resolution requesting the appointment by Congress of a commission to ascertain whether hydraulic mining could be carried on without violating the Federal laws, and to consider and recommend the best methods for clearing the rivers and harbors of any debris arising there from. This resolution was incorporated in a bill which passed Congress providing for such a commission and appropriating money for its expenses.  But perhaps the most useful and valuable of all the labors of this popular and rising young legislator were his untiring efforts to search out and defeat measures inimical to the interests of the people, and his devotion to this ordinarily thankless, but most necessary and important, part of his duties at the State capital will not soon be forgotten. [Page 741]


HARRY W. DURFOR is proprietor of the daily stage route from Redding to Baird, where the United States Fishery is located. He is also the mail and express carrier on this line, and carries the news and correspondence of the county to three postofhces, Stillwater, Buckeye and Baird.

Mr. Durfor was born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, November 22, 1854, the son of Edwin T. and Elizabeth (Heidieffener) Durfor. His father was also a native of Philadelphia, and followed the butchering business in that city for a number of years. In 1859 they crossed the plains to California with ox teams.  They first settled in Butte County, at Inskip, and engaged in mining, which occupation the father has followed the most of the time since coming to California. Mr. and Mrs. Durfor reared a family of five children, the subject of tins sketch being the eldest. He, too, has mined a great deal in this State, and has also been interested in farming. He owns eighty acres at Stillwater, on which he has built and which he has improved by planting a variety of fruit trees. After purchasing the stage route he removed from his farm to Redding. His sister, an amiable young lady, keeps house for him and attends the Redding High School.  His younger brother is in his employ. They drive alternate days, and use two good pairs of horses. The route a portion of the way is through a pleasant farming country, then over a rocky and mountainous road.

Politically Mr. Durfor is a Republican. He is also a temperance man. [Page 742]


GEORGE W. GORDON, a prominent horticulturist near Haywards, was born in Orange County, New York, September 20, 1843, and was reared and educated in Middletown, in his native county, until 1861, when he enlisted as a private soldier in the First New York Mounted Rifles, and served as such until 1864, when he was mustered out of service at City Point, near Richmond, Virginia, and returned to his native State, where he engaged in the dry-goods trade until 1866. He then went to Cleveland, Ohio, where he continued in the mercantile trade until 1870. Going then to Chicago he was manager of a mercantile house there for eighteen years. His ambition led him to exert his utmost energies to attain the front rank of the mercantile circle; but this impaired his health, so that by the year 1888 he concluded to come to California; and hither he came, locating at Hajwards and purchasing sixteen acres of good land, where he devotes his entire attention to horticultural pursuits. He raises a large and choice variety of all the citrus fruits. He is a member of the Fruit-Growers’ Association of Haywards. Politically he is a Republican, and in May, 1890, he was elected a member of the Board of Town Trustees. He is also a prominent member of the G. A. R., and affiliates with the F. & A. M. of Chicago. He is the youngest of five sons in his father’s family, and lhs three sisters. He was married in Chicago,May 7, 1874, to Miss Julia Hubbard, a native of that city. Her father was one of the first builders and promoters of  public enterprise in that city. [Page 743]


WILLIAM KING, a retired farmer of Yolo County, was born January 1, 1838, in Knox County, Tennessee, a son of Alfred A. and Sarah (Sharp) King, father a native of North Carolina and mother of Tennessee. The father, a farmer by vocation, moved from North Carolina to Tennessee with his parents, where he remained until 1840; and then resided in Jackson County until 1849, when he came to California across the plains, settling first in Sonoma County, where he remained until his death, in March, 1853, when he was about forty-four years of age. William was brought up on a Tennessee farm and in Missouri three years, and came to California in 1852, across the continent, being from May 5 till September 28 on the road, and ever since then has made his home in Yolo County, chiefly as a farmer. The first two years he worked for wages, and after that he had a farm of his own, which he sold out in 1876, and since then he has lived a somewhat retired life. He has been Justice of the Peace since 1879. It can be said that Mr. King has done his share of work and borne his share of burdens, as he commenced to work on his own responsibility at the age of seventeen years, in California. He was only sixteen years of age when lie made trips to the mines with ox teams, taking provisions there and returning with lumber. Where they settled in Yolo County there were but three others living in his township. He was married March 30, 1864, to Miss R. M. Montgomery, a native of Missouri, and they have two sons and six daughters. [Page 743]


HAMDEN W. MclNTYRE.— The gentleman who is most concerned in this biographical sketch is a man whose modesty is scarcely less marked than his ability.  He is in the prime of life, uncommonly tall and in bearing a courteous gentleman. He passed his boyhood on a Vermont farm, and dates his birth at Randolph, September 28, 1834. His father, James Mclntyre, was a native of Vermont, as was also his mother.  His paternal ancestors were of Scotch extraction; and his mother, nee Charlotte Blodget, traces her ancestry to Connecticut.

He was educated in his native State, at an Orange County grammar school, working and teaching school between times to pay his tuition.  At the acre of twenty years he learned the trade of piano and organ maker. In 1857, he went to Canada, where he became the superintendent of a lumber firm, near Ottawa, and remained there years in their employ. In 1860 he returned to Elmira,New York, and engaged in the manufacturing of machinery until 1870.  On the breaking out of the war, he left his business under the management of his foreman and went to Washington, District of Columbia, where he was appointed as an engineer in the navy yard, remaining there employed in the production of gunboat machinery until 1865, when he enlisted in the First New York Veteran Cavalry, and was discharged the same year near Charleston, South Carolina; then he returned to Elmira and conducted  his manufacturing business.

Mr. Mclntyre’s favorite studies have been chemistry and mathematics, the former being first in his regard. His bent of mind in this direction led him doubtless to the study of fermentation and practical wine-making at the cellars of the Pleasant Valley Wine Company in New York, simply as a pastime during a period of idleness enforced by ill-health further and broader reading and study of this and kindred subjects followed, during the long winter nights of a ten-years residence in Alaska, where he was agent at St. Paul’s Island for the Alaska Commercial Company.

In 1881 he commenced wine-making in California at Captain Niebaum’s Ingleuook Winery in Napa County, remaining there until 1887, when he came to Vina and took entire charge of the vineyard and winery of Leland Stanford.  He is a master of civil and mechanical engineering. The winery buildings at Vina, with the exception of the old fermenting house, were constructed from his designs and under his personal supervision, and many of the leading wineries of the State have also been constructed from his designs in whole or in part, or from his plans and drawings in full. Among them may be mentioned the Inglenook Winery atRutherford, Bourne & Wise’s at St. Helena, M.  M. Estee’s at Napa, Mrs. Collins’ at Mountain View, John Burson’s at Oakville, Goodman & Co’s. at Oak Knoll, near Napa City, C.

P. Adamson’s and Ewer & Atkinson’s at Rutherford, Leland Stanford’s at Menlo Park and the late John A. Paxton’s at Santa Rosa.

Mr. Mclntyre was joined in marriage at Elmira, New York, in November 1859, with Miss Susan H. Johnson, a native of Maine. They have had two children, both now deceased.  Politically he is a Republican, and takes an active part in politics, being at present a member of the County Central Committee. He also affiliates with the F & A. M., Union Lodge, No.  95, Chapter No. 42, R. A. M., Soutlieriiteen Council, No. 16, R. & S. M., St. Omar Commandery, K. T., No. 19, of Elmira, and Corning Consistory, of Corning, New York. He has taken all the degrees in the York and Scottish Rite up to the Thirty- third, and has served in the chairs of all degrees, except the Consistory.  [Pages 744 - 745]


MARTIN CORRIGAN came to California in 1852, and for two years was a miner on Trinity River. In 1854 he came to TehamaCounty, and has grown up with the city of Red Bluff. It was an embryo town when he began his business career in it, and he has seen its wonderful growth and development, and has not been an idle looker-on, but an active worker and a builder of the place.

Mr. Corrigan was born in County Kilkenny, Ireland, November 11, 1826. His parents, Thomas and Ann (Condor) Corrigan, were natives of the same county. His father was a black-smith, and also carried on farming in a limited way. Both Mr. and Mrs. Corrigan were devout Catholics. They were the parents of ten children, of whom the subject of this sketch was the sixth. He received a limited education, and learned the blacksmith trade in his father’s shop. In 1846, at the age of twenty years, he left home and friends, and sailed for America to make his fortune in the “land of the free and the home of the brave. “ He settled in Chicago when that city was in its infancy. It was a muddy little town, with a pole stuck up in the middle of the street, with a sign on it which read “No Bottom.” After working at his trade there for six years, he crossed the plains, in 1852, and spent two years at mining, meeting with indifferent success. He then opened his blacksmith shop in Red Bluff, at the corner of Main and Pine streets, where his fine block now stands. He carried on the blacksmith business for sixteen years, until 1870, when his shop burned. The ground on which it stood had become too valuable to be used for that purpose, 80 ha erected some store rooms on it, and rented them. In 1882 they also were destroyed by fire. He then put up his present handsome block of buildings. He has four store rooms in a row, occupied by first-class business firms. He is now erecting another building on Main Street, 40x70 feet and two stories high. The lower story is to be occupied by a merchant tailor and a restaurant, and the upper rooms are for a lodging house. Mr. Corrigan owns a ranch of 1,315 acres, which also he rents.  It is used principally as a stock farm. He owns a beautiful residence on High Street, only a short distance from the business center of the city.

Mr. Corrigan was married, in 1870, to Miss Catherine Sweeney, a native of Fall River, Massachusetts. Their union has been blessed with five beautiful daughters, all born in Red Bluff. All are at this writing residing with their parents. Mrs. Corrigan and her daughters are members of the Catholic Church.

At the time of the great fire in Chicago, Mr.  Corrigan returned to that stricken city to’ visit and, if possible, aid his friends. He has since made two trips to Chicago, and on one of these visits his wife accompanied him. Mr. Corrigan is a good citizen, who attends strictly to his own business, and thinks for himself. He is generous and liberal in all his views. Politically he is a Democrat. He believes that one man is just as good as any other man as long as he is as well behaved. He is quiet and unassuming in his manner, and never seeks notoriety in any way. [Page 745]


JAMES D. AUSTIN, one of the old and highly respected citizens of Haywards, was born in Anderson County, South Carolina, May 11, 1831. His parents, James and Margaret (McCurdy) Austin, were both natives of the same State and died when he was a boy, in 1839. He was then taken in charge by relatives near Marietta, Georgia. In 1852 he went to Franklin County, and the next year to Texas, where, however, he stopped but a few months.  He came on to California by way of El Paso, Tucson, Fort Yuma, San Diego, and thence by water to San Francisco. He followed mining among the Mariposa mines and in that vicinity until 1859, when he settled in Haywards. For the first four years there he had the care of live stock, and afterward he dealt in live stock for several years. Selling out his business in this interest, he went to Denver, Colorado, and kept hotel for four years. In 1875 he returned to Haywards, where he built the American Hotel, and has conducted it in a thorough manner to the present time, gaining for it a good repu- tation. He has been a member of the Board of Town Trustees, and was elected Justice of the Peace in 1880, which office he still holds. He is a Master Mason of Haywards and a member of Oakland Chapter, No. 36, R. A. M.; and he also affiliates with the A. O. U. W. at Haywards.  He was first married in 1870, at Haywards, to Susan Brnmhiller, who died in 1882; and lie was married again, at Oakland, to Mrs. Matilda Baker, and by this marriage there is one child, named Emma J. [Page 745]


GEORGE S. McKENZIE, the popular and energetic Sheriff of Napa County, has been a resident of California and of Napa Countysince 1879. Born at Kogers’ Hill, Pictou County, Nova Scotia, June 17, 1856, he received his early education in the public schools, but at the acre of twelve years he started out for himself, working a single machine, then at making furniture, and from this advanced to carriage-building, earning enough money in the summer to pay for continuing his schooling in the winter. At the age of seventeen he set up a carriage shop of his own, employing three men, in his native town, where he continued for five years. During a few mouths of that time he worked in Boston, Massachusetts, under instructions, perfecting himself in the arts of car- riage painting and wood-work. In 1875 he sold out his carriage business and came to California, where three of his brothers had already established themselves, and settled in Monticello, Napa County, resuming the carriage-making repairing and blacksmithing business, at which he continued, working at the trade himself until 1880. Meeting with an accident to his right arm, which disabled him from active work at his trade, he bought out a store and engaged in mercantile business in connection with his carriage shop. In 1888 he was persuaded by his friends to become a candidate for the office of Sheriff, and carrying the nomination of the Republican convention against three competitors, he was elected by a good majority, the first Republican sheriff in NapaCounty for twelve years. In 1889 he removed with his family to Napa, having sold out his carriage shop, though still retaining his mercantile business in Monticello. Besides property to a considerable amount in Monticello, Mr. McKenzie has a ranch of 160 acres in Berrjessa Valley, is a man of broad views, highly respected, and a worthy representative of the young, enthusiastic and progressive element in business, politics and society.  

May 1, 1884, he married Miss Alice M. Clark, daughter of Mr. Abraham Clark, of Berryessa Valley, where she was born, her father having been one of the earliest settlers of that region.  To them have been born three children, two of whom are still living. The eldest child, Harvey, died from congestion of the brain, caused by a fall, at the age of eleven months. Mr. McKenzie’s parents were Murdock and Nancy (Gunn) McKenzie. His mother still occupies the old homestead, but his father died two years ago.   

Always an ardent Republican, he has been for four years a member of the Republican County Committee, and was a delegate to the last State Congressional Convention at San Francisco.  Mr. McKenzie is a thorough American in his views, his early visit toBoston and residence there having placed him in perfect sympathy with the institutions of this country. Immediately on his arrival in California he identified himself with the interests of his adopted country, by taking out his naturalization papers, and be- came a citizen and firm supporter of the Government. In 1888 he made a visit to the home of his parents, spending considerable time inBoston and New York, and finally settling all his business interests outside of California. He attends the Presbyterian Church, is a member of the I. O. O. F.’ Lodge, No. 18, also of Live Oak Encampment, both of Napa City. [Pages 746-747]


VIRGILIUS P. BAKER is a pioneer and a worthy citizen of Red Bluff, and to him is much credit due for the share be has taken in the building up and beautifying of the town. A brief sketch of his life is herewith given.

Mr. Baker was born in New York, December 21, 1825, the son of Solomon and Sarah Baker, both natives of New York, he being the youngest in a family of ten children. His educational advantages were limited, as he was sent to school during the winter months only, and he began to earn his living when he was twelve years old. He learned the carpenter’s trade, and became a contractor and builder. When he was twenty- two years of age Mr. Baker married Miss Jane Lowrey. He had removed to Cass County, Michigan, when he was thirteen, and his marriage occurred there. He continued working at his trade, carrying on contracting and building there until 1853.  In that year he came to the far West and settled in Red Bluff. When he landed in the embryo town, he had his wife and two little children with him to support, and had just one five- dollar gold piece in his pocket. He pitched their tent on the bank of the river, after which he started for the store, which was then kept by a Mr. Bull, intending to purchase tome pro- visions and to make his money go as far as it could in buying flour, pork and other things.  When the storekeeper was told what his customer wanted, he weighed a piece of pork and said: “That comes to $5. If you don’t want that much, you don’t want any.” Mr. Baker returned to his tent with a feeling of discouragement. Soon Captain Reed and his good wife, who were keeping the hotel, stepped down to their tent to see and greet the new-comers.  When that gentleman learned the family were short of provisions, he said, “ You can come to my house and get all the grub you want until you can work and earn money.” It was a generous and kind offer, and it tilled Mr. Baker and his wife with lasting gratitude, and they have always treasured the highest regard for him who 80 nobly befriended them in their time of need.  The next day Mr. Baker obtained employment, and began work at §10 per day; and he has never since that time known what it was to be short of provisions. He soon after got the job of building the frame hotel on the ground where the Fremont now stands. An oak tree stood on Main Street, opposite, and a few rods south of the building. There he moved his tent and his family, and there he lived while he worked at the building.

At this time all the hauling was done by wagon trains; and when the men came down from the North, they stored their money with Mrs. Baker for safe-keeping while they were in the town. She buried it under the tent, and at times had as much as $200,000 buried there.  When the men called for their money it was nothing unusual for them to give the children $10 or even $20; so Mrs. Baker was the pioneer banker of the town. Money was plenty and not valued very highly; it went as freely as it came.  Mr. Baker continued to work at his trade until 1856. By that time he had saved $3,000 in fifty-dollar gold slugs. He made a trip East, going by water, and two months later returned to California. He again took up his business of contracting and building, and worked at it for eighteen years. In 1870 he turned his attention to farming; purchased 400 acres of bottom land, farmed it for live years, and sold it at a handsome profit. He then retired from business. Since that time, however, he has done some contracting. Since his residence at Red Bluff he has erected a greater part of the best buildings in the city. In 1853 he purchased the lots on which his present home is situated.  He first built a house costing $2,200, which still stands. In 1881 he built his present residence — one of the finest in the city — and it is a fitting place for the venerable mechanic to spend the evening of Iris useful life. His family consists of his wife and four children. The two older children were born in Michigan and the others in Red Bluff. Their names are Stephen, Sarah, Edward and William. Edward was the first male white child born in Red Bluff; and when the Baker family came here there were only two white women in the town.  As in most places in California, there was a strike and litigation over the title of their lands, and it cost Mr. Baker $9,000 to defend his title, in which he finally succeeded. The subject of this sketch now lives on the rent of his buildings and the interest of his money. He is a Republican and a good citizen.  No one needs wonder that Red Bluff prospered when he contemplates the class of men who were the founders. [Pages 758-759]


CHARLES R. MAYHEW, a California pioneer, the son of a California pioneer, and one of Red Bluff’s worthy citizens, was born in St. Louis, Missouri, August 31, 1844. His father, William Perry Mayhew, well known in California as Uncle Billy Mayhew, now resides with his son, Charles R., in Red Bluff. He was born in Carthage, Ohio, September 20, 1816, and now, at the age of seventy-four, is hale and hearty, weighs 245 pounds, and is a fine specimen of the worthy pioneers of the Golden State. He married Miss Adaline Hubbel, a native of Ohio, and by her had six children, only two of whom survive.  The Mayhew family, accompanied by Mrs.  Mayhew’s mother and step-father, Mr. Rogers, crossed the plains to California in 1849, being five and a half months en route. While on this journey Charles R., passed his fifth birthday.  The company divided on the plains, one part preceding the others. When the first party came to the point where the Carson and Lassen routes met, they left letters informing those following which way they had taken. The persons with whom the letters were entrusted destroyed them, and sent the rear party on the other route. The Lassen, the route on which they were sent, being the longest, they did not arrive for some considerable time after the first party reached their destination. Being thus delayed they ran out of provisions and much suffering was incurred. Grandfather Rogers traveled twenty miles on foot to get provisions, and left his wife alone while he was gone. They built fires and discharged guns to guide him back to them.

Upon their arrival in California Mr. Mayhew took his cattle across the Sacramento River and camped where the China Slough of Sacramento is now located. When he returned to the camp one day after a short absence Mr. Mayhew found his wife making pies of a sack of dried apples they had brought with them. A number of men were standing near. In answer to her husband’s query as to what «he was doing, she replied that she had started a bakery, and was making pies for the men at one dollar each.  The following winter was a memorable one to many of the California pioneers and especially so to Mr. Mayhew. On the fourth of November the mother died. She was a faithful help- mate and a loving wife and mother, and, what was more, a true and earnest Christian woman.  Her loss was deeply felt by her little family and husband. Mr. Mayhew had rented the brig Traveler, that was lying in the river, and was keeping hotel in it, a part of Sacramento being under water. While there another death occurred in his family: the little baby brother died.

In the spring Mr. Mayhew went to the mines on Feather River and left the subject of this sketch and his two sisters, Sarah and Alice, with Grandfather and Grandmother Rogers, who moved to Santa Clara. Their father was in the mines three years and when he returned to Marysville he had just ten cents left. He bought a six-mule team on credit, and engaged in freighting to the mines from Marysville. By the third trip he had made enough to pay for the outfit, and he continued the business that season very successfully. The old California Stage Company established a stage line between Sacramento and Portland, Oregon, and made Mr. Mayhew a proposition to drive for them at a salary of $150 per month. He accepted the proposition and drove a four and sometimes b six horse stage from Hamilton to Teiiania. a distance of about sixty miles.  At this time he became acquainted with a widow, Mrs. Besse, whom he wedded in the fall of 1853. In May, 1854, he went to Santa Clara to get his children, and brought them with him by steamboat up the river to Tehama County. They landed at the mouth of Deer Creek. Peter Lassen’s house was on one side of the river and Mr. Mayhew’s on the other both adobe houses. A large number of Indians had assembled to see the white children, who were very much frightened. Charles tried to be brave, but the girls felt quite certain that they were going to be killed. At that time the Indians had a rancheria on the banks of the river, and more than two hundred of them were there. It was not an uncommon sight to see large numbers of antelope. There were also plenty of grizzly bears in Tehama County at that time. Our subject, although a boy at the time, distinctly remembers when the first telegraph was put up through the county.  Charles R. Mayhew was in attendance at the University of the Pacific in 1863, and it was his intention to finish a course of study there.  His father meeting with reverses, he changed his plans, left school, came to Deer Creek, and, in company with his brothers-in-law, J. T. Gibbs and Daniel Sill, drove a band of cattle to Squaw Valley. From there he made weekly trips to Virginia City, Nevada, driving cattle, continuing that business until he fell from his horse and broke his leg. His brother-in-law came back, took sick and died. They had eighty-six head of cattle apiece, which his brother-in-law took to Honey Lake Valley to winter. The Indians killed so many of them that in the spring each of them had only thirty-six left, which they sold for ten dollars apiece. Mr. Mayhew gave his money to his father, and accepted a clerkship in the Fremont Hotel at Red Bluff.

During this time he also had the stage office for seven months while the agent was absent. On his return the California Stage Company sent Mr. Mayhew to Yreka, to take charge of their office at that place. February 28, 1866, he crossed the Scott and Trinity mountains on a sleigh, it being his first sleigh ride.

On the nineteenth day of the following July Mr. Mayhew was married to Miss Mary A.  Kerns, a native of Ohio, their marriage taking place at Bell’s Bridge, Shasta County. He re- turned with his bride to Yreka and continued there for some time. Their union has been blessed with five children, three daughters and two sons. Frank L., the oldest, was born at Bell’s Bridge, October 15, 1868. The others were born at Red Bluff, viz.: Arthur B., Carrie R., Alice M. and .

In October, 1867, Mr. Mayhew bought the New York House, at the foot of Scott Mountain, in Trinity Valley. The Western Union Telegraph Company gave him an agency and sent him an operator of whom he learned the business in six weeks. The following July he sold out, removed to Chico, started a furniture store and remained there three months. From that place he came to Red Bluff and accepted the position of book keeper for Mr. J. E. Church, a prominent merchant.

In 1872, in partnership with S. D. Clark, a pioneer of the town, he opened a grocery and provision store, beginning business on a small scale. Their friends predicted a short business career for them and gave them as a limit three months. They, however, succeeded beyond their own expectations and soon bought out Mr. Henry F. Dibble, a prominent merchant.  After this hard times came on and nearly every firm in the town failed except theirs. In 1884 Mr. Mayhew bought out his partner, assumed all the indebtedness and took a bill of all the property. He paid his partner, and the creditors accepted Mr. Mayhew for the indebtedness of the firm. In the spring of 1885 he built two brick stores, on the corner of Walnut and Washington streets, seventy-five feet front by eighty feet deep. The room which he occupies is fifty by eighty feet. The other room is rented. The building has a tine basement with concrete floor. Mr. Mayhew has been in business for eighteen years, deals in general merchandise and handles large quantities of wool, and still retains customers who began to trade with him at the beginning of his business career. He built a residence at the corner of Jefferson and Hickory streets, which is surrounded with a beautiful lawn and which makes a very attractive home. He also has another house which he built and rents.

Mr. Mayhew is the owner of 320 acres of land, located eight miles south of Red Bluff, which he has subdivided into ten-acre lots, and which he is selling to actual settlers. This is called La Bonita tract. It is fine fruit land and is in a desirable location. In 1885 he made a trip East for health and rest, and traveled through twenty-four States and Territories. He returned much benefited in health. 

Politically Mr. Mayhew is a Republican and has been all his life. In 1876 he was elected Treasurer of Tehama County. He and his wife and two of their children are members of the Christian Church. He is a member of the  I. O. O. F., and for twenty years he has been a member of the Grand Lodge. [Pages 759-760]


JOHN GILMORE, a pioneer and well-to-do rancher of Red Bluff, came to California in 1856. He was born in Owensdale, Fayette County, Pennsylvania, December 24, 1835, and comes of an old pioneer family of Carbondale, that State. His father, John Gilmore, was born in Carbondale, owned a farm there, and there married Mary Baker, a native of New York. Mr. Gilmore was the youngest of their nine children, and is now (1890) the only survivor of the family, his parents having died more than twenty years ago. The whole family were members of the Baptist Church. Like the majority of farmer boys, the subject of this sketch went to school in winter, and worked on the farm in summer. Upon arriving at the age of twenty-one, he set out for the Golden State to make his fortune, coming by the water route, and he has not been disappointed in the results obtained from his labor here. He is now the owner of 600 acres of beautiful farm land, within three-quarters of a mile of the city of Red Bluff. He first located at Oroville, after which he came to this place and bought out a squatter, Robert Riggs. His original purchase was 160 acres, and he lived on it in a board shanty for awhile. From lime to time he has added to his property until it has reached its present proportions. For the most of it he paid $13 per acre. Now its value per acre is $100.

For a year Mr. Gilmore lived on his ranch without a partner to share in his joys and sor- rows. He then wedded Christine Dowell, a native of Illinois. There union was blessed with five children, all born at their present home. Four of them are living, namely: Frank, Dora, Charles and Olive. Dora is engaged in teaching school. Nine years after Mrs. Gilmore’s death Mr. Gilmore married Mrs. Elizabeth Fonday. She was born in Iowa, and removed to California when a child.

Mr. Gilmore built his present home in 1874, and has surrounded it with vines and fruit trees.

His principal farm products are wheat, barley and hay, of which he raises large quantities.  His sons are raising fine thorough bred horses, and he has devoted some attention to producing draft horses.

He has been a life-long adherent to the Republican party, and is a member of the Republican Central Committee. Mr. Gilmore is high esteemed as a worthy citizen of the community which he resides. [Pages 760-761]


CHARLES JOSEPH BECKER is a member of the general merchandise firm of Becker & Foster, cousins, who are industrious and good business men. Mr. Becker, unasked by himself and without much effort on his part, has just been elected one of the Supervisors of his county, which indicates to some degree the estimate his fellow-citizens have in his business ability and good judgment.  He is a Native Son of the Golden West, born in Shasta, July 19, 1857, the son of Joseph Becker, who was a native ofPrussia, and who came to America in 1846, and for a time resided in St. Louis, Missouri. He married Margaret Foster, a native ofGermany, and they had nine children, of whom ail but one are living. Mr.  Becker, the eldest but one of the family, received his education in Marysviile, Yuba County, and also followed barbering for nine years in that city, which he had learned of his father. In 1883 he began business with his cousin in Cottonwood, and the firm at once stepped to the front, and have since acquired a large patronage. They handle all kinds of goods, including lumber and grain in large quantities, and under their capable management their trade is steadily increasing, extending as far as fifty miles east and west. Politically Mr. Becker is a leading Republican, and is one of the directors of the Horticultural Society of the county of Shasta, and is ever ready to aid in the improvement and building up of the county. He is a member of the Board of Trustees of his school district, and was one of the men who helped build the tine school-house, which is now a fine improvement and credit to Cottonwood.  He is Past President of the N. S. G. W. at Marysviile.

Mr. Becker is still a single man, and has before him in the usual course of events the prospect of a glorious future. [Page 763]


FRANK J. BARNES, a farmer of Yolo County, is a son of Abram and Grace Barnes, natives of Kentucky, who moved to Missouri, where the father served in the Indian war, and the mother, in the fort of Howard County, moulded bullets for the company.

It was in that county, in 1836, that the subject of this sketch was born, and when eighteen years of age he crossed plain and mountain to California, with his mother and the family; his father had come in 1850. The latter followed mining, but mostly farming and stock-raising to the time of his death in 1875. The widow died in 1877. Mr. Frank J. Barnes has been a resident of YoloCounty ever since ihs arrival in California, excepting the two years he was in Butte County. He has had a farm of his own, raising grain and live-stock, excepting about three years in the butcher business in “Woodland. His present ranch consists of 130 acres of very fine land lying about three-quarters of a mile west of Woodland on the Main street road, and he has thereon a good two-story dwelling.

He was married in 1870, to Miss Harlen, a sister of J. H. Harlen, one of the most prosperous farmers of Yolo County. Mr. and Mrs. Barnes have a daughter, named Leonora. [Page 762]


JAMES T. HADLEY, a well-to-do farmer of Yolo County, and one of the best known and highest esteemed, was born in Clermont County, Ohio, October 26, 1835, and was but two years of age when his parents moved with him to Henry County, Illinois. In 1861 he came to California by water, landing at San Francisco January 14, 1862. Shortly he went up to Sacramento with his wife, two children and a sister-in-law, landing on the steps of the Whiat Cheer House, when the ground was all under water. The next morning they started in a small boat across the country for Yolo. The swift current of the Sacramento was full of whirlpools and the oarsman failed to manage the boat. A fisherman near by saw the danger, hurried to their assistance and took the passengers back to Sacramento, except Mr. Hadley himself, who with the oarsman continued on their journey over fences and through orchards until they reached a barn belonging to the Gamble Brothers. After a few minutes rest they started out again, and the next point they reached was the Herald House, where they stopped over night. The next morning they reached Woodland, a very small place, and stopped over night, and the next day Mr. Hadley went on to Yolo, five and a half miles distant, but it seemed to him about twenty miles!  Shortly after his arrival there he was engaged by C. S. White and George W. Park, and he was there employed until the fall of 1863. He then went to Cherokee Fiat and followed mining there until 1864, when in May he returned toYolo County. During the following February he visited Illinois with his family, and on returning purchased 160 acres of first-rate land in Yolo, and he has since been a prosperous farmer and a favorite citizen.

His parents were Harry and Sarah T. (Cooper) Hadley, the former a native of New York State and the latter of England.

In 1857, in Illinois, Mr. Hadley was married to Miss Sarah A. Moore, a native of Indiana, and they have five children: Lena M., William C, Julia E., Nellie E. and Walter P. Mrs.  Hadley died in California in 1871, and June 11, 1874, Mr. Hadley was united in marriage, in Illinois,’ with Miss Addie Glissen, a native of Ohio, and by this marriage there was one child, Grace Lee. Julia died in 1881 and Walter P.  was shot and killed March 24, 1889, probably by accident in taking a rifle from the shelf at his father’s house when no one was a witness.  He was a splendid specimen of young manhood, not only physically but also in qualities of heart and mind. He was born in Yolo County in the very house and in the very room where his handsome, manly form was laid out and prepared for burial. The afflicted family have the heart felt sympathy of numberless friends in their great sorrow. [Page 763]


JOHN BENJAMIN HARTSOUGH is a Forty-niner and one of the best known characters in Northern California. He is one of the oldest Americans born in the city of Detroit, Michigan. His birth occurred in the year 1811, twenty-five years before Michiganbecame a State. His father, Christopher Hart- sough, was born in New Jersey. In the war of 1812 he was captured by the Indians, carried into Canada, pressed into the service of the English as an alien and drove a team for the English army. He married Delight Haskius, a native of Connecticut. Her father, Elisha Haskins, was a wealthy citizen of Connecticut, who removed to Canada and settled in the Lon- don district, about the year 1825, the English government giving him lands for settling there.  This worthy couple, Mr. and Mrs. Hartsougli, were the parents of sixteen children. The subject of this sketch was the third of their five sons.

He received his education at Detroit, Ypsilanti and Ann Arbor. While in Rock Run, Illinois, in 1837, he was converted and soon afterward began to preach. In six months he was licensed as a local preacher and went into his first work at Leadmine, Wisconsin, on the Apple River district. When Mr. Hartsough left home to enter the ministry his father, who was a follower of the teachings of Tom Paine, did all in his power to prevent his son’s going and said many hard things of which he afterward repented. When they again met the father clasped his son in his arms and expressed his sorrow for the bitter things he had said. The young minister gave his father briefly the plan of salvation; he promptly accepted it and was converted. During Mr. Hartsough’s preaching in Illinois and Wisconsin his ministry was blessed with numerous revivals. He labored in the vineyard of the Lord in those two States for ten years.  

His health failed, and with the hope of securing a beneficial change, he came to this sunny clime, reaching California September 15, 1849. He engaged in mining until the first of May, 1850, with moderate success. Then he went over the mountains to carry provisions to the emigrants who were starving and took their poor stock in exchange. The stock was pastured for a month, after which it was driven over the mountains. At this work Mr. Hartsough made considerable money. In 1851 he opened a grocery and provision store near Nevada City, supplying the market with his own cattle. This business he continued two years, during which time he purchased the ditch stock of a broken- down company. He put the ditch in order and kept it lour weeks. It, however, proved a perpetual Sabbath-breaking business, and because of that he sold it to his partner, who, in three years, realized nearly half a million of dollars from it. This ditch is still running. His partner sold it and went to San Francisco in 1862. There he engaged in stock speculations, met with reverses and drowned himself in the bay and his body was never recovered.  Mr. Hartsough sold his store and shop and removed to Yolo County, where he engaged in farming and stock-raising. In 1863 he was elected to the State Assembly, and, being a stanch Republican, used his best endeavors to keep his State in the Union. At that time there was a strong force at work to take it out, and he became a power on the side of the Union. It was largely due to his efforts and to those of a few of his colleagues that the State was saved and kept from the bloodshed and disgrace that would have followed. During a great deal of his ministry his work has been gratuitous and done for the love of the cause.  He has rendered much efficient service in helping to build churches in Northern California.  In Redding, where he now resides, he purchased the church site for $500 with his own money, and carried on the enterprise of building the church to its completion.  In 1864 he settled his business, put his land into money, and with some stock removed to Contra Costa County. From that time until 1890 he had regular work in the ministry. He is now in his eightieth year and has retired from active ministerial labors. He owns a small farm in Colusa County and a home in Redding. He tells the following little reminiscence of his preaching:

In February, 1850, while he was holding services in a new store in Georgetown, El Dorado County, a lot of gamblers from a tent near by rushed down the street, ringing bells and rattling tin pans, shouting “ Fire! fire!” His congregation made haste to get out. In a quiet voice he asked them not to be excited but to go quietly. Soon afterward they all came back, accompanied by a number of those who had made the disturbance and sat quietly to hear the sermon.

In 1838 Mr. Hartsough wedded Miss Lucy Titus, of Michigan. Their union was blessed with two children, one of whom died and the other, Christoplier, resides in Oregon. After four and a half years of married life his beloved companion died of pleuro-pneumonia, and he was left with his two infant sons. In 1858, fifteen years after her death, he married Mrs.  Eliza Stoirs, a native of Missouri, reared in Wisconsin.

“While Father Hartsough has attained his four-score years, he is still quite active and walks perfectly erect with a firm, quick step. He carries such a benevolent smile on his face that one cannot fail to see that he loves God and is at peace with Him and with all the world.  [Pages 763-764]


WILLIAM E. HOPPING has the honor of being a California Forty-niner. He comes of old English ancestry. Three brothers, John, James and Abram Flopping, came to America and settled on Long Island.

When the Declaration of Independence was signed John and James espoused the cause of the colonies and Abram remained true to his King. After the close of the war Abram removed to Canada and, it is claimed, dropped the final g in his name. This is the history of the names of Hopping and Hopping in America. The brothers who joined their interests with the colonies remained onLong Island. For many years their posterity lived in New Jersey. In that State Mr. Hopping’s father. Primrose Hopping, was born. He married Nancy Chasey, also a native of New Jersey. To them were born three daughters and two sons, of whom only two are now living, — the subject of this sketch and his sister, Mrs. C. Stewart, of Oak- land, California. She weighs 300 pounds and Mr. Hopping tips the beam at 870. He received his education in the East and there learned the butcher’s business.  Mr. Hopping came around the Horn in the old ship Balance, landing at San Francisco, November 28, 1849. This was the last voyage the old ship made, and she now lies buried at the foot of Pacific street. The history of this ship as given to Mr. Hopping by her captain is as follows:

A New York merchant had lost several of his ships by the English. In order to get even and get revenge he fitted out an American privateer that captured, during the war of 1812, several prizes, and finally this ship, which he named the Balance in honor of the fact that she made his account even with the English. How old she was when captured is not known, but she sailed under American colors thirty-seven years, until 1849, when she was pronounced un-seaworthy.

Mr. Hopping began work at his trade in the Fulton Market, corner of Washington and Jack- son streets, San Francisco. The following spring his desire to dig for gold sent him to the mines.  His first experience was at Murphy’s mines in Calaveras County, where he was successful.  Then he mined up as far as Mud Springs on Logtown Creek. He subsequently went to Big Canon and he and Charles Crocker mined these together. He spent a year at Big Canon and was very successful in his mining operations. During that time he made a trip to Sacramento to secure supplies, as they were scarce ac the camp. In 1852 Mr. Hopping came to Shasta County and mined at French Gulch. There he began butchering and carried on that business in connection with his mining interests, continuing the same until March, 18G4. He afterward received the nomination from the Republican Party for Sheriff of the county. He was elected and served two years, and at the end of that time was re-elected. At the close of his second term he engaged in quartz mining in the Highland mine. It paid well for a time but they finally lost the vein. Mr. Hopping still owns a half interest in it. He was elected to and held the office of County Judge for eight years, until the adoption of the new constitution.

He soon after became register of the land office and filled the position until 1882, when he was again elected Sheriff of the county. At the writing- he has the nomination for the same office another term. He is ex-officio tax collector of the county. Mr. Hopping has much to do with thieves and murderers, both as Judge and Sheriff, and has conveyed many convicts to prison, as many as eight at onetime and none ever escaped from him.  Mr. Hopping was married in New Jersey, in 1863, to Miss Harriet Hopping of Hanover, New Jersey, his half second cousin and a lady he had known before coming to California. Five children have been born to them, three of whom are deceased. Those living are Hattie and “William, both born in Shasta County.  During the late war Mr. Hopping was a strong Union man, and did all in his power to uphold the Government. He is a Royal Arch and Council Mason and is Past Master of his lodge. He is a member of the Society of California Pioneers. [Page 765]


 DAVIS N. SHANAHAN, one of the early settlers of California, and a prominent horticulturist of Shasta County, was born in Cass County, Michigan, December 27, 1833, the son of Peter and Sinia (O’Dell) Shanahan, the former a native of Maryland, and the latter of Virginia. The mother was a daughter of Gabriel O’Dell, a Kentucky pioneer. They had a family of live children, of whom our subject is the only survivor. He was reared and educated on a farm in his native State, and there learned the carpenter’s trade. He came to California in 1854, and worked in the mines

near Georgetown and vicinity for more than a year, with reasonable success. He then purchased a squatter’s claim, which he worked one year, and then sold out and removed to Colusa County, where he took up Government land, which he worked two years, but by reason of a drought his crops failed both years. Next he removed to a ranch near Colusa, and for two years engaged in raising hogs; next he removed to Chico, Butte County, but being sick and not meeting with satisfactory success, he moved six miles east of Colusa, where he purchased a ranch and farmed three years. He then sold out and removed to Yolo County, where he purchased railroad land, which he improved and farmed ten years; then he sold out and returned to Colusa County, rented land a year, then leased a large ranch for two years, and finally came to his present ranch four and a half miles east of Anderson, Shasta County, where he now has 300 acres of choice fruit land. He has already planted 5,000 French prunes, and 500 other fruit trees of different varieties, and also 2,000 vines. He is still improving and planting. The trees that are bearing at four years old yield $100 per acre, and the prospects are most flattering for a grand success in the fruit business in this portion of the county.

Mr. Shanahan was united in marriage with Miss Elizabeth V. Huff, December 27. 1857, who is a native of Georgia, and the daughter of Thomas Huff, a Virginian. They have five children, four sons and one daughter, all of whom have been spared to them. The children are as follows: Thaddeus W., born in Colusa County, is a lawyer of Anderson, and has just been elected on his third term to the State Assembly, and has just finished an exciting campaign, stumping his district for the Democratic party, and by his capable efforts overcame a Re- publican majority in his district; Eugene, born in Colusa County, has a farm near his father’s;

Chester, born in Butte County, is interested with his father in the ranch; Ross, born in Sutter County, also with his father; the daughter, Mary Elizabeth, was born in Yuba County, and is now the wife of Burt Chamberlain, and resides at Cottonwood. Mr. Shanahan has seen much of the vicissitudes of early life in California, and is still a hale and hearty man. He has affiliated with the Democratic party all his life.  He is a worthy citizen, and taken an active interest in the educational matters of his district; is a School Trustee and Clerk of the Board.  His enterprise in horticulture will be of value to his part of the county, as it shows what the soil will do, and enhances the value of the property, as one acre for fruit is worth ten for other purposes.  [Pages 766-767]


JOHN G. COOPER.— In biographically sketching the lives of the reputable and worthy citizens of Redding, California, the writer finds few, if any, more deserving of honorable mention in a work of this character than John G. Cooper. 

He was born in England, of English parents, June 3, 1821. His education was obtained in his native land, but, as he says, he is still studying. He worked at the manufacture of silk ribbon and silk hosiery; was clerk or book- keeper for a contractor and builder; later on, learned the harness-maker’s trade and worked at it for some time.

In the spring of 1844 he emigrated to the United States and settled in Plymouth, Marshall County, Indiana, where he purchased a farm and improved it by building, etc. This property he sold, and afterward bought a farm in St.  Joseph County, same State, where he remained twelve years. In 1855 he came to California, via the Isthmus route, and landed in San Francisco. He engaged in dairying at San Francisco and in San Mateo County for twelve years.  While there he was elected to and held the office of Justice of the Peace. He afterward removed to Napa County, purchased 640 acres of land, which he improved and for which he secured a perfected title, and there engaged in fruit culture. He remained on that place from 1867 till 1880. In the latter year he sold out and removed to Redding. Here he purchased thirty-four acres of unimproved land in the then young town. At the time of its purchase it was occupied by Indians. Mr. Cooper cleared it up, built his home and planted trees. He has disposed of it all except his home and orchard and vineyard, which he has reserved for his own use. He has eight buildings in the city, consisting of dwelling-houses and a store, all of which are occupied.

Mr. Cooper was united in marriage in 1847 to Miss Barbara Russell, a native of Ohio, and coming from an old American family. Her father was a soldier in the war of 1812. Their union was blessed with two children. One is deceased, and the other, John Henry, born in California in 1856, is a resident of Oakland, this State. He is employed as proof-reader on the Oakland Enquirer,’ is married, and has two children.

Mr. and Mrs. Cooper are faithful members of the Methodist Church. Mr. Cooper’s father was a minister, who led his son to a knowledge of the gospel. At the early age of fourteen years he experienced religion and joined the church, and through all these many years he has been an intelligent and earnest worker, standing up for the cause of God and humanity every-where. He is now an ordained elder in the church at Redding. Mr. Cooper is enthusiastic over the wonderful growth and development of California. He is a member of the society known as the Sons of St. George, the object of this society being to influence Englishmen in this country to become citizens of the United States. He is also an active temperance man and a Good Templar. For many years he has cast his vote with the Republican party. He has become thoroughly identified with this country and its grand institutions, and no native- born citizens could be more staunchly American than he. [Page 767]


JOHN WESLEY CONANT is a prominent and influential citizen and miner of Redding, Shasta County, California. A brief sketch of his life is herewith given.

Mr. Conant was born January 14, 1845.  His parents, Jacob and Matilda Conant were both natives of Teimessee, and of German ancestry. They had nine children, six of whom are still living. The subject of this sketch spent his boyhood in Tennessee, Illinoisand Missouri, and learned the mason and stone-cutter’s trade.

In June, 1862, he enlisted in the service of his country in Company H, Eighth Missouri Cavalry, and in 1864 re-enlisted in Company K, Twelfth Missouri Cavalry. He saw a great deal of active service; was bearing a dispatch to General Lyon when the General fell; was in the battles of Lone Jackstone Mountain and Springford, and many of the battles of the Army of the Potomac. They were sent to join Sherman at Savannah; were in the light at Port Selma on the 8th of April; from there went to Montgomery, and drew up to tight at Lime Creek on the evening of the night that President Lincoln was killed. He was with his squadron on the right flank, and nearly all of them were killed, wounded or fell into the hands of the enemy.  Mr. Conant received two shots: the ball which entered his breast he still carries behind- the shoulder blade; and the other one entered his side and broke his lower rib and he cut it out with his razor. He joined his regiment in June, 1865, and was discharged in April, 1866.  In 1867 he went to the plains in the western part of Kansas and drove a team for the Government; then engaged in carrying dispatches to Fort Harper; in 1868 he went as a scout for Custer and Sheridan, and was on the raid to Fort Cell, in February they rescued the white woman who had been carried off by the Indians, and returned to Fort Hays. He was in the massacre at Salmon Falls, then went back to Fort Harper, and thence to his home in Southern Kansas in April, 1869. There he engaged in work at his trade in Douglas County. In 1870 he married Miss Alice LImberger, a native of Kansas and a daughter of Captain Lmberger. By her he had one daughter, Maggie M., born in Douglas County.

Mr. Conant came to California in 1872, and settled at Stockton. From there he went to Chico, and worked for General John Bidwell.

In the fall of 1873 he engaged in mining in Plumas County, and the following March he came to Shasta County. Next he went to Yreka, where he was employed at driving stock.  In 1875 he went to the southern part of Siskiyou County, near the Calahan ranch, and there made a good find. In 1887 he took out over $5,000, taking $320 in a single day, no piece larger than ten dollars, and from that down to fine gold. After this he went with a pack-horse to the mountains and spent some time there prospecting. Finding nothing on the Salmon River or in the New River country, he came to the Niagara Mine, at French Gulch, and worked two months for W. T. Coleman. Then he started on another prospecting tour, and arrived at Squaw Creek, Shasta County, July 5, 1855.  There he found several good mines, and named them as follows: the Mountain Rose, the Black Bear, the Logan and the Uncle Sam. Shortly after locating them he sold the first three to Edward Riley, of New York, for $45,000.  Then he developed the Uncle Sam, the Hawk- eye, the Mocking Bird and the Grizzly Bear; built a steam saw-mill and a ten-stamp quartz mill, and took out $138,600. He sold the claims to the Sierra Butte Mining Company, supposed to be an English syndicate, for $150,- 000.

At this time Mr. Conant made a trip East, re- turning to San Francisco in March, 1889. Since then he has invested largely in real estate, lu April, 1889, he purchased a ranch of 640 acres on Feather River; came to Redding in June and bought the Reed ranch, 700 acres, one-half mile from the town ; has invested in 8,608 acres of timber laud and a number of city properties.  In 1889, at a cost of $8,500, he built his house and barn in Redding, where he resides with his family. On his ranch near Redding he has planted 13,413 fruit trees. He has also devoted much time and attention to stock, having purchased 102 breeding mares. Among his other possessions are the ferry and the ferry-boat.  Mr. Conant is still the owner of a number of mines, which he is developing. His long experience has been of much value to him and also to the county. He put down the first tunnel, 497 feet perpendicular, and thus demonstrated the fact that the deposits extend down some distance. This has done much toward reviving the mining interests of Shasta County, for mining, in a measure, was dead when he began operations. Through his influence capitalists have been induced to make investments here, and many new mines are now being developed.  There are fourteen stamp mills within twenty-five miles of Redding.

Mr. Conant is a man of remarkable endurance and courage. He has roughed it in the mountains through sunshine and storm, through rain and snow, and knows what it is to live on short rations. At one time he dug a tunnel thirty-three feet deep, having nothing to eat ail the time he worked except beans — beans baked, beans boiled and beans roasted. A man of strong determination and will power, he has made him- self of great value in capturing criminals who had sought refuge in the mountains. He captured three murderers in Shasta Valley, and re- turned them to the authorities in Siskiyou County. Mr. Conant followed them four days and nights, and fired several shots at them before they surrendered. Their crime was the murder of one Walter Scott, in Squaw Valley. He also captured two stage robbers, for which he received a reward of $1,600. With two hired men as assistants he rode ninety-five miles, night and day, and found them in a canon on the north fork of the east fork of Trinity River. He came upon their camp and jumped his horse down a bank eleven feet, covered them with his pistol, captured them and delivered them to justice. With the reward thus obtained he was enabled to continue his prospect- ing at the time. While on the plains Mr. Conant was with Dick Cody (Bufialo Bill), and went by the name of Ruckskin Jack. He was captured by the Indians, under command of Charley Rrent, who, after detaining him a few hours, turned him loose.

Mr. Conant’s present wife was nee Miss Nel-ie Hamilton, a native of Sacramento. They have three children: John S., who was born in Virginia City, and Nellie E. and Mary C, born in Redding.

Our subject is a strong Republican. During the Harrison campaign he accepted the bluffs of the Democrats and won $8,773 from them on the result of the election. He is a member of the G. A. R. ; was reared by Methodist parents, who gave him the name of the founder of Methodism. Mr. and Mrs. Conant live in their beautiful home in Redding, surrounded by flowers, pictures and music; and the stone cutting and mason, by his perseverance and is now a wealthy citizen of Redding.  [Pages 767-768]


ADAM SCHUMAN, one of the prominent business men of Cottonwood, and a member of the firm of Price & Co., comes from a country that has furnished America with many of her best citizens in all the departments of business. He was born in Baden on the Rhine, in Germany, January 17, 1832. His parents were industrious and well-to-do farmers, and he received his education in his native land, and also learned the trade of butcher; he also served six months in the German array.  He had two uncles in the United States, who were making money and were pleased with America’s free institutions, and they accordingly wrote to our subject’s father to sell and come to America, which he did in 1851, settling on a farm in Illinois. Our subject worked with his father two years on this farm, and then opened a meat market, which he conducted for a year and a half. In 1858 he came to Red Bluff, California, and for a time was engaged in various kinds of business. In 1870 he became acquainted with his partner, and in 1874 they formed the general merchandise firm, which they have since conducted. They have a large business, in one single year selling as high as $65,000 worth, and in another year they purchased $32,000 worth of hogs. They also have been heavy dealers in cattle selling as much as $80,000 worth in a single year.

Mr. Schuman is one of those men who has by his persistent industry and hard work with his own hands made a valuable property, and such has been his industrious habits that now when he does not need to work, he keeps right on as busy as ever, not afraid to take hold of any work* that he thinks is necessary to do. At any time he can be found at work among his men, helping and superintending the building of the large brick store, which is to be by far the largest and best store in Cottonwood. This firm has done a large credit business, and while the house has made a great deal of money they have also lost many thousand dollars by bad debts. They are not only the oldest but wealthiest firm in their town, owning several thousand acres of land, and having a large amount of money at interest. June 8, 1890, a lamp exploded in their residence, which resulted in the burning of the house and furniture, including an expensive piano, the loss amounting to about $6,000. They at once commenced the erection of a commodious and substantial brick residence, which they have just completed.  Mr. Schuman was married in 1851, to Miss Elizabeth Slater, a native of Germany, and they had four sons, all of whom are deceased. They have one daughter, Lou, who is married to J.  H. Campbell, a thorough business man residing in Chicago. Mr. Schuman’s religious faith is that of a Druid, and his political views are Republican. In the time of the great civil war, he took his stand with the Union party and has since remained with them. He is not only a hard-working business man, but a thoroughly intelligent one; and work and intelligence combined with generosity and honesty have made him a well-to-do business man, and a citizen of character and influence. Page 769]


WILLIAM AND GEORGE MENZEL, enterprising business men of Redding, California, are natives of Polk City, Iowa. William was born January 26, 1856, and George, March 4, 1858, sons of William Menzel, a native of Germany. The family came to Shasta County, California, in 1860, and settled at Millville, where the father purchased a farm.  In 1861, while attempting to cross Cow Creek in a skiff, he was drowned.

After the death of their father, as soon as they were old enough, William and George did ranch work and any thing they could get to do to earn an honest living. They subsequently learned the blacksmith’s trade and, in 1881, opened their blacksmith and wagon-making business in Redding. Honesty and industry won for them success in this undertaking. In 1886 they established the Redding Meat Market, and since that time have conducted both enterprises. In July, 1890, their whole block and meat market were consumed by fire. They were not insured and their loss amounted to about $3,500. The day after the fire they rented a building and opened their market, and are conducting the business with their characteristic energy. It is their intention soon to erect a new and better building.

The Menzel brothers are both single gentlemen. Both have passed all the chairs in the I.O. O. F. They have acquired considerable property, and are representative men in their line of business. They affiliate with the Democratic party, and are liberal and excellent citizens.  [Page 770]


CALVIN OWINGS is one of the hardy sons of the East who crossed the plains to California in 1850.

He was born in Warren County, Kentucky, February 11, 1829. His father, William Owings, a native of Kentucky, married Miss Esther Johnson, who was also born in that State, a daughter of Calvin Johnson. They reared ten children, eight of whom are now living.  The subject of this sketch spent his youth and received his education in Indiana. When he was twenty years of age he came to this State.  The company with whom he traveled were nine months in crossing the plains, and many of them died with cholera.

Like other newcomers to this State, Mr.  Owings had his raining experiences. For three months he mined at Yreka. His party found a nugget of gold that weighed live pounds and ten ounces, and he himself took out $51 from a single pan.

When he quit mining he went to Middletown and remained three years. Then he purchased eighty acres of land at Cottonwood and was there three years. From that place he went to the north fork of the Cottonwood, purchased land and lived there fifteen years. From time to time he added to his original purchase until he had 630 acres. This he sold. In 1887 he came to Redding, purchased a home and improved it, and has now retired from business.  After living a life of single-blessedness for fifty years, Mr. Owings became acquainted with and married Mrs. Moore. She is a native of Missouri, born December 20, 1839, and a daughter of D. J. Guin, also of that State. They have an attractive home in Redding, where they reside. Since the war Mr. Owings has been a Republican. Both lie and his wife are members of the Baptist Church, and are highly esteemed citizens of Redding. [Page 770]


JOHN GEORGE is one of the early settlers of California, and is the builder and proprietor of the St. George Hotel, Redding.  He was born in Ligonier, Westmoreland County, Pennsylvania, November 16, 1828.  His parents, John and Margaret George, were both natives of Germany, came to this country when children and were reared in Westmoreland County. His father was a farmer and a dealer in stock. They had five children, four sons and a daughter, three of whom are now living. When twenty-two years of age Mr. George arrived in Placerville, El Dorado County, California, out of funds but with willing-hands and a determination to work. That was in July, 1850. He engaged in mining on Weber Creek. His first pan of dirt had a piece of gold in it like a kernel of corn and it weighed one dollar. This he thought was encouraging, and he went to work, meeting- with fair success. He dug there until the following January, when, hearing of the gold excitement at Gold Bluff, he went to that place only to find it was a hoax. He then returned to Sacramento and from there followed the tide of emigration to Salmon River and Shasta Flats (now Yreka).  He purchased a train of fifteen mules and loaded them with a cargo of provisions, his destination being Bessville, on the Salmon River. He arrived at that place about the 20tli of February, and sold his cargo and train and engaged in mining. This, however, did not prove a success.  On the 15th of March there came a heavy snow storm, which completely closed the roads, so that no provisions could be taken across the mountains. Mr. George had only kept a short supply for himself, and the other miners also had short rations. They had a few dried apples, on which they subsisted for seventeen days, with now and then a venison, which disappeared like snow before a ho” sun. Mr. Bess bought in the first flour — 600 pounds^3arried by six pack mules. The camp in which Mr. George was at work was the first one he passed. They accosted him for a sack of flour, which he refused. They asked him where he was going and why he declined to sell it. He replied that he was going to Bessville and that he had a grocery store and some friends there. They remonstrated no more with him but fell in with the train. As they passed camp after camp the men all fell into line and followed him, and when they arrived at their destination there was a line of nearly 200 men all eager for the flour. They called a meeting and resolved to divide the flour equally. A man was appointed from each mess to receive the share his mess was entitled to, and if any one was found to misrepresent he was to forfeit his share. Then they appointed a weigher to give each camp its quota, which was two and a fourth pounds to each man on the river. The owner sat at one side trembling and not knowing what was going to be done with him.  After the distribution, one stalwart man stepped up on a stump and said: “Now, gentlemen, what shall we pay this man for his flour?” A voice was heard to say, “ One dollar per pound.”

Another said “ Two dollars,” and a third, “Two dollars and a half.” The last was put to a vote and carried. They paid him $1,500 and gave him three cheers. When this supply gave out, Mr. George and his friend, Nick Meyers, went across the mountains to Orleans Bar to buy provisions. On their way they came to an Indian fishery, where they camped eight days. They traded the brass buttons off their breeches for salmon. When they arrived at Orleans Barthey found provisions plenty, flour fifty cents per pound and meals a dollar and a half at a restaurant, which was kept by an old colored man named Dickerson. After remaining there seven days, each of them purchased a sack of flour at fifty cents per pound and some bacon at the same price, and, with their packs on their backs and their rifles in their hands, they started back over the mountains to Bessville, a distance of forty miles.  Upon reaching their destination they found that trains had been there with provisions, and flour was selling at forty cents per pound and other things in proportion. Mr. George continued to mine there till the month of June and then removed to Weaverviile, Trinity County, where he was engaged in mining, packing and merchandising for three years, meeting with varied success. In 1854 he came to Shasta County and engaged in gardening, draying, fanning and hotel-keeping, which he has continued up to the present time. He built theSt. George Hotel in Redding in 1889, and has since been a resident of this city. He has invested in town lots, owns the livery stable and some dwelling-houses.  Mr. George married -Miss Sarah Bohm, daughter of Captain Jacob Bohm, of East Providence, Pennsylvania. They have had eight children, only three of whom are living: Oliver M. and James W., born in Pennsylvania; and Charles G., born in Shasta County, California.  They are all worthy and respected citizens — one a miner, another farmer and the third a black- smith.  

Mr. George takes pride in stating that he is one of the seventeen Republicans that voted in Shasta County for John C. Fremont, and that he has ever since been a stanch Republican. Mrs.  George is still living. She is a member of the Methodist Church. [Page 771]


JAMES E. ISAACS, District Attorney of Shasta County, was born in Shasta, California, June 29, 1855. His father, Josephine Isaacs, was born in England in 1824, and was a pioneer of Shasta County. He married Selada M. Downey, a native of New Jersey.

Her father, A. L. Downey, is a pioneer of California; is now eighty-seven years of age, and resides at Sacramento. Five children were born to Mr. and Mrs. Isaacs, only two of whom are living. Mr. Isaacs followed several vocations in life, latterly that of a merchant. His death occurred in 1873. His widow is still living.  James E. was educated in the public schools of his native place, attending school from seven until fifteen years of age. The rest of his education has been obtained in the dear school of experience. His father had made large sums of money, but was unfortunate and lost heavily, and died leaving his estate embarrassed. Thus the care of his mother and her three children devolved upon the subject of this sketch. He engaged in the dry goods and fancy goods business at Shasta, which he continued until 1677.  In that year he was elected Justice of Shasta Township, and held the office two terms. In 1880 he was admitted to practice law by the Superior Court of Shasta County, and since then has devoted his time to that profession.  Mr. Isaacs has given special attention to the land office law, and is considered the best authority on that subject in Northern California.

His father was a stanch Republican, but he has espoused the cause of the Democratic Party; and that party, either to show their appreciation of the popular young lawyer or to secure a candidate that they were nearly certain to elect, nominated him for the District Attorney of the county. He was elected by the handsome majority of 321, while the Republican majority for President that year was ninety-six. He has since been unanimously nominated by his party

for a second term, and his prospects for reelection are very flattering. Previous to this time, from 1880 till 1884, he was deputy district attorney of the count}’, under District Attorney Taylor. May 1, 1882, Mr. Isaacs led to the hymeneal altar a native daughter of the Golden West, Miss Mary E. Leschinsky. She was born in Shasta County, the daughter of A. F. Leschinsky, also a pioneer of this county. Two children have been born to them: Linie and Edith Thyra.  

Mr. Isaacs is a charter member and one of the organizers of Mount Shasta Parlor, No. 35, Native Sons of the Golden West. He takes a deep interest in the order, and for four years held the office of District Deputy. In 1886 he was elected a Grand Trustee of the Grand Parlor of the State, and was re-elected to the office in 1887. Mr. Isaacs is an agreeable and courteous gentleman. He is one who has in his composition the necessary amount of push and go-ahead attitude necessary to succeed in what ever enterprise he undertakes. [Page 773]


WILLAM PAUL HARTMAN was born in France, September 10, 1841, the son of French parents. He received his education in his native land, and came to California in 1858. January 21 he crossed the Scott Mountains, being twenty-two hours in crossing, and reached Yreka the following day.  Upon his arrival at that place he began to work at the first thing that offered, which happened to be blacking boots and talking care of a bath- house. September 1, 1859, he went to Red Bluff and entered the barber shop of L. H. D. Lang to learn the trade, remaining there until 1862. He then went to Weaverville, Trinity County, and opened a shop. The prices of those times were seventy-five cents for cutting hair, seventy-five cents for a bath, and twenty- five cents for a shave. In 1863 the great fire occurred; the town was destroyed; he was burned out, lost all he had, and was himself badly burned and received scars which he will always carry. After that he purchased a shop and continued in business there until April, 1865. He then removed to Shasta and opened a shop, in which he did business till September 27, 1889, when he came to Redding. While in Shasta he bought a residence which he still owns. He is now running a good shop, his son Carl having charge of one of the chairs.  Mr. Hartman was married, February 24, 1867, to Miss Malia S. P. Caroline, a native of Germany. They have had three children, burn in Shasta, namely: Frederick Joseph, Carl W.  and William P., Jr.

The subject of this sketch has been an active business man, having influence in political cir cles and also in the societies of Shasta. He is a member of the A. O. U. W.; is a Master Mason; and has passed all the chairs in I. O.  O. F. In 1870 he received a handsome gold watch chain, with emblems appropriately engraved, from his brother Odd Fellows, as a token of their regard for his fidelity to the interests of the order, after having served two terms as Noble Grand. Mr. Hartman prizes it highly and wears it only on rare occasions.  In 1876 he was elected chairman of the Republican Central County Committee of Shasta County. He served in that capacity ten years, until March 8, 1886, when he resigned; and he did the party such eminent service that, November 30, 1882, the officers elected showed their appreciation of the work he had done by presenting him with a beautiful and costly gold watch, appropriately engraved, “For services rendered the party.” Mr. Hartman has held the office of School Trustee for twelve years.  He was twice elected Public Administrator of the county, the first term by a 202 majority and the second by 268, when the rest of his ticket was defeated. He ran for office at eleven elections and never was defeated. He resigned his school trusteeship to come to Redding. He says he still holds rank in the Republican party, and the Democrats hate him worse than the devil hates holy water. [Page 773]


JOHN SPELMAN is a business man of Redding, California, and a worthy member of the Grand Army of the Republic. He is one of the brave men, who, when his country’s life was threatened by a powerful armed foe, flew to her aid and faced danger and death to save the country. To such brave men the Union owes a debt of gratitude which can never be paid nor can gold ever measure the value of the services so gallantly rendered. It was at the tender age of sixteen years, in 1862, when the great war of the Rebellion began to assume gigantic proportions that he enlisted in the United States Marine Corps. He was in the memorable engagement at Octoraro when the Merrimac attempted to sink them and both ships ran aground. They escaped and were in several engagements and bombardments. A part of the time his ship was flag-ship for Admiral Porter. He was in active service for four years and was honorably discharged at the close of the war, when he returned to his home and engaged in the peaceful vocations of life.

Mr. Spelman was born in the west of Ireland, February 22, 1846, the son of James and Bridget Spelman, both natives of Ireland. While the Emerald Isle is his native land he knows nothing of it by experience, as he came with his parents to the United States when three years of age. There were five children in their family, of whom Mr. Spelman is the only survivor. Upon their arrival in this country they settled in New Hampshire, where the subject of this sketch was educated in the public schools and where he learned the barber’s trade. At the close of the war he engaged in business in Brooklyn, New York. In 1868 he emigrated to San Francisco, and for twelve years ran a barber business in that city in the Occidental Hotel. He was also in the Monis Hotel, Santa Barbara, and for a time in the Golden Eagle Hotel in Redding. He has been in business in Redding for five years, from 1879 till 1884.  At one time he ran a shop in Salt Lake City.  In 1868, in San Francisco, he wedded Miss Margarite Rock, a native of Pennsylvania. To them were born two children: James and Mary.  In 1871 Mrs. Spelman died, and six years later, Mr. Spelman married Miss Norton, a native of Boston. This union has been blessed with nine children, two of whom are living: Alice and Irene.  

Mr. Spelman is a Republican. He holds the office of Health Inspector of the city of Redding. [Page 774]


A Memorial & Biographical History of Northern California: Chicago : The Lewis Publishing Company, 1891

Transcribed by Martha A Crosley Graham, 12 October 2008 - [Page numbers listed with each Biography]

 "The Fine Print"
The CAGW Administrative Team:
State Coordinator: Martha A Crosley Graham
Assistant State Coordinators: Claire Martin & Joy Fisher

Copyright ~ 1996-2014 by The CAGenWeb Administrative Team.  All materials, images, sounds and data contained herein are not to be copied or downloaded for purposes of duplication, distribution, or publishing without the express written permission of The CAGenWeb Administrative Team.
This web page is maintained on behalf of the California portion of The USGenWeb Project and is paid for by supporters.  Although believed to be correct as presented, if you have corrections, changes, additions, or find that any links provided on this page are not functioning properly, please contact the State Coordinator for prompt attention to the matter.

Site Updated: 1 November 2013