Colusa - Glenn Counties, California



Note: Use CTRL-F to Search



WILBUR WARREN BOARDMAN - The present incumbent of the office of Supervisor of Colusa County, for District No. 3, is Wilbur Warren Boardman, of Leesville. Mr. Boardman possesses an enviable reputation for sterling character, and has also a high degree of business ability. It was but natural, therefore, that the citizens of Supervisorial District No. 3 should seek him out and insist upon his candidacy for this responsible post, to which he was elected in the fall of 1916. He was born on August 24, 1853, in Wheatland Township, Will County, Ill. His father, Franklin Boardman, was born near Burlington, Vt., the son of Amos Boardman, who was descended from old New England stock. Franklin Boardman was married in Vermont to Mindwell Bates, of the same state; and they removed to Wheatland, Will County, Ill. Here his uncle, Capt. Harry Boardman, had settled in 1833. He was at one time in command of the old Fort Dearborn, now the site of Chicago. Franklin Boardman was among the first settlers on the prairies of Will County, and broke the virgin prairie soil with ox teams, improving a farm there and becoming a substantial farmer. He and his wife resided on the farm till their death. Of the family of four children, William Warren was the third. He grew up on his father's farm, and received his early education in the public schools. Later he attended the old Jennings Seminary, at Aurora, and Northwestern College, at Naperville, Ill. He remained on his father's farm until he was about twenty-three years old, when he decided to seek his fortune in the Golden State, and came to Leesville, where his uncle Cornelius resided. He rented a tract of nine hundred sixty acres in Indian Valley, near Leesville; and here he remained for three years, raising stock and grain. In 1884 he purchased the nucleus of his present farms, and now owns two large ranches, upon which he has made valuable improvements, until today they are considered among the most up-to-date ranches in the district. For forty years Mr. Boardman has been very influential in the agricultural development of this section. Although he arrived in Colusa County with little or no means, he is today one of its most prominent and successful ranchers. Like most pioneers, he bravely faced trials and surmounted difficulties; and by hard work and industrious habits he attained to his present prosperous position.


In 1877, Wilbur Warren Boardman was married to Sarah E. Netzly, a native of Naperville, Ill. This union was blessed by four children, as follows: Lulu, Mrs. Boughton, of Chicago; Anna, the wife of F. A. Nason, of Leesville ; Mina, the wife of Rev. Robert Webb, a minister in the Presbyterian Church; and a son, Frank D., also of Leesville.


Upon Mr. Boardman 's election to the responsible office of county supervisor, he incorporated into the conduct of the county's affairs the same efficient business methods that have characterized the successful operation of his large ranches. He has conducted the business of the county with such satisfaction to his constituents and such credit to himself, that his friends anticipate for him his reelection, if he should again desire to seek the office upon the expiration of his present term. His name is a synonym for honesty, prosperity and conservatism; and he is a citizen of whom any community might well be proud.


CHARLES HANSEN - In the Butte City section of Glenn County, Charles Hansen's influence for the good of the community has been felt in many ways, through his hearty cooperation with all movements for the public welfare. He was born on the Island of Fyen, in Denmark, October 20, 1872, and attended the common schools there until he was eleven years old. He began his early training on a farm at the age of nine, and there became used to hard work, and learned how to take care of cattle and sheep as it is done in his native country. Many of his countrymen had migrated to America; and their reports were so glowing as to the advantages offered in this country, that he was induced to leave home and seek his fortune here.


In 1889, Mr. Hansen sailed for New York, landing there with just fifty cents in his pocket, and a ticket to Rochester, Olmsted County, Minn., where he arrived in due time. In December of that year, he came on to California, and for five years worked for wages on ranches near Chico, Butte County. He was quick to learn, and it was not long before he had mastered English and learned how to do successful farming under local conditions; and as a consequence he commanded good wages. By 1894 he had saved enough to make a start; and he then bought two hundred forty acres of laud ten miles north of Chico. In 1898, he came to Glenn County, and, leasing four thousand acres, engaged in the raising of grain on a large scale. As he succeeded, he purchased two thousand acres of the J. Crouch estate, which has since been sold to the Dodge Rice Company, of San Francisco, and is one of the largest tracts farmed to rice in the county at the present time. Mr. Hansen has four hundred acres in his home place, and rents fifteen hundred acres adjoining. He raises grain, cattle, sheep and hogs, having as high as three thousand sheep at one time. He bought the home place in 1916, and is developing it into a very productive and attractive ranch.


The marriage of Mr. Hansen united him with Miss Alice D. Miller, daughter of W. Frank Miller, of Butte City. As a public-spirited citizen Mr. Hansen supports good roads, good schools, and good government. He was reared in the Danish Lutheran Church, in which he was confirmed after his school days were over. He is independent in politics, supporting men rather than party. Mr. Hansen is a thirty-second-degree Scottish Rite Mason, a member of the Blue Lodge, Chapter, and Commandery, and of Islam Temple, A. A. 0. N. M. S., of San Francisco; and he is also a member of the Chico Lodge of Elks. He was one of the organizers of Wild Rose Chapter, 0. E. S., at Princeton, of which he is Past Patron.


GEORGE M. BUCKNER - The manager of the Packer Island Orchards, which he is supervising in an efficient and capable manner, George M. Buckner is one of the progressive ranchers of his section of the state. Born in Polk County, Mo., January 20, 1870, he attended the public schools of that vicinity; and being raised on a farm, he early received the training necessary for the making of a successful tiller of the soil. In 1892 he came to California and took up agriculture for himself, in Santa Clara County, where he farmed to grain. Later he put in fruit, specializing in prunes for ten years. At the end of that time he sold out and went to San Francisco. There he engaged in an entirely different occupation, being employed as a motorman by the United Railway Co. for five years.


In 1909 Mr. Buckner came to Colusa County and purchased twenty acres of land, part of the Boggs tract. This he partly put under cultivation, and then sold the place in 1912. The next year he became manager for Morse & Langdon, taking charge of the Packer Island Orchards. He has improved sixty acres of the property since becoming manager. In all, two hundred acres of the land are under cultivation. The original orchard is thirty-two years old. In connection with the orchard, Mr. Buckner operates a drier ; and in 1915 two hundred seventeen tons of dried prunes were marketed from about fifty-three acres of the ranch. Some years the total amount has gone as high as three hundred thirty tons. Mr. Buckner is also interested in the cultivation of rice, a comparatively new industry in California. With T. J. Dawson and Harry Boyes, he leased two hundred acres of the Boggs tract in Colusa County; and they are having it planted out to rice this year (1917).


In Polk County, Mo., on July 3, 1898, Mr. Buckner was united in marriage with Miss Myrtle May Davis ; and they are the parents of one son, Fred Sherman.


Mr. Buckner is a man of progressive ideas, and is meeting with deserved success. His varied work keeps him occupied; but he still finds opportunity to take an active interest in all matters pertaining to the public welfare, in the furtherance of which he is always willing to do his share.


LEON SPEIER - If there be one thing of which, more than of another, Californians may be justly proud, it is the rank and file of their public officials, not the least important of whom are the county supervisors, to whom are entrusted matters of much moment, particularly those relating to county property and the public highways. Prominent among the supervisors of the state is Leon Speier, chairman of the Glenn County board, who is located at Willows. He was born at San Francisco in 1878, attended the excellent grammar schools of the northern metropolis, and in 1896 graduated from the San Francisco high school.


Mr. Speier's first business experience was with  the hardware firm of Dunham, Carrigan & Hayden, at San Francisco. From there he went, in 1900, to the United States Government Transport Service to the Philippines, where he was for two years quartermaster's clerk. In 1903, he assisted in the formation of the Midland Pacific Railroad, acting as assistant secretary; and the following year he came to "Willows and entered the employ of Hochheimer & Company, at first taking the post of assistant bookkeeper. In 1910 he severed his connection with the company, at which time he was general sales manager of the store.


Since that date Mr. Speier has been grain-buyer for the firm of M. Blum & Company, of San Francisco, having for his territory all of Glenn County. He also has charge of the Glascock ranch, a property of three hundred fifty-seven acres ; and he deals largely in wool.


Mr. Speier has served as foreman of the grand jury of Glenn County. He was elected supervisor in 1914, and has made good in all his pledges to his constituents. Popular socially, he is a welcome figure in the circles of the Masons, being a member of the Blue Lodge.


JOHN Y. HALTERMAN - When to take hold, but quite as important, when to let go, is a lesson learned by J. Y. Halterman, the well-known contractor and builder of Willows. He was born in Jasper County, Ill., June 23, 1872. At fifteen, he commenced to learn the trade of a carpenter, in Colorado, and later contracted for building in the Cripple Creek district. Then, for five years, he had charge of construction work for the Ajax Mining Company in the same section. In 1904, he came to Nevada, and was one of the early settlers who saw Goldfield grow from a mining camp of two hundred to a city of thirty thousand. There he entered the real estate field, and also engaged in mining. Three years later he settled at Reno, where he established a home, and operated extensively in mining deals. Mr. Halterman named Bonanza Mountain at Bullfrog, having been among the first to be interested in mining there. He also opened up the first investment and brokerage business at Manhattan. Both at Goldfield and at Reno he made fortune after fortune; but in the same places he lost much of what he had, and this experience led him to decide to enter a field where business conditions were more stable. He concluded that a growing agricultural district would be a more desirable place in which to settle; after looking around in Oregon and in various parts of California, he decided upon the town of Willows as the most promising community be had anywhere found, and decided to make it his home.


On Christmas Day, in the year 1910, Mr. Halterman arrived in Willows. Since his arrival in Glenn County, success has steadily attended his building operations, for which from the first be has drawn his own plans. He began by building a dozen houses in Willows and two in Orland, and as fast as he had finished them he disposed of the houses to those who were waiting. Then he contracted for others, designing and erecting the homes of Curry French, Walter Steele, C. T. Dillard, Charles Lambert, Jr., the Rev. Mr. Williamson, and Nick Hanson, for whom he recently built at Glenn a beautiful structure costing five thousand dollars. He also built the Jacinto school building, and the Cordora school building, for which twelve thousand dollars was expended, and which is one of the best structures of the kind in the state. In addition, he has put up many ranch houses and farm buildings. In spite of the hard times, such has been his care in designing and his judgment in estimating, that his operations have met with financial success.


In 1897, Mr. Halterman married Miss Eva Fulwider, of Indiana, by whom he has had two children. Hazel and Olive. Mr. Halterman is a Mason, and belongs to the Eastern Star, of which Mrs. Halterman is also an active member.


ANDREW JACKSON CLARK - The son and namesake of one of Colusa County's earliest pioneers, who settled in the southern part of the county in the early fifties, Andrew Jackson Clark is a native of Colusa County and can rightfully claim a share in its development. His father, Andrew Jackson Clark, who settled in the southern part of the county in the early fifties, was born in Ohio. After locating here, he became a successful farmer and quite an extensive landowner. He died in the month of January, 1863, when his namesake was two and one half years old. The mother, Martha Grimes, was born in Aberdeen, Brown County, Ohio, the daughter of Henry and Susan Ann (Grant) Grimes, natives of Pennsylvania. Her father, who was a tanner, removed from Aberdeen, Ohio, to Maysville, Ky., and still later to St. Albans, W. Va., where he operated a large tannery. His son, Cleaton Grimes, who was a pioneer of California, had returned home for a visit; and in 1860 the family came via Panama to Grimes, Colusa County, where the parents resided until their death. Susan Ann (Grant) Grimes was the favorite aunt of General U. S. Grant, she and General Grant's father, Jesse E. Grant, being brother and sister. Martha Grimes came to

California, as stated, via Panama in 1860. She was first married to A. J. Clark ; and some years after his death, she married Hayden Strother, a native of Kentucky, who was reared in Missouri. In 1849, he crossed the plains to California in the same train with Dr. Hugh Glenn. Mr. and Mrs. Strother followed farming near Grimes until his health failed, when they retired to Berkeley ; and there he died in 1909. His widow still makes her home there. Andrew Jackson was her second child by Mr. Clark, the others being Mrs. C. Y. Lovelace, of Maxwell, and L. W. Clark, who resides in Petaluma, operating a large hatchery there. By her second husband she had two children: H. Preston Strother, who resides with her in Berkeley, and one child who died in infancy.


Andrew Jackson Clark was born near Grimes, July 13, 1863, and grew up on the home farm, attending the public schools, and later Pierce Christian College for a term of two years. On finishing his education he spent one year in the mines and one year in Sonoma County, after which time he returned to Colusa County, where he has been farming successfully ever since. Mr. Clark specializes in growing grain and alfalfa, and also raises hogs and operates a dairy. He rents the Strother estate, which still remains undistributed. This estate comprises three hundred forty-three acres, situated two miles north of Grimes. Mr. Clark has a practical knowledge of the business he is engaged in, gained while he was growing to manhood on this same ranch. To this knowledge he has added by a thorough study of new conditions and methods from year to year, and now ranks as one of the progressive and successful agriculturists in the county. In addition to operating the large acreage above mentioned, he owns and operates forty-two acres of land near Grant Island, originally a part of the River Garden Farms.


The marriage of Mr. Clark, which united him with Miss Bertha E. Howe of Santa Cruz, took "place in San Francisco, November 20, 1909. Two children have been born to them: Florence Elizabeth, and Andrew Jackson, Jr. Mrs. Clark was born in Santa Cruz, the daughter of Ira and Mary A. (Hoag) Howe, natives of New York State. They came to California, where Mr. Howe was a contractor and builder. He died in Kelseyville, November 27, 1880. The mother spent her last years with Mrs. Clark, and died on March 5, 1916. Mrs. Clark was engaged for some years in the millinery business with her sisters.


GEORGE LAMBERT ABEL - A man who has made his influence felt in the community where he has resided for many years is George Lambert Abel, of Colusa County. He was born in Fond du Lac, Wis., on September 17, 1863, and is a son of John F. Abel, of whom mention is made on another page of this volume. George L. Abel was brought to California by his parents, who came via the Isthmus of Panama in 1867, when he was only four years of age. He was reared in Colusa County and attended the public schools, after which he spent one year in Pierce Christian College, at College City. From a lad he made himself useful on the home ranch, and after his school days were over he threw his whole energy into the farm work, assisting his father and other members of the family to develop and cultivate a large acreage, and aiding materially in making the ranch a successful enterprise. He remained with his father until he was thirty-two years old, when he married and began for himself.


In 1896, Mr. Abel leased his present farm from his father; and he has been engaged in a successful ranching enterprise ever since. Nine hundred seventy acres of his land is located on the Colusa plains; and eleven hundred acres, in Antelope Valley. The former ranch is devoted to the raising of grain, and the latter to the raising of stock. He has sunk a well and installed a pumping plant, and by this means is enabled to raise fine crops of alfalfa. He raises about four hundred fifty acres of grain each year, using a forty-five horse power caterpillar engine to put in the crops, and employing other modern implements in his ranching operations.


Mr. Abel was united in marriage on March 25, 1896, with Miss Annie A. Henneke, a native of California, born in San Francisco. She is the daughter of William G. Henneke, a successful rancher in his young days, and a musician. In this latter capacity, Mr. Henneke served in the Civil War. He played at the inauguration of President Lincoln, and also at the funeral of the martyred President. He traveled over many parts of the United States, eventually becoming a settler in California. For a time he was engaged in ranching in Yolo County, and afterwards in Indian Valley, where he improved a place and set out an orchard of pears that has since become a fine and profitable bearing orchard. He is now living retired in the town of Williams. Mr. and Mrs. Abel have had seven children: Allen R., who was educated at the Oakland Polytechnic, and is now assisting his father on the ranch; Minnie, who is attending the State Normal at San Jose; Pauline L., Bernice E., and Georgia E., who are attending the Williams High School ; John William ; and Carroll Herbert, who died on October 8, 1914, aged two years, seven months, and ten days. Mr. Abel was made a Mason in Tuscan Lodge, No. 261, F. & A. M., at Williams, of which he is still a member. He also belongs to the Central Lodge of Odd Fellows in the same town. For many years he has been a director of the Freshwater school district, and he has served as clerk of the board. He took an active part in the erection of the new schoolhouse, and in many other ways has shown his interest in matters pertaining to the public welfare. Mr. Abel is a member of the Christian Church at Williams, and was a liberal contributor towards the erection of its house of worship. In politics, he is a Republican.


JOHN F. ABEL - The thrift and frugality of the Germans usually bring them a fair degree of success in whatever locality their industrious efforts centralize; and especially is this the case when they settle in a climate where Nature proves a kindly friend. In the list of settlers in Colusa County perhaps none met with a greater degree of success than the late John F. Abel, a pioneer of the county, of 1869. He was born in Mecklenburg-Schwerin, Germany, a son of John Frederick and Mary (Prosch) Abel, both natives of that same grand duchy and members of Lutheran families. During the year 1852, the family sought the greater opportunities afforded by the United States. They crossed the ocean in a sailing vessel, and after debarking at New York proceeded to Chicago, and from there to Wisconsin, settling on a farm at Fond du Lac, where the parents remained until their deaths. They had six sons and four daughters, but only three came west of the Rocky Mountains: Charles, who settled in the vicinity of Spokane, Wash. ; George H., who located near Maxwell, Colusa County; and John F., of this review.


John F. Abel was the oldest son in the family. He was born on May 1, 1828, and was educated in the schools of his native land. With his parents, he experienced the monotony of the long voyage from Hamburg to New York in 1852, and with them remained one winter in Chicago, before they settled in Fond du Lac, Wis. Later he had charge of the land owned by his father. The year 1859 found Mr. Abel eager to try his luck in the gold mines of Pike's Peak; and with three others he started on the journey. They took provisions sufficient for a year, and had with them two wagons, with eight oxen and two cows. On reaching Omaha, they encountered many discouraged miners returning from the supposed Eldorado ; and the reports these gave decided the trio to change their plans and come overland to California as fast as they could. After a weary journey of six months, they landed in the state, where they mined a short time in Siskiyou County. The results, however, did not justify the effort, and they became satisfied that other lines of endeavor were surer means of bringing them the desired fortune. Mr. Abel then secured work by the month, and in the spring of 1861 returned to Wisconsin, via Panama and New York, landing in the latter city the day Fort Sumter was fired upon.


On reaching home, Mr. Abel took up farming; and in this occupation he continued, in the same locality, until May, 1867, when he brought his wife and children to California, over the same route he had traversed on returning East. After his arrival he spent a short time in Napa County, and later bought a quarter section of land in Solano County. In 1869, he sold out to move to Colusa County, where he bought a half section northwest from Williams. Here he made a specialty of raising grain; and as he was able he added to his holdings from time to time, until he owned some three thousand acres. For some of his property he paid as high as forty-seven dollars per acre; but the larger portion he got for lower prices. A neat residence was occupied by the family up to the time of their removal to Williams, in the fall of 1903. All the improvements on his place were made by Mr. Abel, with the assistance of his family; and a well-improved and productive ranch was the result.


The marriage of Mr. Abel with Miss Christine M. Herman was celebrated on July 27, 1856. She was a daughter of Bartel and Effie (Pfaff) Herman, natives of Saxony, where she also was born. During 1849, Mr. Herman brought his family to America and settled in Wisconsin, where he improved a farm in Dodge County. Here both he and his wife passed away. In their family of ten children, Christine was the youngest. She was born on May 28, 1837. After the family settled in Wisconsin, she continued to reside there until she came to the Golden State. Her death occurred on June 18, 1905. Of the union of Mr. and Mrs. Abel, ten children were born: Franklin H., who resides in Oakland; Mrs. Laura M. Galloway, of Healdsburg, Sonoma County; George L., who is mentioned on another page of this work; Mary S., who became the wife of George Kaerth, of Williams; Mrs. Hattie C. Rathbun, who resides in Los Angeles; Henry H. and John F.. both farmers in Colusa County; Dorothea A., who resides in Williams ; and William E. and Melvin D., both farmers in the home neighborhood.


From 1869 until his removal to Williams, Mr. Abel served as a school trustee of his district, and did much to advance the cause of education in the county. In politics he was a Republican. At the reunion of the family, to celebrate the eighty-third birthday of this successful pioneer, he divided the stock of the John P. Abel Co. among his children, thus giving them their interest in the property. His death occurred soon after his return from a visit to the Panama-Pacific International Exposition, in San Francisco, in August, 1915. At his passing, the state, and particularly Colusa County, sustained an irreparable loss; and in his community he was mourned by a large concourse of friends and neighbors.


ELBERT A. BRIM - A worthy representative of the pioneer element that laid the foundation for our statehood, Elbert A. Brim was born near Leesville, in Bear Valley, Colusa County, August 8, 1879. His father, Jackson W. Brim, was born in Tennessee, in the year 1835, and was the son of J. A. and Jane Brim. He resided in Missouri until April 21, 1856, when he crossed the plains to California, arriving in Oroville on August 24 of that year. After mining for a very brief period on the Feather River, he located in Colusa County, and engaged in farming in Bear Valley. In 1888 he moved to a ranch situated seven miles west of Williams, which he farmed extensively to grain. In addition to his operations as a grain-grower, Mr. Brim also became one of the pioneer horticulturists and vineyardists of his locality. After many years spent on his ranch, he moved into the town of Williams, where he now lives retired, in the enjoyment of his means. Jackson W. Brim married Emily A. Smith; and they became the parents of four children, Elbert A. being the only son. Of the daughters, Jennie (Mrs. Gr. C. Comstock) and Lucy M. reside in Williams; and both are interested in horticulture and in sheep-raising. Mary L., the other daughter, is deceased.


Elbert A. Brim attended the public schools of the district in which the family lived, until 1893. He then went to Oakland and attended the Lincoln school until he graduated. After his graduation, he entered Belmont Military Academy, in San Mateo County, where he spent two years, after which he entered Bunes Academy in Berkeley, from which he was graduated in 1903. He then matriculated at the University of California at Berkeley; but at the end of the first year he was obliged, on account of his father's failing health, to give up his university course and take charge of the home ranch. Since 1905, he has been engaged in farming and stock-raising, and in the raising of various kinds of fruits. His stock is of a high grade. The cattle are of the Durham breed; and the hogs are Poland-Chinas and Berkshires. He owns nine hundred acres of well-improved land seven miles west from Williams, and also leases some three thousand acres of his father's holdings. The family has one hundred fifty acres set to almonds, and two hundred ninety acres are in vineyard. Twenty-two years ago, Mr. Brim's father set out the first commercial vineyard that was planted in Colusa County, on the plains.


On his own property, Elbert A. Brim has one hundred eighty-five acres in grapes, of the Muscat, Sultana, and Thompson seedless varieties, and also has a fine almond orchard. He finds his land, which is located in the beginning of the foothills, at a somewhat higher elevation than the plains, very suitable for horticulture. It is very free from frosts ; and moreover the fruit and nuts mature earlier. In the operation of Ms ranch, Mr. Brim runs two caterpillar engines—one of seventy-five horse power, for putting in and harvesting his crops, and the other of thirty horsepower for cultivating his orchards. Besides these modern appliances, lie uses two eight-mule teams. He takes good care of his machinery, having large sheds under which he carefully stores it when it is not in use. He maintains both a blacksmith shop and a machine shop, run by gas-engine power; and when it comes to making repairs to any machine, Mr. Brim is a workman of no mean ability. His orchards are well laid out, and are arranged with a view to convenience in cultivating the land and gathering the crops. He has miles of drives, with both sides set to almond trees. Conveniently located on the edge of the vineyard, is his packing house, equipped with a thirty-ton Fresno stemmer and cleaner, with twelve-horse gas engine and five-horse steam boiler, where the produce is packed in boxes ready for market. It is interesting to go over Mr. Brim's place and note the systematic arrangement of everything. The comfort of his employees receives just, as careful consideration as his own convenience. The bunk houses are built like small cottages, are provided with modern conveniences for lighting and heating, and are furnished with, shower baths. Some of his employees have been with him ever since he began ranching for himself.


Mr. Brim was married in Williams to Miss Mabel Stovall. who was born on the Stovall ranch near Williams, a daughter of J. C. Stovall, of whom mention is made in this history. Mrs. Brim is a graduate from Hamlin's Ladies' Seminary, in San Francisco. Mr. and Mrs. Brim have one child, Beatrice Brim. The family reside in their comfortable house, a large residence surrounded by fine shade trees and lawns.


Mr. Brim is intensely interested in horticulture. He is satisfied that there is a great future for fruit-raising in this section, and is bending his efforts to demonstrate it a success on a commercial basis. He was a member of the first board of horticultural commissioners in Colusa County. He is interested in all public and social movements, and is frequently selected to work on committees, especially on important occasions, as for instance at the celebration of the completion of the State Highway, at "Williams, and when the soldiers passed through the town. On both of these occasions, he was one of three men who each gave a beef for the barbecue. Mr. Brim is a member of the board of trustees of the Freshwater school district, and is a clerk of the board. In politics he is a Democrat.


DORR S. NELSON - It took a man from North Dakota to bring to the front the possibilities of the section of country about Arbuckle, Colusa County, for the growing of almonds profitably. Not that he planted the first orchards, for that was done years ago by others. Almond trees were already pretty well scattered over all that district, and they all seemed to thrive and produce an average and sure crop ; but it remained for Dorr S. Nelson to carry out plans he had been formulating during a period of observation on the growth of the trees throughout the district, and to promote the Superior California Fruit Land Co. Purchasing six thousand acres of land in the Arbuckle district, he began a campaign to sell and to develop the property as an exclusive almond proposition. He put three thousand acres on the market in twenty-acre lots, two thousand acres being set to almonds; and now there are twenty-five homes located on the tract, which had all been sold by 1915.


Mr. Nelson was born on a farm in Sheffield, Bureau County, Ill., February 17, 1876. At the age of six he was taken to the Red River Valley, Grand Forks County, N. D., by his parents, who settled on a farm there ; and there he attended the district schools and grew to manhood. As a young man he was ambitious and enterprising. When he was twenty-five he was engaged as a contractor and house-mover, owning the second largest outfit in that state. He was centrally located at Larimore, where he did a large and profitable business up to the time when, in 1909, lie came to California to look after a subdivision project in Modoc County that he had become interested in. That property was sold out the first year ; and as this great state, with its wonderful possibilities, suited him, he looked about to find a section that was worthy of the effort necessary to develop its resources. In 1910 he located in Arbuckle ; and he has since been one of the leaders in exploiting its fertile lands, and has been the direct means of bringing many settlers within its boundaries. After the first large tract of land had been sold and the local people had been educated to the opportunities that lay at their very doors, in 1915 he promoted the California Almond Co. Eleven hundred acres was purchased, of which three hundred eighty-five acres is now set to almonds; and the balance is being planted as fast as possible. A plant for shelling almonds has been planned and hopes are entertained for its early operation. Every assistance is given the settler to make his crop sure, and to see that it brings the highest market price. It is the desire of Mr. Nelson to have the district set out figs, apricots, raisin grapes, etc., so that there will be a continuous season of harvest, enabling the farmer to do more of his own work, and at the same time giving employment to workers the year round.


The latest subdivision promoted by Mr. Nelson is the Highway Almond Home Subdivision of two hundred fifty acres, part of the Sherer ranch, situated south of the town of Arbuckle on the state highway. Twenty-acre and forty-acre farms have been sold to local people and will be planted in 1918; and homes are already being built on the tract. Besides his subdivision work, Mr. Nelson conducts a successful general real estate business under the name of the Nelson Real Estate Co. He has the confidence of the home people, who have been led to see the possibilities in store for them in the specialized development of the district. Arbuckle has the distinction of being the first locality in the state to claim a specialized district for growing almonds, and it is so advertised. The local people are investing at high prices, and having the land developed. The object of Mr. Nelson is to serve, believing that a satisfied home-seeker is the best kind of advertising; and he is always on the alert for the welfare of the newcomer. The work of development is done by local people, so that a great deal of the money spent for labor comes back "home."


Mr. Nelson is frequently referred to as the "Almond King" by those who know him best. He is active in every movement for the advancement of his district. He was local manager, vice-president and director of the Superior California Fruit Land Co., and is now manager, secretary and treasurer of the California Almond Co.; secretary of the Almond Growers' Association of Arbuckle and College City; and one of the organizers, and vice-president and director, of Arbuckle and College City Chamber of Commerce. He has done much to put Arbuckle and Colusa County on the map, showing the world another favored spot in California. He was a prime mover in having the streets paved in the business district in Arbuckle, and also in securing electric lights for the town, as well as every other modern convenience, making of it a real city.


Dorr S. Nelson was united in marriage with Miss Eva A. Sheets, of Northfield, Minn.; and they have one son, Donald S. Mr. Nelson is a Mason, belonging to Meridian Lodge, No. 182, F. & A. M. ; and he is also a member of the Independent Order of Foresters, at Arbuckle.


COLUSA COUNTY FREE LIBRARY - The Colusa County Free Library was established on July 1, 1915, under the state law governing county libraries, and began operations on August 1, 1916. A properly certificated librarian, Mrs. Antoinette Hollabaugh, was appointed; but because of ill health, she was shortly forced to resign, and was succeeded by Miss Louise E. Jamme, on October 16, 1916.


The library is housed in the County Hall of Records, in Colusa. Nine community branches have been established throughout the county; and a custodian is in charge of each. Four of these branches have reading rooms ; the remaining live are deposit stations. The service in these little libraries is not confined to the number of volumes contained in each, for requisition may be made on the County Library headquarters for any books or information that may be desired. In case of inability to supply what is required, the County Library may borrow from the State Library, which, by granting this privilege, supplements the service of the County Libraries, thus making available to the public much material which the County Libraries find it impracticable to purchase. At the present time, the Colusa County Library owns thirty-nine hundred fifty-three volumes.


A distinct branch of the County Library work is its cooperation with the public schools. With the sanction of the school trustees, any school district may join the County Library. Thereafter, the county superintendent turns over the library fund of the district to the County Library, and the school makes requisition on the county librarian for all supplementary books and other library material. The County Library books are left in the school as long as they are in use there, and are then returned and replaced by others that are needed. This is made possible through the pooling of the books as well as the funds; and each school has thus the benefit of the exchange from all the other schools. Furthermore, the schools have at their command the services of a trained librarian and practically unlimited resources in reference material. At the present writing (July, 1917), nineteen of the school districts in the county have joined the County Library.


The constant exchange of books between the branches and headquarters, and the schools and headquarters, keeps the collection alive and moving throughout the county, the aim being to supply the library needs in every section, and to stimulate an interest in the education that comes from the use of books and other sources of printed information and knowledge. The County Library cooperates with the clubs in the county by furnishing outlines for courses of study and the books that are necessary for the pursuit of the courses outlined ; and it also furnishes the books required in correspondence and other extension courses of the various universities and colleges.


JOHN ARCHIBALD BEDFORD - Of English ancestry, John Archibald Bedford has a long line of soldier forebears, who, both in England and in America, have made a record for valor and patriotism. His great-grandfather, Capt. Stephen Bedford, was born in England, became a captain in the British army, and crossed the seas to America with General Braddock, serving under him in the French and Indian War. His brother. Dr. Gunning Bedford, was a surgeon in the same regiment, while still another brother was a lieutenant under General Braddock. After the close of the French and Indian War, Capt. Stephen Bedford settled in Virginia ; Dr. Gunning Bedford, in Delaware; and the third brother. Lieutenant Bedford, in North Carolina. Captain Bedford afterwards served in the Revolutionary War, as did four of his sons, among them Archibald, the grandfather of John Archibald of this review.


After the War of the Revolution, Captain Bedford and his two brothers located near what is now Paris, Ky. He sowed the first blue grass in Kentucky, having obtained the seed from General Calmes' patch. Green Bedford, father of John Archibald, was a farmer in Kentucky. His fortune being depleted during the Civil War, in 1867 he removed to Missouri to recoup his losses, and became a successful farmer near Wellington, Lafayette County, where he died in 1910 at the advanced age of ninety-five years. He married Caroline Chinn, a native of Harrison County, Ky., and a daughter of John Chinn, who was born in Virginia and became an early settler of Kentucky. He was an own cousin of Gen. George Washington, their mothers being sisters—Mary Ball, wife of Augustin Washington, and Agnes Ball, wife of Rollo Chinn. Green Bedford and his wife had seven children, four of whom are living, John Archibald being the second child.


John Archibald Bedford was born near Paris, Bourbon County, Ky., on February 15, 1840. He was reared in the Blue Grass State, and received his early education in the public schools there, after which he entered Georgetown College, at Georgetown, Ky., where he continued his studies until he enlisted in the Confederate army. Always opposed to slavery, he did not want to see the Union broken. However, when Garfield was camped near Georgetown, and it dawned on him that the colored people would be given their freedom without provision for colonizing them elsewhere, he foresaw great trouble between the races, and so in 1862 he joined the Confederate army. He served under General Morgan in a cavalry regiment as first sergeant, until Morgan was captured, and then with General Longstreet in the commissary department. He was brevet captain in February, 1864, and brevet major of commissariat in March, 1864. During the same year, at the request of General Morgan, who had been exchanged, he returned to Morgan's command, to his place in the cavalry, until Morgan was killed. After that he served on detached service as a scout for Col. Adam Johnson, Joe Wheeler, and General Eckles, until the close of the war. He had many close calls. Numerous bullets passed through his clothes, and his horse was shot from under him; but he did not receive a wound. When the news of Lee's surrender reached him, he advised the "Boys in Gray," at Christiansburg, Va., in these words: "Boys, go home, help build up the country, and make this the best government in the world."


After the war, the family moved to Missouri, in 1867, as stated above; and on April 15, 1869, Mr. Bedford was married, at Wellington, to Miss Elizabeth Freeman, a native of Cass County, Mo., and the daughter of Thomas Fountain and Elizabeth (Thomas) Freeman, who were born at Culpeper Courthouse, Va., and in Kentucky, respectively. The father came to Missouri in early days and engaged in farming. After the mother's death, he moved to California and homesteaded a farm across Stony Creek from Elk Creek, where he farmed until his death at the age of eighty-two years. Of the, seven children, two grew to maturity, Elizabeth, now Mrs. Bedford, and E. Y. Freeman, a rancher in Jackson County, Mo., and an ex-chief of police of Kansas City, Mo.


After farming in Missouri for some years, Mr. and Mrs. Bedford determined to come to California. In 1872, they located near the Stone Corral, Colusa County, and in 1873 they moved to the vicinity of Elk Creek, Glenn County, where they have since resided. They first homesteaded one hundred sixty acres on Grindstone Creek, where they made the necessary improvements, built a home, and raised their family. In 1901, they sold the place and located on their present ranch, the one taken as a homestead by Mrs. Bedford's father, which she inherited; and here they have engaged in farming. Their ranch comprises one hundred acres on Stony Creek. Their alfalfa fields and gardens are irrigated from a ditch leading from Stony Creek. This ditch was originally started by a Mr. Boyles, in 1878, and was completed by Mrs. Bedford's father; and later it was extended by Mr. and Mrs. Bedford. It is now the oldest ditch on the creek. Their son, Marcus Green Bedford, resides with them and manages the ranch. Fifteen acres of the place is seeded to alfalfa. The place is in part devoted to stock-raising, and it also maintains a dairy.


Mr. and Mrs. Bedford have had nine children born to them Richard Thomas, who farms on the old home place; Edmund Coleman, who resides in "Willows; Mary A., who resides with her parents ; Charles Henry, of Orland ; Carrie, Mrs. Gould, of Woodland; Mildred, Mrs. Vanderford, of Orland; Marcus Green, who manages the home ranch; Archibald Houston, of Paskenta; and Lena Freeman, deceased. Mr. and Mrs. Bedford are members of the Christian Church. In politics he is a Democrat.


WILLIAM GORDON CARPENTER  -  A man who has made his influence felt in the affairs of Colusa County as one of the leading and successful ranchers of the Sacramento Valley, in which section he is well and favorably known, is William Gordon Carpenter, a native of Missouri, born in Grundy County, on December 11, 1861. His father, Andrew Jackson Carpenter, was born near Louisville, Ky., and was married in that state to Susan Mitchell. They removed to Grundy County, Mo., where they remained until 1863. Deciding that the West held better opportunities for him, Mr. Carpenter then set out with his family, consisting of his wife, two daughters and two sons, on the long journey over the plains and mountains, with slow-going oxen hitched to their wagons. After an uneventful journey of six months, they arrived in California. The first year was passed in Stanislaus County, where Mr. Carpenter put in a crop along the Stanislaus River. It was a dry year (1861), and he met with a total failure. This greatly discouraged him, and he moved to Oregon that fall, using horse teams, as he had disposed of his oxen. He took up a claim of one hundred sixty acres near the town of Eugene, in Lane County. This he improved; and here for some years he farmed with fair success. His next move took him to Whitman County, Wash., where he engaged in raising wheat near Colfax for two years. Here he passed away, in 1880. His widow and her family then located in Eugene, and three years later came down to California. Mrs. Carpenter died on December 24, 1907, leaving six children: Mrs. Laura Saunders, of Oregon; George W., residing near Maxwell ; Drucilla, Mrs. Baker, of Colusa ; William G., of this review ; and Mrs. Alameda Gregory and Stonewall Jackson, of Maxwell.


William Gordon Carpenter was but a babe when his parents brought him across the plains in 1863. He was reared an educated in Oregon, whither his parents had moved in 1864. He was sixteen years of age when the family moved farther north into Washington, and was then able to be of great assistance to his father on the ranch, where he learned to drive the big teams in the grain fields. Upon the death of his father the family located in Eugene, Ore., and two years later Mr. Carpenter came down to California and found employment near the town of Maxwell. His mother and the other members of the family joined him the following year. In 1884 he began ranching on his own account, leasing a ranch near Maxwell, where he farmed for about six years. Then he leased land from Colonel Hagar on the Sacramento River, in Colusa County, and for fourteen years was engaged in grain-raising on that place, at the same time leasing adjoining land, farming fifteen hundred acres in all. In 1909 he leased his present place of ten hundred fifty acres, part of the W. H. Williams estate, which adjoins the town of Williams ; and also twenty-five hundred acres from the Stovall-Wilcoxson Co., about eight miles west from the town. This entire acreage he devotes to the raising of grain. He raises some fifteen hundred acres of wheat and barley each year, summer-fallowing the balance of the land. Mr. Carpenter is up-to-date in his methods, using a sixty-five horse-power Holt Caterpillar, and a fifty horse-power Holt steam tractor. These modern machines are supplemented by a Holt combined harvester. Besides harvesting his own crops, he cuts about two thousand acres each year for his neighbors, the proceeds of which add materially to his annual income. In 1900 Mr. Carpenter became the representative for the Holt Manufacturing Co. of Stockton. He bought and used the first steam rig in Colusa County, operating it with success, and also sold the first Holt steam tractor in the county. Since then he has placed all of the Holt power rigs and combined harvesters used in the county. He devotes considerable time to sales, and now finds the gasoline caterpillar tractor taking the lead over the steam tractor.


Mr. Carpenter was united in marriage at Colusa, on December 17, 1893, with Miss Hannah Miller, a native of Stockton, and a daughter of J. H. and Mary J. (Goodin) Miller, born in Springfield, Mo., and Kentucky, respectively. Her parents crossed the plains to California in 1856. For a time they followed mining, after which they farmed in Colusa County, later removing to Stockton. Of the union of Mr. and Mrs. Carpenter five children have been born: Loveta Jane, a graduate of the Williams high school and the San Jose State Normal, and now a teacher ; Darrell J., a high school graduate; Georgia Elaine, a student in the high school ; and Helen and William Bernell.


Mr. Carpenter is a member of Central Lodge, No. 229, of the Odd Fellows, at Williams. He is a Past Grand, and has represented his lodge at the Grand Lodge. He and his wife, and their daughter Loveta, belong to the Rebekahs, Pearl Lodge, No. 181, at Williams. For over twenty-five years Mr. Carpenter has been an active Odd Fellow. In political matters he favors the Democratic platform, and has been a member of the County Central Committee for years. He has served as a school trustee in Maxwell.


JOHN WILLIAM SOETH - A farmer in Clark's Valley, where he is well and favorably known, John William Soeth has been a resident of California since he was a lad of twelve. He was born in Holstein, Germany, January 25, 1876, and attended the German schools until 1888, when, with his grandparents, he came to the United States. They were bound for the Pacific Coast and on arriving in California settled in Colusa County, in a section that later became a part of Glenn County. In Marion school district this German lad learned to speak English, and completed his grammar school education.


His school days over, he began working on ranches, and for ten years was a wage-earner. With his savings he engaged in farming, and for three years had Fred Mason, an energetic young man, for a partner. He then sold out his interests and bought a twenty-acre tract of the Glenn ranch, on the river. He improved the place, raised alfalfa and ran a small dairy, and made his home there for eight or nine years, when he sold out. With the proceeds he bought sis hundred forty acres of the Johansen place in 1902. He has four hundred acres under cultivation, and is adding to his income by raising sheep and hogs.


Mr. Soeth was married in Colusa County to Miss Rose Allen Hebert, a native daughter, born March 18, 1880, into the family of Samuel and Mary (St. Louis) Hebert, natives respectively of Canada and Missouri, in which latter state they were married. Mr. Hebert was a soldier in the Civil War. He came to Colusa County, where he located a government claim of one hundred sixty acres and followed farming. His wife came to California with a brother. Of the union of Mr. and Mrs. Soeth seven children have been born : Alda Norine, Wanda Valentine, A. Lorine, Velma, Orrin, Odon and Theoran. The family is highly respected by all who know them, and hold a high place in their community, where Mr. Soeth is ever ready to cooperate with every movement for the betterment of the county. He is a Republican in politics, and is a member of the German Lutheran Church.


ROY W. GRENFELL - An enterprising and successful business man, Roy W. Grenfell, as secretary and manager of the Grenfell Lumber Company of Colusa, has made his influence felt in the commercial world. He was born in Madison, Wis., December 12, 1879. Coming to California with his parents in 1885, he grew up in Grass Valley, and graduated from the high school there in 1897, after which he returned to Wisconsin and was graduated from the Northwestern Business College, at Madison. He then entered the employ of a lumber company there, and remained two years learning the business, at the end of which time he was put in charge of the office of a sawmill at Chelsea, Wis. Returning to California, on a visit, Mr. Grenfell heard of an opening at Colusa, and coming here on February 28, 1905, bought out the C. C. Hickok Lumber Company. Since his arrival in this city, he has built up a large and profitable business.


Everything in the building line is carried by this enterprising dealer. He buys redwood in ship-load and car-load lots, from Eureka to Albion, and pine from Portland, Ore. In connection with his lumber yard, Mr. Grenfell operates a planing mill and caters to the building contractors in this section of the valley. Since he located here he has had an unusually successful career and has won a high place in the business life of Colusa County.


As he succeeded in business, he found time to devote to other interests. He bought seventy-six acres of land and set out an orchard of prunes. On twenty acres of this property, the trees are now (1917) two years old and in a promising condition. As a public-spirited citizen, Mr. Grenfell has always had the best interests of the county at heart, and has ever been ready to lend his support to all worthy movements for the benefit of his community. He believes in the future of Colusa and the country surrounding it ; and by his industry he has made a place for himself in the life of the valley with the passing years.


At Grand Rapids, Wis., Mr. Grenfell was married to Miss Myrtle Kellogg. Three children bless their union : Janice, LeRoy, and Clarence. Mr. Grenfell was made a Mason in Medford, Wis., Lodge, and belongs to the Chapter and Commandery at Colusa, being Past Commander. He belongs to the Marysville Lodge of Elks, and to the Antlers Club of Colusa.


THOMAS G. AJAX - A wide-awake business man who still finds time to devote to healthful recreation, and who, by providing legitimate sport, has become one of the best-known sportsmen in this part of the state, is Thomas G. Ajax, a native of Terre Haute, Ind., of Welsh descent. He was a journeyman tailor, and followed his trade as a young man in various parts of the East. He came to the Coast, and for a time followed his trade in Seattle, Wash., after which, in 1889, he came to California and opened a tailoring establishment in Sacramento. Later he removed to Willows, where at first he had a tailor shop under the Crawford Hotel, making there a display which at once attracted the attention of the public. When he had acquired some reputation, he moved to his present location on West Walnut Street, where he conducts a first-class tailoring business, making a specialty of ladies' garments. Knowing just what is wanted, and how and when to supply it, he has built up a trade such as many longer established would be glad to enjoy.


In 1911, Mr. Ajax opened a modern and thoroughly up-to-date cleaning establishment at 320 South Butte Street, equipped with every known appliance for washing, extracting, drying and otherwise cleaning, with or without steam, the same being the only modern dry-cleaning plant in the entire county. He has built up a considerable business by parcel post, adopting the plan of paying the carriage both ways within fifty miles of Willows, and so attracting patrons from a wide surrounding territory.


Some years ago Mr. Ajax was married to Miss Sadie Lowe, a native of Missouri; and together they participate in the social life of the community. Mr. Ajax is a member of the Woodmen of the World, and is also a member, and was one of the organizers, of the "Clampers" of Willows.


Along the line of sports Mr. Ajax has become well known throughout Northern California. In 1900, he was the organizer and manager of the "Willows Giants," one of the best amateur baseball teams in the state—a team that won many championships and defeated the most renowned players sent out from San Francisco and Sacramento. As a souvenir of those exciting days, Mr. Ajax has an interesting scrapbook containing the account of all ball games played by the team since 1900. Some of the best players in the Pacific Coast League, in the past few years, have played with the "Willows Giants." Boxing events have also been promoted by Mr. Ajax; and in early days he was interested in local entertainments such as Negro minstrel shows. In more recent years he has found recreation in goose hunting in the local marshes, using a flock of live decoy geese, and accompanying visiting sportsmen from various parts of the state to the most favorable hunting grounds. Mr. Ajax superintends the annual celebration of the Fourth of July. It will thus be seen that he has given himself to the advancement of clean and beneficial sport, and in this matter he has undoubtedly rendered a public service.


REV. HERMAN J. VON RENNER - As pastor of the German Lutheran Church of Germantown, Glenn County, Rev. Herman J. von Renner is proving his ability in his chosen calling—in fact, has already proved it, for he is a

leader in the educational and social life of the community. Born in Richville, Mich., March 16, 1886, of German parentage, Rev. Renner pursued his studies in the public schools of that vicinity, after which he attended the Maston High School, at Buffalo, N. Y., for four years, and the Preparatory School at Milwaukee, Wis., for three years, and finally graduated from the Theological Seminary at Springfield, Ill., in the spring of 1908.


Coming to California, Rev. Mr. Renner accepted his first charge in the fall of 1908, as pastor of the church he still serves, in which capacity he has more than satisfied every demand made upon him. He is an active factor in all movements for the advancement of the people in his community. He formed the Germantown Young People's Society, and takes an active interest in its work. He is a school trustee, and assisted in the formation of the Farm Center, Germantown district. He also teaches the German language, having two classes from the local school and giving the course of instruction in his church. Rev. Renner makes the interests of his people his own interests. A man of education and attainments, he has built up his church and lent every effort toward placing the community on a higher level, both socially and economically. He is a highly respected and very popular man, having the faculty for making friends and keeping them, as is shown by his many friends and helpers in his chosen field.


At Altamont, Ill., August 30, 1908, Rev. Renner was united in marriage with Miss Emma Laatsch, a native of Illinois. They have one son, Bertwin.


THOMAS E. MARONEY - One of the most enterprising and progressive business men of the city of Colusa is the gentleman whose name heads this article. As owner and proprietor of the Colusa Machine Shop, he has built up a good business on the premises formerly occupied by the old Colusa Foundry. In March, 1914, Mr. Maroney bought this property from Mrs. Frank Wulff, whose late husband was formerly proprietor of the business.


Thomas E. Maroney is the son of Martin Maroney, a sawyer and machinist. He was born at Huntington, W. Va., January 31, 1870. About that time his father was running a sawmill at Porterville, in that state, and previously he conducted one for the Yellow Poplar Lumber Company. Grandmother Maroney was born in Ireland, and came to Pennsylvania, living for many years near Meadville, where she died at the age of one hundred three. His parents still reside in Huntington.


Young Maroney 's early childhood, boyhood and young manhood were associated with machinery; and his inclinations turned so strongly in that direction that his education was confined to the public schools in his native state, which held sessions about four months in the year. All of his spare time was spent in his father's mills and shops. At the age of fourteen he was apprenticed to the Ensign Manufacturing Company, to learn the trade of boiler maker. He served for four years at Huntington, W. Va., and at eighteen was a competent journeyman. His first position was at Logan, in that state, in the employ of the United States Coal and Oil Company. He began at the time the ground was broken, and remained until they shipped their first coal; and he was present when the first car load went out to the president of the company in New York City, which represented an expenditure of one and a quarter millions of dollars.


Soon after this, Mr. Maroney came west. He held responsible positions as boiler maker, construction engineer, and machinist in Detroit, Chicago, and Bakersfield, Cal. He was construction engineer for the Associated Oil Company, in the Kern River fields, for two years, and from there went to Old Mexico, where he held important positions with the Madera Lumber Company until the Mexican revolution made it unsafe for Americans to remain in that country. He again came to California in 1907, on the last train over the route by which he returned. An extended trip to several Oregon cities, and a prospecting and mining trip into Del Norte County, Cal., occupied about two years of his time. He then made a visit to Colusa, where he decided to locate. His ability was soon evident and he had many- jobs offered to him. Soon after, in partnership with a friend, H. S. Hearn, he started in business ; and they were very successful from the beginning. The firm continued as Maroney and Hearn until January 23, 1917, when Mr. Maroney became sole owner. His shops are equipped with all kinds of modern tools and machinery, and are run by a powerful electric motor. He is prepared to execute any kind of repair job or to manufacture anything in his line.


Mr. Maroney was married to Mrs. Leonora Hannah, widow of J. H. Hannah, and a native of Virginia. Their comfortable home in Colusa is presided over by Mrs. Maroney with a delightful charm and grace of manner; and they have a wide circle of friends in their home town and throughout the county. Fraternally, Mr. Maroney is a Mason and an Odd Fellow.


ALFRED L. WEST - Among the wide-awake real estate dealers of Willows, and one who succeeds largely because of his unbounded confidence in the future of the town, is Alfred L. West, a native of the good old town of Quincy, Ill., where he was also brought up. There were schools enough, and good ones, too, in Quincy; but circumstances compelled Alfred to quit his teachers and his books at the age of thirteen, and to commence his hard struggle with the world. His first employment was in a grocery store at Quincy, at three dollars and fifty cents a week. Later, he went to Chicago and engaged with a dry-goods establishment, where he learned the business; and during the thirteen years he remained there, he was advanced steadily until he reached the position of manager of the store. He next conducted a dry-goods business at Louisville Ky; and afterwards was a dry-goods merchant at Kansas City, Mo., and then at Carson City, Nev.


Coming to San Francisco in 1894, Mr. West became associated with the North "Western Mutual Life Insurance Company, and remained in that city until 1907. He then removed to Willows, where he engaged in the real-estate business, and by exceptional foresight and close attention to details built up a remunerative trade. He has become agent of the North Western Mutual Life Insurance Company, of Milwaukee, and of the Westchester Fire Insurance Company and the Imperial Fire Insurance Company, of New York City.


MRS. CAROLINE MULLER  - If America is preeminent as the land of opportunity for the man of moderate means, California is the state for the development of woman, especially as a factor in the business world. This is made clear in the career of Mrs. Caroline Muller, owner of valuable real estate in Willows. She was a daughter of John and Dorothy (Herschel) Hirt, farmers near Strasburg, France. It was here that her father died, after which her mother joined her children in America, where she died in San Francisco. She had •five children, three of whom are still living. Mrs. Muller, the second youngest in the family, was educated in the public schools of her native country. She came to California in 1877, making her home in San Francisco until her marriage to Joseph Muller, born in Colmar, Alsace-Lorraine, when it was a province of France. He learned the trade of blacksmith there, and followed it until he came to America, making his first stop in Pittsburgh, Pa., where he continued his trade until he had become familiar with the ways of the country and had made enough money to bring him to the Pacific Coast, whither he came in 1875. He arrived in Los Angeles, then a small town, and there followed his trade. He was able to speak French and German fluently, and soon picked up Spanish and English, all of which were valuable assets to him in his work. He was looking for a location in some growing community; and with this in view he traveled north from Los Angeles, stopping at various places, and finally arrived in Willows, in 1880. He bought some town lots, put up a blacksmith shop at the corner of Sycamore and Butte Streets, and in time built up a profitable and thriving business, drawing custom from all over Glenn County. He was an adept workman, courteous to all his patrons, and was well liked by all who knew him. He served as a trustee of the city and became prominent in the lodges of the Masons and Odd Fellows.


Mrs. Muller's enterprise and public spirit have been demonstrated in many ways. She has shown an optimistic confidence in the future of Willows, improving her property with suitable business houses. She has erected three modern business buildings. Her home at the corner of Shasta and Sycamore Streets has stood for more than thirty-three years as a familiar landmark in Willows. The yard is set with beautiful flowers, and is shaded with fruit trees and ornamental trees, all of which she has cared for with her own hands. She is continually making improvements on her holdings, and displays her enthusiasm in many ways for the advancement of her adopted city, supporting and working for progressive movements that make for a better town.


Mrs. Muller has four children: Mrs. Emma D. Barceloux, Alfred L., Jeanette J., and Joseph T., all of whom have been given good educational advantages. Mrs. Muller is active in social, religious, and civic circles, supports the various associations that have for their aim the moral uplift of the community, and is recognized as a charitable, hospitable and progressive citizen.


RICHARD HENRY NICHOLS - An enterprising farmer in the Clarks Valley section of Glenn County, who is making a record for himself in the agricultural interests of the state, is Richard Henry Nichols, owner of eleven hundred twenty acres of land at the head of Willow Creek, below the Needham and Washington grades. He was born in Holstein, Germany, October 7, 1880, a son of Clans J. and Elsie (Soeth) Nichols, who brought their family to Glenn County in 1891, the year that this county was formed. They became the owners of eleven hundred twenty acres of land above Mills Holm, where they carried on their occupation as farmers for several years, finally retiring to make their home in Los Angeles. There Mr. Nichols died in 1914. Mrs. Nichols still makes that city her home, residing on Flower Street. Of the three children, Richard Henry is the only one living.


Richard Henry Nichols received his education in the public schools of Glenn County. From a lad he lived on a ranch, where he became greatly interested in farm pursuits, learned to drive a big team, and proved to be of great assistance with the work about the ranch. At the age of twenty-one, he entered into partnership with his father. In 1905 he purchased six hundred forty acres of his present place, upon which he located and made necessary improvements. He fenced it, built barns and a house, and engaged in raising grain and stock. Later he added four hundred eighty acres adjoining, thus giving him ample acreage for his stock and grain fields. He makes a specialty of raising cattle and sheep.


Mr. Nichols was married in Willows, to Miss Mattie Johannsen, born in Clarks Valley, a daughter of Hans Johannsen, a pioneer of the valley, but now living retired in Oakland. Two children grace their happy home: Elsie and Edith. The family are members of the Lutheran Church. For several years Mr. Nichols has been a member and clerk of the board of trustees of the Marion school district. He also serves as road overseer of the fourth road district of the fourth supervisorial district in Glenn County. The success made by Mr. Nichols has been the result of his own efforts, and he has made many friends throughout Glenn County.


WILLIAM F. KLEWE - It would be difficult to find a man better fitted to judge of the resources and opportunities of Colusa County than William F. Klewe. Born and raised in the county, and a resident in it almost continuously since his birth, he has been closely identified with its ranching interests, and has become a factor for progress in the valley. A son of Henry and Rosa (Miller) Klewe, he was born in Colusa, January 18, 1878. His father was a native of Germany, where he lived until well along in his teens. He then came to America, and making his way to California, located in Colusa, where he learned the butcher's trade. When his means permitted, he started in business for himself, opening a meat market on Fifth Street, near Market, where he later erected the Klewe Building. He enlarged his business, gradually branched out as a dealer in stock, buying and selling cattle on a large scale, and became well and favorably known in this section of the state. He was also interested in ranching, and became the owner of several ranches. Retiring from the butcher business and his stock-dealing enterprises, he made his home in Colusa, looking after his varied interests until his death, in 1915. His wife was a native of Sacramento, and the daughter of a pioneer. She died in 1888, leaving two children: William F.; and Lillie, Mrs. 0. H. Miller, of Sacramento.


William F. Klewe was brought up in Colusa, receiving his education in the public schools here and at Sacramento. On account of ill health, he went to Snow Mountain, near Fonts Springs, where he remained about two years. The outdoor life there proved very beneficial, and on his return to Colusa he went into Johnsen's butcher shop and learned every department of the butcher business, continuing there six years. He then entered the employ of Showier 's meat market, for a period of seven years.


During these years, Mr. Klewe had been thrifty with his earnings and had accumulated a snug sum ; and in the meantime, also, he had engaged in the stock business, raising, buying and selling cattle, in which he was very successful; so he finally left the employ of the market, to look after his ranching interests. With his sister, he owns seven hundred acres of rich bottom land, eight miles north of Colusa, on the east side of the river. It is a splendid ranch, with one hundred fifty acres under irrigation and raising alfalfa, while the river bend is devoted to raising beans and corn, yielding large crops each season. A part of the ranch is leased and used for dairy purposes. Mr. Klewe and his sister also jointly own four hundred twenty acres just west of Colusa, now devoted to rice-growing ; and he owns, individually, an eighty acre ranch east of Colusa, and is engaged in the stock business, buying and feeding cattle for market.


With all these interests to demand his time and attention, Mr. Klewe has nevertheless found time to do his share toward promoting the general welfare of his native county ; and he is known throughout the district as a man who takes an active interest in the development and upbuilding of this part of the state. He is a stockholder and vice-president of the Cheney Slough Water Company, which furnishes water, by means of pumping plants, to the rice lands west of Colusa. He is also a stockholder in the First National Bank of Colusa, and owns valuable residence property in town.


The marriage of Mr. Klewe, which occurred in Sacramento, united him with Miss Ethel Cromer, also a native of Colusa, and a daughter of Chris Cromer, a pioneer farmer of this section. Mr. and Mrs. Klewe are the parents of two sturdy sons, Henry and Harold. Fraternally, Mr. Klewe is a member of Marysville Lodge, No. 783, B. P. 0. Elks, and of the Antlers Club of Colusa.


W. T. BELIEU  - That much of civic righteousness depends upon the integrity and the intellectuality of the Bar, is exemplified by W. T. Belieu, the prominent attorney at Willows, in the daily practice of his profession. Born in Brownsville, Lynn County, Ore., on November 30, 1882, he came to Willows when he was seven years of age, and here grew up. He attended the public grammar school of the town, than which perhaps there is none better in the county, and in 1902 graduated with honors from the Willows high school. In the well-equipped offices of Judge Oval Pirkey, young Mr. Belieu was first introduced to the study of law. After assiduous application, he was admitted to the California Bar in 1904, and soon afterwards began the practice of law at San Diego. While in the Southland, he was elected city attorney at Oceanside.


In 1907, Mr. Belieu returned to Willows, welcomed by all who already knew him, and assured quite generally of patronage and place; and here he has remained ever since, an earnest worker for law and order, and for the general upbuilding of the town. He has become the attorney for a number of corporations, and has more than made good in his chosen profession.


Besides practicing law with regularity and vigor, Mr. Belieu has become identified with large real estate developments in Willows, his counsel and experience, as well as his reputation for character and principle, counting for much, both with his colleagues and with would-be investors. Fraternally, he is popular as a Mason, belonging to Laurel Lodge, No. 245, F. & A. M.


JACOB HASSIG - A contracting painter and paper-hanger who has had a large experience in the world, and has brought to his work both the inherited taste characteristic of life across the ocean and the vigor and enterprise marking American ways and means, is Jacob Hassig, who was born in Helvetia, W. Va., March 19, 1886, the son of parents who were natives of Germany. He was reared and educated near Pittsburg, and when thirteen years of age started to work with his father, who was a painter and paperhanger. When his father retired to a farm, Jacob carried on the business alone; and as he arose early and went to bed late, and was unremitting in his attention to his patrons, he easily built up a prosperous trade.


On November 1, 1907, he set out for the Pacific Coast, and arriving in San Francisco went to work en various residences and notable buildings in the newly created city. Everywhere the high standard of his workmanship was recognized, and he was always assigned to portions of the day's labor requiring skill and taste. He helped decorate the Palace Hotel, for example, and gave the finishing touches to some of the finest residences in the Presidio.


By the end of the first week in April, 1910, he had established himself at Willows, and has since been busily engaged at his trade there. His first work in Willows was on the Sacramento Valley Irrigation Company's cottages. Still later, he was a partner in the firm of Lightner & Hassig, of Willows; and when, after a year and a half, the firm was dissolved by mutual consent of the partners, he assumed the proprietorship and conducted the business himself. One of the largest undertakings of this very dependable artisan has been the decoration of the department store of Hochheimer & Co. It is hardly too much to say that Mr. Hassig has worked on over half of the painting contracts in the town. On March 19, 1911, Jacob Hassig was married to Mrs. Letia M. (Simpson) Miller, a native of Maxwell, Colusa County, and the daughter of California pioneers. Her mother crossed the plains to California in early days, and her father long had a blacksmith shop in Maxwell. Three children have blessed their union. The oldest died, aged twenty days; the others are John Jacob, Jr., and Letia Martell. In fraternal circles, Mr. Hassig finds social diversion as an Odd Fellow.


ROBERT L. TENNANT  - Among the prominent, wide-awake and successful ranchers of Colusa County, is Robert L. Tennant, a descendant of pioneer stock in California. His parents, Robert James, and Hannah (Waring) Tennant, were among the early pioneer ranchers on the east side of the Sacramento River, north of Colusa. William ("Billy") Tennant, millionaire and financial genius, for whom Tennant Station, in Santa Clara County, was named, was an uncle. Richard Waring, another of the old pioneers, was his maternal grandfather. These and other relatives connect him with the early history of our state. Mrs. Tennant comes from people of no less note, being an own sister of the late Edward W. Jones, once sheriff of Colusa County, and a daughter of the late James Winslow and Hannah (Heathcote) Jones, natives of England, and California pioneers of the gold-mining days of 1850. She is also a niece of Edward Heathcote, now past ninety, and residing in Colusa County on his ranch.


Robert L. Tennant was born in San Francisco, July 17, 1866, and when nine years of age moved with his parents to Colusa County, where he grew to manhood on his father's ranch, northeast of Colusa. He attended the public schools and assisted his father on the ranch. Wishing to be independent, he secured permission from his father to go out to work for wages; and this he did for several years. With the experience thus gained, young Tennant felt that he was able to make a success of ranching on his own account; and leasing land in the Butte Creek district, he farmed for himself during ten years, meeting with success, though not without a struggle. He met with reverses, but kept up his spirits, paid his own way, and forged ahead until he had won success and fortune, and an honored place in his native county.


Mr. Tennant bought his present ranch of three hundred thirty-nine acres from Dr. Ford, and in 1910 erected his modern bungalow. He has two splendid stock barns, models of convenience for feeding and housing stock. His place is situated in Newland precinct, on the Princeton road, and is considered one of the finest ranches in Colusa County. He has two hundred acres in barley and thirty-two acres in rice ; and he has set out a family orchard. Mr. Tennant owns fifty shares of stock in the Cheney Slough Irrigation Company; and one half of his ranch is under irrigation. Besides these interests, he has a dairy of seventeen cows.


In Butte Creek District, on February 14, 1900, Mr. Tennant was united in marriage with Miss Francis H. Jones. Mrs. Tennant is the daughter of an old pioneer, who came to California in 1850, and here acquired mining interests and farm lands, and engaged as a speculator in various enterprises. He died in 1869, and his wife passed away in 1903. Of the union of Mr. and Mrs. Tennant six promising children have been born: Robert J.,  Harold TV., Alfred E., Florence H., Theodore W., and Louis F.


CYPRIEN BRYS  - A gentleman well liked and highly respected, Cyprien Brys was born at Maille, Vendee, France, May 11, 1847, the son of Joseph Brys, who for many years, and up to the time of his death, was foreman of construction on the roads in his district. The father passed away in 1885. The mother of Cyprien was in maidenhood Marie Garraud, who died one year after her husband, in 1886. Of the five children born to this worthy French couple, Cyprien was the youngest ; and he is the only one of the family in California.


Cyprien Brys was brought up in France, where he learned the barber's trade and also the weaver's trade, and worked at each alternately until he decided to migrate to the land of gold and sunshine. Sailing from Havre on the steamship La Bourgogne, he landed in New York City, and then crossed the continent for California, arriving at Vina on December 10, 1887. Here he was employed for a time in the Stanford vineyards. He then opened a barber shop in Vina, but after two years removed to Willows, where he engaged in barbering until August, 1896, when he returned to France, remaining thirteen months. The call of the great West he had learned to love became so strong that he followed his inclination and again returned to Willows.


Mr. Brys served as janitor of the Willows high school, the Bank of Willows, and the First National Bank until he found caring for the three places too arduous. He then discontinued his work as janitor of the Bank of Willows and the high school, and is now janitor of the First National Bank alone. Aside from his duties as janitor, he is engaged in viticulture. He owns an acre of land in East Willows, and leases an adjoining vineyard, where he is growing the wine grape. He is also engaged in the manufacture of wine, and in the raising of poultry.


The marriage of Cyprien Brys occurred in France, where he was united with Madeleine Turnier, also a native of that country. Of this union three children were born: Irma, Mrs. Pouvraue; Natalie, Mrs. Coullaud; and Damas—all residing in France. Personally, Mr. Brys is a very affable gentleman; and his liberality and kind-heartedness have made him hosts of friends in Glenn County.


WILLIAM J. LOVELADY - Among the old settlers and highly esteemed citizens of western Colusa County, we find William J. Lovelady, who was born in Greene County, Ark., August 27, 1855. Tradition tells us that three Lovelady brothers came to America and settled in Tennessee, whence the family has scattered throughout the country. Grandfather John Lovelady served in the War of 1812, and became a farmer in Alabama. The father of William J. Lovelady was Joshua West Lovelady, a native of Alabama, where he resided until eighteen years of age. He migrated to Arkansas, and there married Miss Nancy Magaha, a native of Tennessee, of Scotch-Irish descent. In 1857, with his wife and only child, William J., he crossed the plains with ox teams. After leaving Salt Lake, the train came to the forks of the road. Joshua Lovelady and several in the train were in a hurry; and wishing to push forward, they proceeded on the straight route. The others went on to Mountain Meadows, and while resting their stock there at leisure, became the victims of the fatal Mountain Meadow Massacre. Joshua Lovelady came on to Nevada County, Cal., where he engaged in mining and milling. In 1864 he made a trip to the Owens River country; but the Indians were so hostile that he returned to Nevada County. In 1868 he located in Colusa County, settling in Indian Valley. The nearest post office then was Colusa, forty miles away.  He improved the old homestead, where he farmed until his death in 1886, aged sixty-seven. The mother died at seventy-seven years of age. Of their eleven children eight are living: William J., of this review; Lizzie, Mrs. Johns, of Ukiah; Mrs. Edna Green, of Colusa; Rachael, Mrs. Totman, of Lodoga; Thomas, a partner of William J. ; Henry and John A., who reside at Lodoga ; and Ann, Mrs. Sites, of Leesville.


William J. Lovelady was brought to California in 1857, by the old-fashioned mode of travel by ox teams and wagons. He lived in Nevada County until 1868, when he came to Indian Valley, Colusa County. He received a good education in the public schools, and from a lad made himself generally useful on the home place, where he learned farming and stock-raising. At the age of fourteen we find him driving the big teams in the grain fields; and when twenty-one, he began farming for himself on rented land. About 1889, with his brother Thomas as a partner, he leased the Bank ranch of one thousand acres, and was there engaged in grain- and stock-raising for twenty years, after which they purchased the place and continued operating it till they sold it, four years later, at a good profit. Some years before this, they had purchased three hundred twenty acres, the nucleus of their present ranch. They moved on this in 1913, and have added to their holdings until they now own one thousand one hundred sixty acres in a body, besides six hundred forty acres in the hills, used for ranging stock. The ranch is watered by the Little Stony, from which they have taken out a ditch used in irrigating their seventy acres of alfalfa. Although engaged in general farming, they make a specialty of cattle-growing, and have from one hundred to one hundred seventy-five head of cattle. The place is conveniently and well improved with water, which is piped three quarters of a mile from a mountain spring and used both for domestic purposes and to irrigate the gardens and orchards.- Mr. Lovelady 's brother and partner, Thomas Lovelady, was born in Nevada County, Cal., and became associated with William J. after finishing his school days. Thomas Lovelady was married to Mrs. Annie (Newton) Evans and has served as school trustee in his community.


Mr. Lovelady is very prominent as a Mason. He was made a Mason in Snow Mountain Lodge, No. 271, F. & A. M., at Stonyford, and served as its Master for fifteen or sixteen years. As a Democrat, he has given valuable service to his party, as a member of the County Central Committee. He is well and favorably known throughout Colusa County.


HENRY EDWARD REHSE - How much of the wonderful transformation wrought in the development of California is due to those pioneers who left home and country beyond the ocean and cast their lot upon the western shores of the United States, is seen in such a life-story as that of Ehler Rehse, the father of Henry Edward Rehse, the popular constable of Germantown. Born in Holstein, Germany, December 22, 1847, and brought up to learn the miller 's trade, he came to the United States in 1868, having sailed from Hamburg on November 1. After a very stormy passage, during which the vessel was nearly shipwrecked, he arrived in New York, on Christmas Day. During the passage, there were eleven deaths and three births on board the ship. Almost directly young Rehse made for California, by way of Panama; and on arriving at San Francisco, he went to Dixon, where he had some friends, and began his first work in America on a California ranch.


Later, he rented a hundred sixty acres, and farmed the same until he removed to Germantown, in 1871. Then he took up a hundred sixty acres of government land, and there tilled the soil for many years. For a while he was in partnership with his two brothers, Claus and Hans, planting their farm land to grain ; but fancying that he could do better by himself, he sold out his interests to his partners.


His next venture was a ranch of three hundred twenty acres, nine miles northwest of Germantown, which afforded him excellent grazing land near the foothills. Little by little he accumulated more and more stock, and added to his knowledge of their care; but a peculiar local problem presented itself, and one which today is not without its romantic side. Wild cattle were very numerous in those days, and often came down from the mountains in considerable numbers ; and the ranchman was obliged to stand watch nightly over his more domesticated cattle, to keep the wild ones from starting a disastrous stampede.


After fourteen years, Mr. Rehse sold this upland ranch, and in 1892 came to Germantown to live. Here he engaged in the butcher business, and here he also worked in a warehouse. Of a religious nature, he attended the Lutheran Church, and in his later years found pleasure in quiet hours among his many friends.


After getting nicely established in life, Ehler Rehse married Anna Hinrichs, a native of Germany, who came to the United States in 1870, when she was eleven years of age. She was the daughter of Peter and Elsabe (Busch) Hinrichs. From her mother she inherited many of her amiable traits. Of this marriage were born two children: a son, Henry Edward; and a daughter, now Mrs. Augusta Moelk, one of the founders of Germantown, who herself has a daughter named Loraine.


Henry Edward Rehse was born on his father's ranch at Germantown, July 24, 1877, and when only sixteen started to earn his own living. He went to San Francisco and worked for the Western Meat Company; and after that he was with the Pinole Powder Works. When he returned to Germantown, he took up the butcher business, in which he was engaged for several years. In 1913, Henry Rehse was elected constable of the district; and in that office he has continued ever since, each year and month adding to his creditable record. Henry Edward Rehse married Agnese Peterich, a native of Germantown and a daughter of J. H. Peterich. Mr. and Mrs. Rehse have been blessed with one child, Lorna. Fraternally, Mr. Rehse is popular among the Red Men and the Woodmen of the World. He is a charter member of the latter organization.


HENRY W. BLICHFELDT - Men possessing the fundamental characteristics of which Henry W. Blichfeldt is heir have ever been regarded as the bulwarks of the communities in which they have lived. He was born at Fargo, N. D., November 17, 1884, the eldest son of John 0. and Henrietta (Lequam) Blichfeldt, whose sketch is given on another page of this work. He attended schools at Grand Forks, and then went to the University of North Dakota. Coming to Los Angeles in 1904, with his parents, he took a special course at the University of California, after which he was employed in the auditor's office of the Southern Pacific Railroad in San Francisco.


In the winter of 1905-1906, Mr. Blichfeldt returned to North Dakota and entered upon the study of the law at the State University. After finishing the course, he was admitted to the bar, and began his practice near Minot, N. D. While living there he became prominently identified with public affairs, and served for several years as president of the town board of trustees. He was a candidate for county judge, but lost by a few votes. He was persuaded to accept the nomination for a seat in Congress, and was placed on the Progressive Republican ticket. When in a fair way to election, however, he received an urgent request from his father, who was in Orland, to come out here and assist him with his colonization business, which had assumed large proportions. So he withdrew from politics and came West. He was admitted to practice in all the courts in California, and opened an office in 1914, at the same time aiding his father. Since Ms advent in Glenn County, he has taken his place with the leading attorneys of the state. He conducts a general practice, handles loans, writes insurance, and manages the Blichfeldt Land Co.


In Minneapolis, in 1910, Henry W. Blichfeldt married Miss Louise Johannessen, who was born in Norway. They have two children: A daughter, Dagny, born in Minot, N. D. ; and a son, John Martin, born in Orland. Mr. Blichfeldt is a member of Orland Lodge, No. 218, I. 0. 0. F. ; and also of the Woodmen of the World, and the Modern Woodmen of America.


JOHN 0. BLICHFELDT - The interests with which John 0. Blichfeldt has been identified are of a varied nature and indicate his adaptability to different enterprises and the resourcefulness of his mind. He was born in Norway and educated in London, England, and having given himself particularly to the study of languages, became a correspondence clerk to the German Consul in London. When he migrated to the United States it was to become foreign correspondent for the Columbia National Bank in Minneapolis. Leaving this position he settled in Fargo, N. D., in 1880, and became affiliated with the Fargo Loan Agency, still later establishing a bank at Milton, in that state.


It was in 1901 that John 0. Blichfeldt made his first trip to California as a tourist ; and so well pleased was he with what he saw that he made up his mind he would locate here. Accordingly, in 1904 he brought his family, consisting of his wife, whose maiden name was Henrietta Lequam, and their sons, Henry W. and Fredrik E., and located in Los Angeles, principally on account of his wife's health. She died in 1904, in the southern city, and Mr. Blichfeldt and his two sons, Henry W. and Fredrik E., then came to San Francisco, where the sons remained, while the father returned to his home in the Middle West to settle his business affairs. The next year he came back to California, and, locating in Oakdale, Stanislaus County, was engaged in the colonization business for four years. He then transferred the scene of his activities to Anderson, Shasta County. While living in the latter place, he organized the Shasta Land Company, and colonized Happy Valley. He remained in the northern city until in 1913, when he settled in Orland.


His advent in this county was hailed with delight by many ranchers, for he stood behind them, loaning them money during the hard times, and enabling them to continue with their development work, which was the means of really putting Orland on the map. For more than twenty-five years, he has represented the George W. Foreman Loan Company, of Chicago, and in eight months loaned to the farmers over one hundred twenty-five thousand dollars, relieving a great need for resources at this time. He acquired valuable holdings in both Shasta and Glenn Counties, and is now living retired in Oakland, in the enjoyment of a well-earned rest, after an unusually busy career. His youngest son is a composer of classical music, with a studio in San Francisco, and Henry W. is mentioned on another page in this work.

History Of Colusa and Glenn Counties, California

Historic Record Company, Los Angeles, California, 1918

Transcribed by: Marianne Swan, Pages: 806-857



Begin Page 857


A resident of Colusa County since the year 1860, whither he was brought when a lad of eight years, John M. Morris has seen and taken part in the growth and development of this section ever since. lie is a Westerner by birth, having first seen the light of day in the Willamette Valley, in Oregon, on February 28, 1852; and there he was sent to the district school until he came to Cali­fornia. His father, Lewis Morris, was born in Kentucky, and married Louisa Bradley, a native of Missouri. Their children were Thomas W., William A., James M., John M., Mrs. Ida Wel­ton, and Mrs. Edith McGann. In 1849 the father crossed the plains to Oregon. There he farmed until 1860, when he came down into this state and secured two hundred acres of government land in the Hagar grant near Three Rivers, and for seven years farmed to grain. In 1867 he moved to Stonyford, and bought three hun­dred twenty acres of school land, where he raised cattle and hogs with success until his death.

John M. Morris attended school at Grand Island and Stony- ford, after he came to California; and when he was old enough he began farming for himself, taking up one hundred sixty acres of government land in east Stonyford, where he developed a prom­ising ranch. In 1897 he moved to his present place, on which he raises stock cattle and some grain. Mr. Morris is interested in all things that make for the upbuilding of the state, county and district.

Mr. Morris was married at Stonyford, on December 30, 1877, to Miss Susan A. Winn, born in Springfield, Ill., the daughter and the only child of Washington W. and Sarah (Davis) Winn, natives of Virginia and Ohio, respectively. Mr. Winn was a builder. He migrated with his family to Colusa County, Cal., in 1871, followed the builder's trade in the vicinity of Orland for a time, and then located at Stonyford, where he continued at his trade. Here he and his wife resided until their death. To Mr. and Mrs. Morris eight children were born: Clarence A., forest ranger, stationed near Banning in the Angeles Forest Reserve; Eva B., Mrs. Hickok, who resides near Lodi; Alonzo J., of Exeter, Cal.; Pres­ton, who resides in Tehama County, Myrta, Mrs. Lake, who lives near Orland; Opal, Mrs. Potter, of Stonyford; Harriette, de­ceased; and Ida, who resides with her parents. Mr. Morris was made a Mason in Snow Mountain Lodge, No. 271, F. & A. H., at Stonyford, of which he is a Past Master. With his wife, he is a member of Eowana Chapter, O. E. S., of the same place. For many years he was a member of the board of school trustees of Indian Valley district, and was active in building the schools and bringing them to a high standard. Mr. and Mrs. Morris are members of the Methodist Episcopal Church. The family are well and favorably known in Colusa County, where they have taken a prominent place in business and social circles.



To those men who have succeeded in life solely by their own efforts much credit is due; and of such, Charles A. Templeton is an example. Born in Goderich, Ontario, Canada, February 7, 1863, he was taken to Michigan by his parents while a child. There be attended the public schools and was reared on the home farm, and learned the trade of cheese-maker. In 1884 he came to California, settling in Orland, Colusa County, where he found employment in the store of Albert Papst. Later he worked in the store at St. John owned by C. J. Papst. From there he went into the mountains west of (Hand and engaged in the cattle business. Afterwards he rented fourteen hundred acres of land and devoted himself to grain-raising; and after sonic time spent in this venture, he returned to Orland and worked in the store of B. N. Scribner, of that place.

In 1904 Mr. Templeton started to farm and improve his present ranch of sixty acres. He bought this place, situated one mile east of Orland, in 1887, paying ten dollars per acre, and has improved it steadily until it now ranks as one of the best ranches in the vicinity of Orland. He originally owned one hundred sixty acres, but sold one hundred acres. Of the ranch, thirty acres are in alfalfa and thirty in almonds. His alfalfa runs six tons per year to the acre, with five cuttings yearly. In addition to these interests he has a dairy of fourteen Jersey cows, stand­ard-bred, with registered bull; and he is also one of the organizers, and a stockholder, of the Orland Creamery Co.

Coming to Colusa (now Glenn) County in early manhood, Mr. Templeton has been a part of its steady growth; and like most self-made men, he has always taken an active interest in the welfare of his community. He is a man of public spirit and enter­prise; and all projects inaugurated for the advancement of the commonwealth have found in him a ready helper. He has found time, in the midst of his business interests, to join in the social life of the community. Fraternally, he is a member of Orland Lodge, No. 218, I. 0. 0. F., and of the Encampment, has passed all the chairs, and is a Past Noble Grand and Past Chief Patriarch. He also is a member of the Woodmen of the World.

The marriage of Mr. Templeton united him with Miss Millie Sebring, daughter of the late Cyrus Sebring, M. D., who crossed the plains in the early days. He was justice of the peace in Sacramento County, and later held the same office in Newville, Glenn County, in which locality he practised medicine for many years. He was a pioneer of Chico, Butte County. Mr. and Sirs. Templeton are the parents of three children: Fay, the wife of E. Eddy, and the mother of two girls, Grace and Ellyn; Grace, the wife of Wm. Barr; and Gown, in Orland high school. The family are members of the Episcopal Church.



The O'Sullivan Brothers own and operate one thousand acres of land of their own in the Newland precinct, Colusa County, besides leasing other tracts of land, and are engaged in raising rice and barley. In 1917 they had five hundred acres of the former and two hundred sixty of the latter planted, part on their own land and the rest is rented property. This is an increase of three hundred acres in rice over 1916. To secure plenty of water for irrigation, they have invested in stock in the Cheney Slough Irrigation Company. In the care of their crops and land they use the most modern machinery and implements. Included in their outfit are a combined harvester and thresher, originally drawn by thirty-two mules and horses,. but now propelled by a C. L. Best track-layer tractor, which they also use for plowing; a Burnley rice thresher, with 36x60 cylinder ; seven Deering binders for cutting rice; and other modern tools and machinery. They own and use five automobiles, and have two fifteen-horse-power gasoline engines for pumping seepage water from their land. They employ several men the year round, and during harvest and haying have additional help. When the threshing season comes round, there is a particularly busy time at the O'Sullivan Brothers', and they then have from twenty-five to thirty men busily engaged in various ways.

The firm of O'Sullivan Brothers is composed of four enter­prising young men, sons of Jeremiah O'Sullivan, who is men­tioned on another page of this history. These are John P., Jeremiah T., Thomas F., and Dan P. O'Sullivan. Their sister, Mary E. O'Sullivan, is also interested with them in their ranching enterprise. She and her brothers received a good education in the common schools of this comity. When the sons were old enough, they began farming, in which they have been very suc­cessful. All are good mechanics, and are looked upon as enter­prising and able business men. They are highly esteemed in Colusa County, where they have won many friends.



A highly respected citizen and a well-known rancher in Newland precinct, Colusa Comity, Jeremiah O'Sullivan sailed through the Golden Gale on April 7, 1870, from Australia. He was born in County Kerry, Ireland, May 10, 1844, and when twenty years of age went to Australia to try his fortunes; but after spending six years there, he decided that his future success was to be found under the Stars and Stripes and embarked to California. On his arrival he went direct to Marysville and there made declaration of his intention to become a citizen of the -united States. At once he set out to find some work, and for some time was employed as a farm hand. On January 22, 1873, after he had got a start, he and a brother, John P. O'Sullivan, came to Colusa County. Here Mr. O'Sullivan has since made his home; and here he WW1 success and prospered beyond his highest expectations. He began on a small scale, and bought land from time to time until he became owner of one thousand acres, upon which he carried on a very successful business as a grain- and stock-raiser.

Mr. O'Sullivan was married during his early residence in the state, and five children were born into the family: John P., Jeremiah T., Thomas F., Dan P., and Mary II., now her father's housekeeper. As Mr. O'Sullivan grew older, he practically retired from hard work, turning the ranch work over to the boys. As soon as they proved their ability to carry on the work success­fully, Mr. O'Sullivan deeded the property to them, and his daughter. His good wife had died in 1902; and after her death he reared his family to manhood and womanhood. The children have ever been kind and dutiful to their father, and have all worked together in harmony for their common interest. To Jeremiah T. and John P., he deeded five hundred ten acres, two miles west of the home place; and the balance he deeded to Thomas F., Dan P., and Mary E. On the home ranch are some gigantic walnut trees planted in an early day by Mr. O'Sullivan. The family are members of the Catholic Church. They are all public-spirited, patriotic citizens, and are well and favorably known throughout their section of Colusa County.



A potent factor in the development of the town of Arbuckle, in the vicinity of which he has lived for twenty years, Roscoe Rahm has the distinction of being a native son of California. He was born on July 19, 1872, near Woodland, Yolo County. His father, Frank M. Rabin, was born near Wooster, Ohio. He crossed the plains with ox teams and wagons, by way of the overland trail, to California, in 1851. He settled on government land near Wood­land, where he improved a farm and became one of the important factors in the upbuilding of Woodland and Yolo County. He served as sheriff of Yolo County two terms, and was postmaster of Woodland for several years. He was married in Yolo County to Helen A. Gaddis, a native of Illinois, and a sister of Judge E. Gaddis. The history of the Gaddis family in America dates back to colonial days. The Reverend William Gaddis and his wife, for­merly Deborah Blair, left Ireland and settled in Albany, N. Y., where he was pastor of the Episcopal Church. In the early for­ties lie was transferred to Illinois, where he preached until his death.

Roscoe Rabin attended the Woodland schools, after which, for ten years. he was connected with the Southern Pacific Railroad Co. as a telegraph operator and station agent at different places in the Sacramento Valley, on the Sacramento division. In 1898 he was transferred to .Arbuckle, where lie acted as agent for six years, giving up the position to engage in agricultural pursuits. For ten years he farmed the Kaerth ranch, east of Arbuckle, rais­ing grain and stock with good results.


Mr. Rahm was united in marriage in Colusa with Nellie Kaerth, born near College City, a daughter of William Kaerth, of whom a sketch will be found on another pages of this work. Two children have been born to this couple: Edith, a graduate of Pierce Joint Union High School, and June Elma.

Mr. Rahm was elected to the board of supervisors of Colusa County from the first supervisorial district in the fall of 1914, after a hard-fought campaign against three opponents, and is serving his constituents with impartiality and with much credit to himself. He stands for progress, and has been an important factor in re­cent improvements in Arbuckle. It was largely through his efforts that electric lights were installed, the main streets of the town paved, and other improvements made in his district. He supports every movement that will be of benefit to the people of the county, is just and impartial in all his public work, and holds the respect of all who know him. The cause of education receives the hearty support of Mr. Hahn. He has been an active member of the board of trustees of Pierce Joint Union High School for the past fifteen years, serving as president of the hoard after his first term as a member. He was made a Mason in Meridian Lodge, No. 182, F. & A. M.. of which he served as secretary for seven years, and as Master for three years. Mr. and Mrs. Rahm are members of Gol­den State Chapter, No. 180, O. E. S., of which he is Past Patron.



The enterprising proprietors of the -Willows French Laundry, Mr. and Mrs. John Pleck, have built up a creditable business and are meeting with deserved success. Mr. Pleck is a native of France, horn in Basses-Pyrenees, June 24, 1884, where he was reared a farmer's boy. On reaching the age of twenty-one years, he entered the French army, serving in the Eighteenth Infantry Regiment of Pan for two years, when he was honorably dis­charged. In October, 1907, he came to San Francisco, Cal., and there began his connection with the laundry business, working in various laundries in the city until 1910, when he came to Willows and started in business for himself.

A few weeks later, on June 24, 1910, Mr. Pleck married the girl of his choice, in San Francisco. The bride was Madaleine Loustau, who ass also a native of Basses-Pyrenees. France. Hav­ing an uncle, Henry Foncadie, in San Francisco, she joined him in the spring of 1907, remaining in that city until her marriage to Mr. Pleck.


It was May 1, 1910, that Mr. Pleck bought out the small French Laundry in Willows, at No. 126 Willow Street; and there he continued in business for three years, meeting with success. Hav­ing accumulated some means, Mr. and Mrs. Pleck purchased the lot where their present laundry is located, at No. 128 Colusa Street; and built the present building, a two-story structure thirty- five by eighty-five feet in size. The entire building is utilized for laundry purposes. It is a fully equipped steam plant, with thirty-horse boiler and electric power, and the most modern and up-to- date machinery for laundry work.

To Mr. and Mrs. Fleck have been born two children, Augustin and Henrietta. Fraternally, Mr. Pleck is a member of the Red Men. Like most of his countrymen, he is an ardent Republican.



A resident of Colusa County since October, 1893. Peter Kiss- hug was born in Schwabendof, Hesse-Nassau, Germany, on De­cember 21. 1859. His father was Jean Kissling, mention of whom will he found in the sketch of his brother, Jean Kissling, in this work. Peter Kissling was the second child in the family. He was brought up in his native place and was educated in the public schools. On the completion of his studies, be made his way to Westphalia, where he worked for a while in the coal mines. Re­turning home on May 2, 1876, he went to Reinseheid, in the Prov­ince of Rheinland, and began an apprenticeship at the tailor's trade. He completed his apprenticeship in three years' time, and was thereafter engaged as a journeyman in the same place until 1885, when he established himself as a merchant tailor in Reinseheid.

About this same time, on November 10, 1885, Mr. Kissling was united in marriage with Miss Ida Poll, a daughter of Fred­erick and Caroline (Kaiser) Boll. The father was a blacksmith and file manufacturer, and died in 1875. The mother is still living. Of six children born into their family, Mrs. Kissling is the second in order of birth.

In 1893, Mr. Kissling sold his interests in Reinscheid, and with his wife and two children came to Colusa County, locating at Arbuckle, where he again engaged in business as a merchant tailor. He was a splendid workman, and established a large and success­ful trade in his line, conducting the business until 1914, when, tir­ing of indoor work and close confinement, he closed out the estab­lishment, to devote his time to looking after his other affairs.


Mr. and Mrs. Kissling are very enterprising and progressive. They have a nice, comfortable home in Arbuckle, and have given their children the best educational advantages their means would allow. Helen Caroline, a graduate of the Chico State Normal School, was formerly a teacher. She is now the wife of Peter Greve, a rancher south of College City. Rudolph Conrad is also a graduate of the Chico State Normal School. He taught one year in Arbuckle, and then became principal of the Davis grammar schools, which position he filled for seven years. He is now a senior at the University of California, Berkeley. Ida Elizabeth, a native daughter, was born in Arbuckle. She graduated from the Pierce Joint Union High School, and is also a graduate of the Chico State Normal School, class of 1917.

Mr. Kissling owns real estate in and adjoining Arbuckle, and is particularly interested in almond culture and in the develop­ment of the general horticultural interests of his locality. He is independent in his political affiliations. He and his wife adhere to the tenets of the Lutheran Church, in which they were reared.



A pioneer who brought with him, when he came to California, some of the best Ohio traditions of husbandry to add to the com­mon stock for the advancement of California agriculture, is John J. Curry, who was horn on November 22, 1859, near New Balti­more, Hamilton County, Ohio, in which state he lived until he was twenty-seven years old. His parents, William and Mary (Ken­nedy) Corry, were born in Ireland, and died in Ohio. Two of their sons besides John J. came to California, Patrick H. and Wil­liam II., and they are still residents of the state.

At twenty-seven years of age, John J. Curry came west to Kansas, where he spent a year, after which he worked his way through Wyoming, Idaho and Oregon, and arrived in California in January, 1889, while the great boom was still drawing thou­sands of settlers to the state. For a few months he worked in Chico; but reports as to promising conditions in Colusa County drew him to that district, where lie engaged to work first on Old­ham Eros.' ranch, and then on the ranch belonging to Mrs. Mary Johnson. He also pnt in two years on the W. H. Hodgsdon ranch. Be worked hard and saved his money; and when he had sufficient, he bought his present ranch of fifty-four acres, a part of the old Glenn ranch. The purchase was made in 1900, and Mr. Curry was the first one to buy after the great ranch was subdivided and put on the market. To improve the property, he had to clear the land of timber along the Sacramento River bottom. While the la­bor and expense have been great, the reward is gratifying, for he has there the richest and most productive soil. On this ranch he has built his house and the necessary farm buildings; and here he is engaged in grain-raising. Mr. Curry also owns forty acres in the neighborhood, which he devotes to grain and alfalfa. Re­cently, too, he set out two and a half acres to almonds. Be­sides these interests, he has a good herd of high-grade Poland- China hogs.

Mr. Curry is a self-made man of energy and enterprise, who takes an active interest in the upbuilding of the county. Not a little of his time and effort is expended in the activities of the Glenn County Farm Bureau, of which he is an efficient and esteemed member. In politics, he is a supporter of Republican principles.



Among the men who have contributed to the agricultural development of Colusa and Glenn Counties, mention is due Fred Arthur Nason, a prominent rancher of the Leesville district. He was born in Brownsville, Piscataunis County, Maine, October 26, 1870. He is descended front an old New England family, mem­bers of which participated in the Revolutionary War and the War of 1812. His father was William Nason, born in Stillwater, Maine, a son of Edward and Annie (Elwell) Nason. Edward Nason was the son of Edward and Abigail (Small) Nasou, who were married at Limington, January 3, 1793. William Nason served as Cor­poral in Company D, Second Maine Infantry, in the Civil War. At the second battle of Bull Run, in 1862, lie was wounded in the right arm, on account of which he was honorably discharged and mustered out after eighteen mouths of service.

Nason married Emily Philpot, a native of Maine, born August 7, 1841, a daughter of James and Nancy (Seavy) Phi1pot, both natives of that state. Moses Phi1pot, her grand­father, served as one of the minute men in the War of 1812. The family is traced back to Capt. James Phi1pot, of New Castle, N. H., in 1693. Among the maternal ancestors were Richard Philpot, who served iu the French and Indian War, and John Philpot, who served in the Revolution. After William Nason received his discharge from the army, lie engaged in the manufacture of lum­ber with his two brothers until 1876, when, with his family, he migrated to California and located in Lake County, near Bartlett Springs. For three years he manufactured lumber, and then followed farming until he moved to Chico. Some years later he moved to Santa Cruz, where he died and where his widow now resides. They had five children, all of whom are living.

Fred Arthur Nason, the youngest of the family, was reared and educated in Lake County from the age of six until he was twenty years old, after which he attended the Chico State Normal. After this he was employed on ranches in Butte and Solano Counties. In 1899 he began farming in Bear Valley; and in 1903 he leased a ranch, which he operated successfully until 1909. He then purchased his present ranch of eight hundred acres, origin­ally known as the old Spurlock place. There were no improve­ments of any kind on the property and he immediately began its development. He erected a modern and comfortable residence, built suitable barns, fenced and cross-fenced the ranch, and set out orchards and shade trees. The place is devoted to the raising of grain and stock, four hundred and fifty acres being under the plow. In 1917 Mr. Mason received the top price for wheat, selling for four dollars per rental.

At Leesville, Colusa County, on November 12, 1899, Mr. Mason was united in marriage with Miss Anna Boardman: She was born in Bear Valley, Colusa County, a daughter of -W. W. Boardman, a prominent rancher and at present a supervisor of Colusa County. Mr. and Mrs. Mason have four children : Ora Rowena, Wilbur C., Donald M., and Barbara A. For the past eight years, Mr. Mason has been a trustee and clerk of the Leesville school district. In politics he votes for the men he considers best qualified for the office, regardless of party lines; and he is always ready to support all measures for the upbuilding of the county. With his wife he enjoys the esteem of a wide circle of friends and acquaintances.



A native son of Colusa County, William Kirkup was born on the old Kirkup ranch near Sites, in the Antelope Valley, Septem­ber 17, 1876. His father, George Kirkup, was born in England. At the time of the mining excitement in Australia, lie made his way to that country. After spending some years there, he came to San Francisco, and from there made his way to Rate County, where lie mined on Feather River, near Oroville. Thereafter he followed op different milling excitements in various parts of the state. At the time of the rush into the Kootenay milling country, on the Fraser River, he tried his luck there, but soon returned, having accomplished nothing.. As early as 1868, he came to Ante­lope Valley and purchased one hundred sixty acres of land. He made a trip to Canada, where a sister lived, and from there went back to England on a visit. Returning to Morrisbnrg, Canada, he married Margaret McMartin, a native of that place, and soon af­terwards hrought his bride to his ranch in Antelope Valley and began grain-raising, commencing with two horses. As he suc­ceeded, he bought one hundred sixty acres adjoining his ranch, thus increasing his acreage to three hundred twenty acres, and in­vested in a good farming outfit. In addition to his operations as a grain-grower, he was also the largest poultry-raiser in his vicinity, having a flock of six hundred hens. Mr. Kirkup was very liberal and enterprising; and at his passing, in February, 1906, the com­munity lost a noble man and a worthy citizen. His widow is re­siding on the old homestead. Their three children are William, of this review; Isabella, Mrs. Rigs, of Antioch, Contra Costa County; and James, who resides at Cranmore.

William Kirkup learned fanning when a lad. Ills education was obtained in the public schools, and at Heald's Business Col­lege in San Francisco. After finishing his studies, he continued to assist his father on the home place until the latter's death, and since that time has managed the ranch. He is raising grain, cattle, sheep and hogs, making a specialty of hogs, and is meeting with merited success.

Fraternally, Mr. Kirkup is a member of Maxwell Lodge, No. 361, I. 0. 0. F. He is liberal and kind-hearted, ever ready to give of his time and means to assist those less fortunate than himself, and is well liked and universally esteemed by all who know him.



A native son of Colusa County, Herman Dunlap was born at Fifth and Clay Streets, Colusa, April 17, 1862. His father, Judge H. Willis Dunlap, was a New Englander, who came from Vermont to California in 1852, and became an early settler of Colusa Comity, where he practiced law, and rose to be one of the leading attorneys of the county. He served as a member of the state legislature; and in 1863 he was a candidate for superior judge against J. J. Hickok. The records show that H. W. Dunlap received three lmndred sixty-four votes, while J. J. Hickok received but two hun­dred eleven. Mr. Dunlap served on the superior bench until his death in 1865. His funeral was held at the courthouse; and being a Mason, he was buried with Masonic honors. The mother of Herman Dunlap was Jane Van Ness, also a native of New England. She died in 1874, leaving four children, as follows: Shelly, de­ceased; Mrs. Mary Schnoor. who resides in Fortuna; an infant, deceased: and Herman, the subject of this review.

After he was left an orphan, Herman Dunlap lived with his uncle and aunt, Martin and Mary Dunlap, in Colusa. His aunt was well-known and much loved iu the early days, through the comfort and aid she gave to sick people as a nurse. Herman Dun­lap received his education in the public schools of Colusa, and at University Mound, San Francisco. When fifteen years of age, he began working on ranches, where he learned the rudiments of farming and stock-raising as it is carried on in California, and thus laid the foundation for his later successes. He had become the owner of a three-hundred-acre ranch in the upper part of An­telope Valley; and when he reached the age of eighteen years, he began farming it. Wishing to enlarge his operations, he leased a ranch in Bear Valley, and engaged iu grain-raising until 1891, when he returned to his Antelope Valley ranch. There he con­tinued in the raising of grain and stock; and as he prospered, he bought land and ranches adjoining until he now owns thirty-three hundred acres in a body, well improved, fenced, and cross fenced. In 1910, he also leased the Gibson place, or rather the old Wash Larch place, of twenty-seven hundred acres in Antelope Valley. Leaving his home farm to the care of his son Willis, he moved to the new place and enlarged his operations in grain- and cattle- raising. In 1913, he completed the purchase of the place. They use three eight-mule teams and a Holt caterpillar sixty-five horse­power engine in the operation of the ranches. This engine is also used as the motive power for pulling the combined harvester. In his operations as a stockman, Mr. Dunlap raises horses, mules, cattle, sheep and hogs. His brand is his mother's old brand and mark—D on the left hip, crop and split in the right ear, under slope in the left ear.

Mr. Dunlap was married in Bear Valley, August 6, 1882, when he was united with Miss Thurza Epperson, born in Sutter City, October 1, 1864. Her father, Brutus Clay Epperson, was born in Estill County, Ky., October 27, 1830. He lived for a time in Bour­bon County, Ky.; and then the family went to Coles County, Ill. In 1851 he cause to California via the Nicaragua route, and after his arrival followed mining in the Sierras. In 1859 he returned East, and in Illinois married Lucretia Lawson, born in Hardin County, Ky. Her father, Thomas F. Lawson, was employed on the Louisville Courier Journal. After his marriage, Mr. Epper­son farmed in Illinois. In April, 1864, with a herd of fine horses and Jacks, he crossed the plains to Sutter County. In 1868, he purchased a ranch in Bear Valley, and in 1869 moved on to it and there farmed and raised stock. In January, 1873, seeing the need of a public thoroughfare from Colusa through Lake County and on to Ukiah, he organized a company and built the Bartlett Springs and Bear Valley toll road. His place was located on the road, as was also the Epperson post office. He also built what is known as the Epperson grade, a central road out of Bear Valley, at a cost of five thousand dollars, and afterwards gave it to the county. He died in San Francisco, in May, 1911. His widow now resides in Colusa. Of their four children, two are living: Mrs. King Becker, of Sacramento; and Mrs. Dunlap.

Mr. and Mrs. Dunlap have three sons. Willis Epperson is operating the home farm. He married Esther Brown, and has five children: Chas. B., Thnrza A., James Willis, Janet E., and Esther June. Herman, Jr., is a stockman near Maxwell. He married Catherine Feeney. Brutus Clay is assisting his father in ranch­ing, and is married to Myrtle Boyes. Mr. Dunlap and his three sons are charter members of Williams Parlor, No. 164, N. S. G. W. For many year be was a trustee of Jefferson school district. In politics he is a stanch Democrat. Mr. Dunlap believes in having charity towards all men, and strives to practice the Golden Rule.



An enterprising young man who until recently was a large grain-grower of the Sacramento Valley, Stephen A. Stillwell has been a resident of the state since the first year of his life, in 1874, when he came with his parents to California. He was born in Hancock County, Ill., on September 5, 1873. His father, John T. Stillwell, was also born in Illinois, where he was reared and be­came a farmer. There, too, he was united in marriage with Eliza­beth Tanner. In 1874, he brought his family to Chico, California, and the next year located on a claim southwest of Tehama, where he is still engaged in farming. This worthy couple had nine chil­dren, eight of whom are still living, Stephen being the eldest.

Stephen A. Stillwell received his education in the Tehama County schools. From a lad, he made himself useful, assisting his father on the farm; and when twenty-one years of age, he became his partner as a grain-grower. In 1903 he dissolved partnership with his father, and leasing a ranch of one thousand acres in the same vicinity, farmed this to grain until the fall of 1908, when he removed to Glenn County. Here be leased the old Welch place of eleven hundred acres, and for five years raised grain and hogs, after which he operated the Talbot ranch for one year. In 1914, he leased the Glide place of sixty-eight hundred acres, west of Maxwell, where he engaged extensively in raising grain, farming over two thousand acres a year to barley. In his operations he employed twelve eight-mule teams for putting in the crops; and for gathering the crops he used two combined harvesters propelled by thirty-two mules each. In his ranching enterprises, Mr. Stillwell has been ably assisted by his wife. Recently they retired from farming, and bought a nice home in Tehama County, near the new town of Gerber, where they expect to make their permanent. residence.

The marriage of Mr. Stillwell, in Red Bluff, October 4, 1896, united him with Miss Ella Whitlock, who was born near Paskenta, Tehama County, the daughter of Harrison and Frances (Oakes) Whitlock. who Came from Iowa to Paskenta. The mother is de­ceased. The father, who is still engaged M farming, served his country in the Civil War, in an Iowa regiment. Mr. and Mrs. Stillwell have eight children: Marietta (Mrs. Etchason), Ivy, Douglas, Eunice, Elige, Marvin, John, and Stephen. Mr. and Mrs. Stillwell are enterprising and progressive, and have a large circle of friends, who esteem them highly.



A resident of California for more than a third of a century, Edwin Henry Peake was born at Peakeville, Clark County, Mo., on September 4, 1865. He was a son of Arthur W. Peake. His grandfather, Dr. John Peake, brought his family to Clark County, Mo.. where he engaged in the practice of medicine. Arthur W. Peake was educated at Palmyra, Mo. After the completion of the elementary branches, he took up the study of the law, but on ac­count of weak eyes had to abandon it. He then engaged in farm­ing, in which he met with good success. Mr, Peake and other members of the family became owners of three sections of land. The town of Peakeville was named for them. He was prominent in local affairs and was highly esteemed in his community. His death occurred in 1892. The mother of Edwin H. Peake was in maidenhood Johanna Byers. She was born in Virginia, and was a sister of John A. Byers, one of the early settlers of Colusa County. Of her four children, Mr. Peake was the eldest..

Edwin Henry Peake was brought nip on the home farm in Clark County, Mo., receiving his education in the public schools. When eighteen years of age, he decided to come to California; so in May of 1884 we find him in Colusa County, where he was em­ployed on the ranch of his uncle, John A. Byers. In 1885-1886, he attended Pierce Christian College, at College City. Thereafter he continued to follow farm work in the vicinity of Arbuckle until he started in the livery business in town, on the present site of the lumber yard. He continued in the livery business for a period of four years, after which he engaged in ranching for a short time, until he accepted a position as foreman of the warehouse at Ber­lin. This position be held for three years, and then filled a like position, for an equal period, at Dunnigan. He then removed to Vallejo, where he was employed in the United States navy yard at Mare Island until 1904, after which he spent a year ou a fruit ranch at Santa Rosa. From 1905 to 1906, he was foreman of the workhouse at Harrington Station. Since 1907, up to the present time, he has been foreman of both the Byers and the Hershey warehouse, at Hershey Station. The Byers warehouse is six hun­dred feet long; and the Hershey warehouse is two hundred feet in length. They have a combined capacity of one hundred sixty thou­sand sacks, enabling him to handle a very large quantity of grain.

The marriage of Edwin H. Peake occurred in Colusa, where he was united with Miss Lucy Ward, a native of Missouri, who came to California with her parents when three years of age. Her father, J. C. Ward, is represented on another page in this history. Mr. and Mrs. Peake have five children: Roy D.; Lela, teaching music; Nellie, a graduate of Pierce Joint Union High School, who is clerking at Dunnigan; Alba, attending Pierce Joint Union High school; and Wayne. Fraternally, Mr. Peake was made a Mason in 1888, in Meridian Lodge, No. 182, F. & A. M.; and he is also a member of the Modern Woodmen of America. Politically, he is independent, preferring to vote for the man rather than the party.



For forty-two years, ever since his arrival in Colusa County in 1875, Benjamin Pollard Pryor has been a resident of California. He was born in Richmond, Va., January 6, 1855. His father, whose given name was also Benjamin Pollard, was born in Ten­nessee. His grandfather, Dr. Pryor, was horn in Virginia, whence he removed to Tennessee. Dr. Pryor afterwards returned to his plantation in Hanover County, Va., where he spent his last days. His son Benjamin, also a planter, served in the Virginia Home Guards and died during service, in August, 1862, aged forty-one years. Mr. Pryor's mother, Frances Bacon Clark before her marriage. was a native of Virginia, the daughter of William Clark, who served as sheriff of Hanover County, Va., for many years, and afterwards as a clerk and copyist in the state capitol in Richmond until his death. The mother came to Collies County, remaining with her children until her death at the age of eighty-seven years. Her six children all reside in Colusa County. They are: Mary E. (Mrs. Smith), William, R. A., Benja­min P., E. B., and C. E.

Benjamin Pollard Pryor, the subject of this review, was reared in Richmond, Va. When nine years of age he went to work, making himself generally useful in a grocery store as an errand boy, thus aiding his mother in the support of the family. From that time on, he was employed at various occupations, as a boy in the city usually is. In 1875 he came to Colusa County, where he was employed on grain ranches until 1888, when he began fanning for himself, being located near Williams for three years. In 1891, he purchased the County Well ranch, his present place of seven hundred twenty acres on the Grapevine, on which he located, and where he is successfully engaged in farming and stock-raising. The place is well improved with buildings and fences. In his door yard is a gigantic water oak, nearly twenty- seven feet in circumference, one of the largest trees of its kind in the state.

In Antelope Valley, Colusa County, Mr. Pryor married Cora L. Rosenberger. Six children were born of this union, all of whom are living in Colusa County. In April, 1884, Mr. Pryor was made a Mason in Tuscan Lodge, No. 261, F. C A. 11L, at Williams. With his wife, he is a member of the Methodist Epis­copal Church at Sites.



Earl Pence, as he is familiarly called by all his friends, was born at Maxwell, Cal., August 13, 1891. He is the eldest child of Supervisor George B. Pence, who is represented on another page in this work. Earl Pence received his early education in the public schools. After moving to Antelope Valley, in 1902, he completed the common branches in the local school, and then took a course in Heald 's Business College at Stockton. lie then worked for his father one year, after which, in 1913, he became his partner. Since that time he has had charge of their farming and stock-raising operations.

Mr. Pence and his father are leasing the P. T. Langenonr ranch of twenty-seven hundred forty acres in Antelope Valley.


They operate the place with two and three eight-mule teams, gathering the grain from six hundred or seven hundred acres each year with a Holt Combined Harvester propelled by thirty mules. They also engage in the raising of cattle, horses, mules, and hogs, their well-known brand being P. L. combined.

In San Francisco, on October 28, 1912, Earl Pence was united in marriage with a .laughter of one of the oldest families in Antelope Valley, in the person of Louise Sites, a native of the valley and the daughter of William F. Sites, whose sketch appears elsewhere in this history. Three children have been born of the union of Mr. and Mrs. Pence: Marvin, Melvin, and George. As a conscientious and energetic young man, Mr. Pence is deservedly Popular. Both he and his wife have a high standing in the community.



Among the successful farmers and stock-raisers in Colusa County is Charles Leroy Lambirth, a native son of California, born at Yuba City, Sutter County, February 9, 1878. His father, John Lambirth, migrated from Illinois in the fifties, crossing the plains with ox teams, and located in Yuba City, where he was en­gaged in farming until his demise in 1879, when Charles Leroy was only a year old. The mother, Jane Gillham, also crossed the plains, coming with her parents to California, where she after­wards met and married John Lambirth. She was the mother of nine children, her two youngest being twins, Charles Leroy and a sister. The mother died at their birth. Thus Charles was left an orphan when one year of age. He lived with his uncle Hiram in Yuba City until he moved to Stonyford in 1882, where he was reared on a farm north of town. After completing the gram­mar school he worked on his -uncle's farm, where he learned farm­ing and stock-raising.

In Colusa, on October 9, 1899, Mr. Lamhirth married Miss Nora Keffer, who was born in Indian Valley, the daughter of John and Rachel (Lovelady) Heifer, early settlers of Indian Valley, where Mrs. Lamhirth was reared and educated. After his mar­riage Mr. Lamhirth leased a ranch at Stonyford, where he farmed, meeting with fairly good success, until the fall of 1906, when lie came to Leesville. There he worked for Cornelius Boardman for two years, and then leased the Hart ranch for one year. In the fall of 1909 he purchased his present place of nineteen hundred sixty acres in the upper end of Bear Valley. Moving on the place, he bent his energies to paying for it, for he had to go in debt to buy it. He met with success beyond his expectations; and with the able assistance of his wife, he has won a competency. About five hundred acres of the ranch is under plow, and on this he raises wheat and barley. The balance is devoted to raising graded Hereford cattle, of which he has a constantly increasing herd. A ditch from Mill Creek enables him to irrigate his land and raise alfalfa; and besides, the ranch is watered by numerous springs, all but one being springs of a mild sulphur mineral water, excellent for the stock. The cold, pure spring water of the other spring is piped to the house for domestic use.

Mr. and Mrs. Lambirth have had five children, two of whom are living, Belden Leroy and Mnrine Ellen. Mr. Lambirth has been a member of the board of trustees of Leesville school district since 1907. Politically, he supports the principles of the Republi­can party.



Born at Healdsburg, Sonoma County, on November 1, 1868, George Newton Taylor was the son of Rev. Dyer Taylor, born in Missouri, who was educated for and ordained in the ministry of the Baptist Church. As a young man in the fifties, he crossed the plains in an ox-team train to California. After his arrival in this state, he served as pastor of Baptist churches at various places. Among these were Healdsburg, Upper Lake, Potter Val­ley, -Willits, Williams, Willows, and Maxwell. He established his house ou a ranch of two hundred twenty acres, which he pur­chased in Bachelor Valley, Lake County, and after retiring from the ministry, he lived on his ranch until his death, on November 1S, 1893, at the age of sixty-five years. His wife was Susan Jones, a native of Missouri, who came with her parents across the plains, locating in Sonoma County, where she married Rev. Taylor. She died in -Upper Lake, May 1, 1902.

Of the nine children in his parents' family, George Newton was the fourth in order of birth. From the age of nine months, he was brought up on the farm in Bachelor Valley, near Upper Lake. After completing the public schools, he gave his attention to farming and stock-raising, and in time took charge of his father's place. After his father's death, he became possessor of fifty acres, where he resided and engaged in general farming until July, 1910. He then rented the place and moved to Colusa County. There he purchased three hundred thirty-seven acres of land ten miles west of Sites, where he is engaged in raising grain, alfalfa and stock. The name of the valley there has been changed from Rail Canyon to Surprise -Valley, from the fact that on reach­ing the summit of the Grapevine grade, and seeing the valley lying below, people express •surprise at finding a valley there. Mr. Taylor has labored energetically to improve his ranch with fences, residence, and barns. The place is well watered by creeks, springs, and wells. Ample government range adjoining makes of it a splendid stock ranch.

In Butte City; on November 25, 1892, George Newton Taylor was united. in marriage with Miss Mary Ellen Wiles, a native daughter of Butte City, and the only living child of John M. and Maria Jane (Hampton) Wiles. Her parents were born in Tennes­see and Missouri respectively. They were married in Missouri in 1868, and in 1869 settled at Butte City, where they engaged in farming for twenty-two years. Thereafter, for shorter periods, they were located at Lincoln, in Lake County, and at Santa Rosa, where Mr. Wiles died on November 29. 1911, aged seventy-one years. Since then Mrs. Wiles has made her home with Mrs. Taylor. Mr. and Mrs. Taylor have three children: Juanita, Mrs. Blakely, of Santa Rosa ; and Chester Wiles and Cecil Lester, both of whom are assisting their parents on the ranch. Fra­ternally, Mr. Taylor is a member of the -Woodmen of the World. In national politics lie is a Democrat. He has served as school trustee in Lake County, and also in Mt. Hope district, Colusa County.



Dick Moore was born on Stony Creek. near Stonyford, in June, 1857, a son of Ben Moore, who was a pioneer of Colusa County. Dick was reared on the farm, and early learned the best methods employed in farming and stock-raising, at which he worked steadily until his savings were sufficient to buy a farming outfit. He then leased a ranch on the Little Stony Creek, and operated it for about fourteen years.

In 1909, Mr. Moore leased the Brown ranch of six thousand three hundred acres, where lie has since been extensively engaged in fanning and stock-raising. He raises large quantities of grain and alfalfa, and has about six hundred head of cattle of the Here­ford strain. He is engaged in feeding cattle for the markets.

At Willows, Dick Moore was married to Miss Nora Stinch­field, who was born on Grand Island, the daughter of George Stinchfield. Her father crossed the plains in the early fifties, in an ox-team train, as a member of the Ouyett party, and after­wards became a pioneer farmer in Colusa County. To Mr. and Mrs. Moore have been born five children: Amelia, .Mrs. Heard, of this vicinity ; and Beulah, Earl, Lawrence, and Irene. Irene is a graduate of the Chico State Normal School, class of 1917. Mr. Moore is one of the oldest settlers of the Stony Creek section, and one of its substantial and highly respected citizens.



An honored, cultured, and refined gentleman who has been a resident of Colusa County since 1868, Arthur T. Welton was born in Sidney, New South Wales, Australia, on June 8, 1843. His father, Major William Welton, was horn in London, England. He was a commissioned officer in the English army, and was stationed in Australia for many years, until he retired from service. His death occurred soon after his retirement.

Arthur T. Welton was left an orphan, and was brought up in Sidney, where he was educated in the public schools, afterwards studying the classics under a private tutor. Later he began to learn the stock business, riding the range, in time becoming super­intendent of a stock ranch. Filled with the spirit of adventure, he severed his relations with the stock business in Australia, intending to go either to the Fiji Islands to cultivate cotton, or to South Africa to engage in hunting; but instead he accidentally drifted to California. Happening to see an advertisement in the daily paper of a vacant berth on a sailing vessel hound for San Francisco, he decided to take it and in less than five minutes had his ticket purchased. He landed in San Francisco in the summer of 1868, and in the fall of the same year drifted into Colusa County. The year following he began teaching school in the Butte Creek district, and for fourteen years lie continued in educational work. During this time he took a course in civil engineering in Heald's Business College in San Francisco. He did some land-surveying, and was the nominee of the Republican party for county surveyor; but the county being strongly Democratic, he failed of election.

About 1876, Mr. Welton located a preemption claim of one hundred sixty acres near Stonyford, and later also located a homestead. Here he made improvements, and engaged in stock- raising. For some years, while improving the place, he continued his work as teacher and surveyor. He now owns two hundred forty acres in his Stonyford farm and one hundred twenty acres in the foothills. The land has been brought under irrigation by taking out a ditch front Stony Creek, which inns through the ranch. This enables him to raise alfalfa and to run a dairy, besides raising stock. He has built a comfortable residence, spacious barns, and good fences, and has set out an Orchard. The ranch is now one of the best-improved places in the vicinity.

Mr. -Welton is both enterprising and progressive. He was one of the original stockholders and builders of the Stonyford Cream­ery, and was president of the company until he resigned. He is also a stockholder in the Willows Creamery.

In Marysville, July 20, 1875, occurred the marriage of Mr. Welton with Miss Ida M. Morris, who was born near Jacksonville, Ore., the daughter of Lewis Morris. The father was born in Kentucky, and came to Missouri, where he married Louisa Bradley, a native of Tennessee. They migrated to Oregon by the overland trail, with ox teams, and later came to California, locating in Colusa in the early sixties; and in November, 1867, they settled on Stony Creek, where they resided until their death. Mrs. Welton is the second youngest of six children. She was educated in the public schools and Notre Dame convent at Marysville. Fra­ternally, Mr. Welton was made a Mason in Equality Lodge, at Colusa. He was a charter member of Snow Mountain Lodge, No. 271, at Stonyford, of which he has been secretary for many years. _Mrs. Welton is a charter member of Eowana Chapter, Order of the Eastern Star, at Stonyford. As a Republican, Mr. Welton is actively interested in the success of his party. He is a member of the County Central Committee.



Nestling beautifully in the foothills of the Coast Range, in Blanchard and High Valleys, lie the ranches of Leonard Huffmas­ter, a native son and prominent farmer and stockman of the Lees­ville district, Colusa Connie, who has made a name and place for himself in his community. A son of a pioneer settler in Califor­nia, Leonard Huffmaster was born on April 20, 1867, in Yuba County, and was reared at Reed's Station until 1881. He attended the public schools in his native locality and also after coming to Blanchard Valley and Antelope Valley, and for a time was a stu­dent in the Maxwell school. His father was Edmund Huffmaster, a native of Springfield, ILL., who served as a volunteer in the Mex­ican War. He was an engineer and machinist by trade. He crossed the plains to California with horse teams, and in 1852 ar­rived in the locality where 'Wheatland now is situated. Settling at Diamond Springs, with two partners, he ran a sawmill for seven years. after which be sold out to Ins partners, taking their notes in payment. They defrauded him of his money by going through in­solvency. Locating in Wheatland, be bought a ranch, and began farming. At the same time he followed his trade as an engineer, engaging in both occupations until he sold his ranch. He then rated at Reed's Station, where he preempted a quarter section of land, made necessary improvements while running the place, and also followed his trade as engineer. In 1881 he located in Blanch­ard Valley, Colusa County, homesteaded one hundred sixty acres, and later purchased a like amount of laud adjoining. Here he farmed until his death on June 17, 1890, at Sites. Edmund Huffmaster married Susan Parker, a native of Pennsylvania, born in Potter County. She was a daughter of Lorenzo Parker, who brought his family across the plains in an ox-team train about 1832, and located near Wheatland, where he became the owner of a fine ranch. Later he sold out and settled in Chico, where his last days were spent. He was a fancier and breeder of standard-bred horses, and was a good judge of horse-flesh. Mrs. Huffmaster died at Sites at the age of seventy-seven. Mr and Mrs. Huffmas­ter became the parents of six children, of whom Leonard, the sub­ject of this review, is the only survivor. John was accidentally killed in the mill at Diamond Springs. Charles was a splendid machinist and an inventor of some note, having patented many in­ventions, among them a governor for steam engines. He also in­vented a steam dome for engines. He was master mechanic with the Best Agricultural Works at San Leandro for twenty-seven years. His last days were passed in Oakland, where he died. Lydia became the wife of Charles Shaddock, and died at Sites. Clarence died at San Leandro. Emma became the wife of Nicho­las Smith, and died in Trinity County.

His school clays ended, Leonard Huffmaster rode the range, learned to rope and brand cattle, and became familiar with all branches of the stock business, and a particularly good judge of stock. In the meantime he was also engaged in grain-raising and in cutting wood and getting it to market. In 1888 he took charge of the old home ranch. There was a heavy indebtedness upon it, as much, in fact, as the land could be sold for in the market at that time. Nothing daunted, however, he assumed all obligations, and by careful attention to the cattle and wood business paid off the encumbrance and established himself as a successful stockman. As his herds increased and needed more range land, he bought ad­joining property from time to time as his means would permit, un­til he is now the owner of two thousand two hundred sixty acres, practically in one body. The land is equipped with a good set of buildings, as substantial as any to be found in the whole of the Blanchard Valley. There are two sets of buildings on his High Valley ranch; and he has a residence at Sites, and one at Lees­ville. Besides his own land, he also leases some eleven hundred acres from the Cortina Vineyard Company, near Williams, and raises large quantities of grain and hay for his stock. Through close application to the details of his large stock and ranching in­terests, Mr. Huffmaster has prospered financially. He raises cattle, horses, mules, hogs and sheep on his ranches, and also buys and sells extensively. his cattle are of the Durham breed; and his horses of Percheron stock. He owns a fine Jack and several Jennets, which head his band of mules. His brand, L. H., is well known among the stockmen of the surrounding country.

At the old Thomas Newsom place, four miles northwest from Williams, Leonard Huffmaster was united in marriage with Miss Lydia Hanson, who was born near Marysville, a daughter of Wil­liam and Lydia (Wilson) Hanson, pioneers of California. Wil­liam Hanson at one time built and owned a toll bridge across the Yuba River ; and later he became a rancher near Willows. He was killed by being accidentally run over by a passenger train. Of the marriage of Mr. and Mrs. Huffmaster five children have been born: Grace Elizabeth, Clara Augusta, Leonard Clifton, Glenn Wilson, and Ellen Blanche, all bright and intelligent children. Mr. Huffmaster is a trustee of the Leesville school district. He was a charter member of Maxwell Parlor, No. 148, N. S. G. W., until they surrendered their charter. In politics he is a Democrat. Mrs. Huff master is a woman of refinement, loving disposition and Christian character. She is a member of the Baptist Church at Willows. She joined this congregation years ago; and her friends of early days prevailed upon her to remain with them in church fellowship, though she now lives so far away that she can rarely attend. Mr. Huffmaster is a very liberal and kind-hearted man, and is ever ready to help those who have been less fortunate than himself. He is an interesting conversationalist, and an ex­ceptionally hospitable host. Fortunate indeed is one who has the privilege of being entertained at his home. "Len" Huffmaster, as be is familiarly called by his many friends, is a truly self-made man, and is highly esteemed in the community for his honesty and integrity of purpose, his moral worth and his manly ways. He is a man of whom Colusa County may well he proud.



Self-educated and self-reliant, Charles Alexander has solved the vital problem of attaining to success in the face of disheart­ening difficulties. A son of Allen Alexander, he was born near Maxwell, Colusa County July 27, 1870. His father was born in Brown County, ILL., in November, 1833, and as a lad attended school in the rude log schoolhouse in the vicinity of his home, also doing such work about the farm as his strength would permit. In 1850, at the age of seventeen, fired with the same spirit of adventure, no doubt, that had led his parents to locate in the Middle West, he joined a wagon train bound for California, and drove an ox team across the plains. Arriving in California, he at once went to work in the mines; but finding that occupation too precarious, he soon turned his attention to other pursuits. For a while he worked for wages in the vicinity of Oroville, then a dis­tributing point for the mines in that section. Later he went to Colusa County, and from there made his way to Petaluma. Re­turning to the Prairie State in 1867, he married Ann B. Huffman, a native of that state. With her he returned to Colusa County, Cal., where he has since resided. He received good wages, and saved his money until he had enough to buy an outfit to begin ranching. Leasing land near Maxwell, he raised grain and some stock, remaining on that ranch until 1875. He then sold out and moved tip into the section now embraced in Glenn County, and near Stonyford bought a quarter section of land, to which he added from time to time until he owned thirteen hundred acres, upon which he successfully raised grain and stock. The valley in which his ranch is located is known as Alexander Valley, and a portion of the place adjoins the East Park Reservoir. Allen Alexander is one of the oldest men now living in Glenn County who have seen and assisted in its wonderful development. His wife died in 1885, leaving four children.

The oldest child in his father's family, Charles Alexander attended the Mount Hope district school, the schoolhouse then standing On the present site of the East Park Reservoir. As he grew older, lie assisted with the ranch work; and when seventeen he entered Pierce Christian College at College City, for a special course, after which he returned to the home ranch and remained radii 1891. The following year was spent on the George Ware place. He then returned again to the home place and located there, leasing the northern portion until 1909, and since then operating the whole place. Here he is engaged in raising grain and hay, together with fine horses, cattle and hogs.

Near Stonyford, on October 25, 1893, Mr. Alexander was united in marriage with Myrtle Angelina White. She was born near Maxwell, a daughter of the late Fred White, a native of England, who came to the United States and settled in Kansas City, Mo., in 1870. Five years later he came to California, and in 1894 bought a ranch on Elk Creek. Fred White married Annie Bailey, also of England. She died in California; and after her death, Mr. White sold his ranch and made his home with Mrs. Alexander. He passed away on May 15, 1917, at the age of eighty-one years. Of the union of Mr. and Mrs. Alexander, three children have been born: Allen Frederick; Gleta, Mrs. McGhan, living near Lodi; and Etna, at home.

Mr. and Mrs. Alexander are members of the Eastern Star Chapter at Willows. Mr. Alexander is a member of Snow Moun­tain Lodge, No. 271, at Stonyford, of which he is Senior Steward (1917) ; and he also holds membership with the Elks in Chico. He is a Republican, and served on the County Central Committee for years. For nine years he has been a trustee of the Grape­vine school district, and has done much to maintain a good school. Mr. Alexander and his wife enjoy the confidence and good-will of all who know them; and they are accorded a place among the worth-while citizens of Glenn County.



One of the successful farmers and stockiness of Colusa County, and a native son, Francis Marion Kesselring was born at English Hill, Sonoma County, on April 27. 1859. His father, Jacob Kesselring, was horn in Germany, and came to the United States with his parents when six years of age. The family located first in Pennsylvania and then at Jonesville, Mich., where he grew to manhood; and there he married Emily Jane Smith, a native of Indiana. Being in poor health, they came to California, crossing the plains in 1850, with ox teams; and on arriving at Bidwell's bar Sir. Kesselring followed mining and teaming for four years, after which he returned East via Panama. In 1856, he and his wife came via the Isthmus to San Francisco, landing from the steamer the day Casey and Carey were hung. They spent a year in Butte County, and then came to Sonoma County. Here Mr. Kesselring, remained until June, 1858, when he returned to Butte County and engaged in the hotel business at Peavine. In 1560, he moved to Colusa County, and the first year ranched west of New­ville, after which he moved to St. John, on Stony Creek, and engaged in farming. He plowed the first land on the south side of Stony Creek, and his residence was located where the Central Canal crosses the stream. In the fall of 1864, he moved back to Sonoma County, but in 1865 returned to St. John. In 1866 he moved across the river into Butte County for a year, after which he again returned to St. John. He leased land and ran a hotel till 1870, when he moved on to Colusa Plains, to land upon which he hacl. filed in 1868. This he improved, making it his place of residence for seven years, when he sold and moved to Modoc County. Afterwards, however, he returned to Colusa Plains, where he died on May 31, 1880. His wife survives him, and is now residing in Orland. Their four children are as follows:

E. B., proprietor of a hotel in Orland; G. A.. residing in Chico;

F. M., of this review; and Ora, Mrs. Sharp, of Oakland.

Francis N. Kesselring's childhood was spent in Colusa and Glenn Counties, where he received a good education in the public schools. From a lad he was trained in the raising of grain and in the care of stock, assisting his parents until he was twenty years of age. He then began farming near Adin, Modoc County, and later bought land, which he operated until 1886. Selling his property, he then made a trip to Chiapas, Mexico, and purchased a two-hundred-acre farm. Two years later, he disposed of this and returned to Adin, where he engaged in the livery business for two years, and then sold ant to become a buyer and seller of horses and mules. He sold horses and mules to the Sacramento markets, and also shipped them to the Hawaiian Islands, in partnership with W. N. Winter. They wade shipments of from forty to sixty-five at a time, shipping on sailing vessels, which made the voyage iu from twelve to twenty-six and one half days. Horses and mules were purchased in Northern California and Southern Oregon, and were brought to their pastures at Sites, in Colusa County, where they were kept until they were in shape for the market. After three years in this line of trade, the sugar company they had been supplying failed. He could not sell the last shipment to advantage, and it was practically a total loss.

About this time, in 1.902, Mr. Winter and Mr. Kesselring purchased from the Stonyford Improvement Company about twelve hundred acres of land in and adjoining Stonyford, and began developing and improving the property for alfalfa-raising and dairying. One year later, however, Mr. Winter withdrew from the partnership. Mr. Kesselring then assumed the whole indebtedness involved in the project, and continued the enterprise alone. Nothing daunted, he put his shoulder to the wheel, with the result that he now has one of the best-improved dairy farms in the county, with a valuable dairy herd of the Red Durham strain. He also purchased other land, and now has fifteen hun­dred acres. He has four hundred acres in alfalfa, which is irrigated from a ditch run out from Stony Creek by John Smith, the original owner, as early as 1868, and probably the oldest ditch on the creek. Mr. Kesselriug is three quarters owner of the ditch, which has a right to two thousand inches of water. He also leased mountain range for pasture, being extensively engaged in stock-raising. For years he raised alfalfa seed, one year obtaining twenty cents a pound for his entire crop.

Mr. Kesselring was one of the organizers, and is a director, of the Stonyford Creamery Company, of which he has been vice- president for years. tie was also one of the organizers of the Willows Creamery Company, but afterwards sold his interest.

In July, 1903, Mr. Kesselring married Mrs. Annie (McDaniel) Anderson, who was born near Stonyford, a daughter of William Anderson. Her father was a California pioneer of 1850, who became a prominent stockman of this vicinity. Mr. and Mrs. Kesselring rebuilt their home in Stonyford. Besides this resi­dence, which is the largest in the town, they also own other residence and business property in Stonyford. Mr. Kesselring was made a Mason in 1884, in Adin Lodge, No. 250, F. & A. M. and also served as Master of the lodge. He is now a member of Snow Mountain Lodge, No. 271, F. & A. M.; and both he and his wife are charter members of Eowana Chapter, 0. E. S., at Stony- ford. They are both liberal and enterprising, and are held in high esteem in the community, where they are well and favorably known.



One of the most enterprising and progressive men in western Colusa County is George Lemuel Mason. He is a native son of the county, born near the present site of the East Side Reservoir, on July 5, 1875. Ills father, Andrew Mason, a stone mason by trade, was born in Connecticut in 1835. He enlisted in the regular army and was sent out on the plains, where he served in the Indian wars. After being mustered out of the service, he was located in Utah for a time. In 1863 he came to Colusa County, where he followed his trade, working on several of the first brick buildings constructed in Colusa. Afterwards he farmed at Elk Creek, and still later at Stonyford. Next we find him at Bear Valley, from which place be returned to Stonyford, where he now lives retired, the oldest man in the district. While living in Utah, Andrew Mason was united in marriage with Rebecca Smith, who was born in Illinois and crossed the plains with her father in pioneer days. She died in 1880. Of the seven children born to this worthy pioneer couple, six are still living, of whom George Lemuel is the youngest.

At the time of his mother's death, George Lemuel Mason was but five years old. A good home was found for him with Mr. and Mrs. Welton, who raised him with care, giving him the advantage of the public schools. He remained ender their pro­tection and influence until twenty years of age, after which he engaged in ranch work for himself. He was married in Stonyford to Miss Minnie Robertson, also a native of the county, born near Maxwell. She was the daughter of I. L. Robertson, an old settler of the county. Soon after their marriage Mr. and Mrs. Mason located on a ranch of one hundred twenty acres, two miles west of Stonyford, which they purchased and improved, and still own. For five years Mr. Mason was associated with A. L. Robertson in the butchering business in Stonyford, after which he resumed farming and dairying, leasing the Welton place for over a year. Having been a stockholder of the Stonyford Creamery from its organization, and being also one of its directors, he arranged with the company for a lease of the creamery, which he is operat­ing. At this plant he is manufacturing a fine grade of creamery butter. He also produces ice cream for the market, and is en­gaged in the manufacture of ice, using a De Kalb ice machine of five tons' capacity. Aside from the local trade, he ships his products to the sunder resorts in the mountains. To perfect himself better for his work, in 1916 be took the short course in the manufacturing of dairy products at the Davis Farm Depart­ment of the University of California. He is well qualified for his present business.

Mr. and Mrs. Mason have had seven children. George Morris and Fred Lewis are assisting their father in the creamery. Ida M. died at ten years of age. The others are Verda S., Herbert H., Albert A., and C. Milton. Intensely interested in the cause of education, Mr. Mason is serving his community as a member and clerk of the Stonyford school district. He is also acting as con­stable of Stonyford township, having been elected to that position in the fall of 1914. Fraternally, he was made a Mason in Snow Mountain Lodge, No. 271, F. & A. M., of which he is at present Master, for the second term. Mrs. Mason is a member of Eowaua Chapter, O. E. S., at Stonyford. Mr. Mason stands for high morals and Christian ideals. He is a member of the Stonyford Union Church, in which he is one of the deacons. In his political views, he has always been a stanch Republican.



A venerable and highly esteemed gentleman who has been a resident of the county since 18(37, John F. Durham was born near Weston, Platte County, Mo., on August 11, 1S51. His father, J. H. Durham, was a native of Kentucky, and was descended from an old and honorable Virginia family. The elder Durham moved to Platte County, Mo., in 1841, where he resided until 1S65, when he brought his family over the old Oregon trail with ox teams. to Corvallis, Ore. After remaining there for two years, he came on overland to Colusa County, Cal., and leased a part of the Murdock ranch, west of Willows, for one year. He then pur­chased land seven miles northwest of Williams, and was engaged in raising grain until he retired to Maxwell, where he died at the age of seventy-four years. His wife, who was Burretta Bentley before her marriage, was born in Kentucky, and died in Maxwell, also at seventy-four years of age, her death occurring in February, 1895. Of their union, six children were born, five of whom are living, John F. being the eldest.

When a lad of fourteen years, in 1865, John F. Durham drove an ox team across the plains for her father, standing his turn as guard with the other men of the train; and two years later he' drove a mule team from Oregon to California. He attended pub­lic school in Missouri, Oregon and California, finishing his schooling in the Freshwater district. On leaving home, he bought a ranch, on which he engaged in farming until 1875, when he sold out, and with his brother Robert started the first hardware store in Maxwell, under the firm name of Durham Bros. This partner­ship continued until the time of his brother's death, after which Mr. Durham carried on the business under the name of J. F. Durham fi Co. The store carried a full line of hardware and agricultural implements, and also engaged in tinning and plumb­ing, as well as well-drilling, until 1995.

Desiring to take up farming again, Mr. Durham located at Stonyford in November, 1897, where he purchased one hundred sixty acres, a part of his present place. Later, he bought two hundred acres adjoining this property. On his three-hundred sixty-acre ranch he engaged in the raising of grain and stock, his brand being the well-known lone D.

In Maxwell, on October 30, 1S79, occurred the marriage of John F. Durham with Miss Mary E. Phelps. She was born in Jackson County, Mo., in 1S5S, the daughter of J. M. and Hannah (Dailey) Phelps, who settled in Maxwell, Colusa County, in 1870, and removed thence to Stonyford, where the father died in 1900. The mother made her home with Mrs. Durham until her death in 1917, aged eighty-five years. Mr. and Mrs. Durham had six children. John F., Jr., was accidentally killed by a fall, while working as a carpenter on the Truckee Dam project, in Nevada. Walter is forest guard at the Paskenta government reserve. May, Mrs. August Johanningsmeier, resides at Sites. Willis M. is a forest ranger in the Paskenta district. Alta, Mrs. Chester, re­sides in Williams. J. Homer is a farmer near Williams.

Mr. Durham was for nine years school trustee at Maxwell, and was a member of the board, and its clerk, when the first brick schoolhouse was built. He served as justice of the peace of Maxwell township till he resigned from that office. He also served as director of the Central Irrigation District for twelve years and was president of the board during his last term. Mr. Durham was elected justice of the peace of Stonyford township in 1906 on  the Democratic ticket, and was reelected in 1910, serving eight years. For eleven years he was a member and clerk of the Indian Valley school district. In all the offices to which he has been elected, Judge Durham has always served with credit to himself and with satisfaction to his constituents; and he is hon­ored and respected by everyone. Fraternally, he was made a Mason in Maxwell Lodge, F. & A. M., but is now a member of Snow Mountain Lodge, No. 271, of Stonyford. He is a member of the Baptist Church and a man of worth and integrity.



One of the largest dairymen of Colusa County is A. L. Martinelli. a resident of California since 1869. Mr. Martinelli was born in Maggia, Ticino, Switzerland, August 3, 1854. His father, Fidele Martinelli, was an early settler in California, com­ing in 1854. and remaining until 1867, when he returned home. A. L. -Martinelli received a good education in the public schools. When fourteen years of age, having become interested in Cali­fornia from hearing his father relate his experiences and tell of the wonderful resources of the Pacific Coast, he left his native land and came via Panama to this country. In July, 1869, he arrived at Nacassia, Marin County, and for the first four years was employed in dairies in Marin, Sonoma, and Napa Counties, without the loss of a day's time. From 1873 to 1875 he ran a dairy near old Sonoma. Removing then to Napa County, he leased a dairy and began the creamery business, starting the Bay View Creamery. In 1877 he bought a ranch of thirteen hundred sixty acres on Carneros Creek, seven miles southwest of Napa, where he ran the Bay View Creamery for sixteen years. He then sold out and moved to a ranch two miles southwest of Napa, where he continued business under the same name. On each occasion when be exhibited dairy products at the Farmers' Institute in Napa, he took the prize.

Coming to Stonyford in 1913, Mr. Martinelli leased the Kesselring ranch of twelve hundred acres, four hundred of which is seeded to alfalfa. Here be engaged in dairying, later enlarging his operations by leasing the Sutliff place of eight hundred six acres, one hundred ten of which is planted to alfalfa. Both places are irrigated from a canal taken from Stony Creek He milks one hundred twenty cows. The cream is separated by a separator, and is shipped to the Central Creameries in San Francisco.

Mr. Martinelli's success is in no small degree due to his wife, who is his able and devoted helpmate. His marriage occurred in Napa City, on December 91, 1881, and united him with Miss Ida Welch. She was born in Vallejo, in 1860, the daughter of Philip and Elizabeth (McConnell) Welch, who came to California in 1856 and 1837, respectively. Mr. and Mrs. Martinelli had eight chil­dren: Marie, Mrs. Wall, of San Jose; Edward, who is assisting his parents; Loretta, Mrs. Stetson, of Sacramento; Rose, in Napa; Frank, who died at seven years of age; and Regina, Alice, and Ida. Fraternally, Mr. Martinelli is a member of the Knights of Columbus.



A native son of Colusa County who is making a success of stock-raising and farming, Frank Gobel was born on his father's ranch, twelve miles west of Williams, on August 17, 1886. He is the son of Obadiah and Hannah (Clark) Gabel, who were born in South Carolina and Wisconsin, respectively. The father came to California across the plains, in an ox-team train when a young man, and followed mining until the time of his marriage, after which be began farming in Colusa County. There be purchased a ranch, twelve miles west of Williams, where the family have been engaged in farming ever since. Of the nine children born to this worthy couple, eight are still living. Frank L. is the fifth in order of birth.

Frank Leslie Gobel received his education in the public schools. From a youth he assisted his father on the ranch, and was early set to work driving big teams. On reaching his majority, he went to Washington, but after a stay of three months, returned to Colusa County. His brother Charles had a team on the road, hauling mineral water from Bartlett Springs to Wil­liams; so Frank Gobel also engaged in hauling Bartlett water, using an eight-horse team. He had made only a few trips when his brother Charles was accidentally killed by falling from the wagon, which ran over him. Frank Gobel continued hauling for five seasons, after which, for one year, he worked in a horse- shoeing shop in Williams.

In 1913, Mr. Gobel came to Stonyford, and for one season worked with his team on the government ditch. He then leased the Millsaps ranch of nineteen hundred thirty acres, where he is raising grain, cattle and hogs. Here he has succeeded in building np a nice herd, and is meeting with merited success.

Mr. Gobel was married in Sacramento to Miss Clara New­man. Mrs. Gobel was born in Bartlett Springs, but was raised near Meridian and Sutter City. Until the time of her marriage, she was engaged in educational work. Three children have been born to Mr. and Mrs. Gobel: Leo, Evelyn, and Zola.



A native son of Colusa County, Frank D. Boardman was born on the Bank ranch, in Indian Valley, December 17, 1885. His father, Wilbur IV., was born in Illinois, and came to California as a young man, where he became a successful farmer, in Cohim County. Wilbur W. Boardman married Sarah Metzley, also born hi Illinois. He is the owner of two large ranches at Leesville; and now that he is supervisor from his district, he leases his ranches to his son, Frank D., who is the youngest of his four children.

Frank Dayton Boardman received his education in the public school in the Leesville district and at the business college in Woodland, after which he returned to assist his father on the ranch. In 1909 he leased both of the ranches, which together com­prise about thirty-one hundred acres, one thousand acres of which is under plow. Aside from raising large quantities of grain he is also engaged in raising cattle of the Durham strain. He is a stockholder in the Freshwater Vineyard Company, who set out and own on eighty-acre vineyard of Sultana and Thompson Seedless grapes, west of Williams.


Mr. Boardman was married near Leesville to Margaret Reese, who was born in that vicinity, the daughter of Stephen Reese, an old and highly respected pioneer of the section. Fraternally, Mr. Boardman is a member of Williams Parlor, No. 164, N. S. G. W. Politically, he is a stanch Republican.



A citizen of worth who has made his own way in the world since he was a lad of sonic sixteen years of age is Alcid Girard, a prosperous rancher of the Willows district in Glenn County, in which locality he has made his home since 1892. one year after the organization of the county. Born near Montreal, Canada, on No­vember 2. 1875, lie is a son of Joseph and Alma Girard, farmers of the vicinity of Montreal for many years, and descendants of an old family of that province. The mother is now deceased, and the father is making his home in the city of Montreal.

The fourth child in a family of nine, Alcid Girard grew up on the home farm and attended the public schools of his native prov­ince. At the age of sixteen he determined to come to California, whither a brother Joseph had preceded him by two years, who had sent back glowing accounts of the state as a prosperous country, and as a place of opportunity for young men who wanted to get ahead in the world; and in May, 1892, we find him in Glenn County, willing to begin the upward climb to success. His first work was on a ranch owned by Charles Fortier, where he got used to the methods employed in running a ranch in California. He worked as a ranch hand, principally in the Liberty district, driv­ing a header wagon, and one of the big teams used by the ranchers to put in their crops. After seven years of hard work he had saved enough to buy a farming outfit; so he leased land for two years. and met with good success, harvesting bountiful crops.

Anxious to become a landowner, Mr. Girard invested in eight hundred eighty acres of land on the Colusa and Glenn County line,, and began in the stock business and in the raising of grain. He keeps sheep, hogs, cattle and mules, making a specialty of sheep. As a successful sheep raiser he has won wide recognition. To illustrate his operations in this enterprise, we summarize some of his successful deals. In 1916 he bought picked ewes at $4 each, and sold them in 1917 for $12 a head. lie sold 2,000 head for $24,- 000; 500 head of lambs at $10.50 each, or $5250; and 562 lambs for $3,300. He sold 471 old ewes for $9.50 each, and 70 ewe lambs at $12 apiece. He still has 3,000 head of sheep, and continues buying and selling. He is also raising more than a thousand head of turkeys each season.

In 1916 Mr. Girard sold his ranch of eight hundred eighty acres and purchased five hundred fifty acres seven miles north of Chico, besides which he also leases land from the land company of Willows; and here he raises grain and stock. His success has been won in Glenn County; and during his residence here he has always shown his public spirit by his support of all movements for the betterment of the county. He is serving as road overseer of Road District No. 4, under Supervisor Leon Speier.

Mr. Girard was united in marriage with Miss Valedo Fortier, a native daughter, and a representative of an old French family in Glenn County. Of this union six children have been born: Roma, Alberta, Ellery, Alvin, Adrian and the baby. Mr. Girard has met with very satisfactory results since he began farming for himself ; and he has made many friends throughout the county, who admire him for his many manly traits of character. He and his good wife are welcome guests in the homes of their many friends.



The enterprising owner of Lakeside Ranch, Robert Evermont Phelps—or Bob Phelps, as he is familiarly called by his many friends—was born on October 1, 1553, near Lone Jack, Jackson County, Mo., where his father, Jacob M., was also born. The grandfather, Edward Phelps, was born in France, and migrated to the United States, settling in Jackson County, Mo. Jacob M. Phelps was a farmer in Jackson County, Mo. During the Civil War, he served in the Confederate army, being twice wounded. He married Miss Hannah Daley, a daughter of David Daley, a native of North Carolina, who was a pioneer of Jackson County, Mo., where he became a large landowner and a man of affairs. Jacob M. Phelps brought his family to Colusa County, Cal., in 1871, and farmed for a while at Maxwell, after which he pur­chased a ranch of one hundred sixty acres in Indian Valley, now covered by the government dam. Selling his ranch, be located near Stonyford, where he died in 1900. His wife survived him, dying on June 20, 1917. Six of their eight children grew up, of whom Bob is the fourth in order of birth. His childhood was spent in Missouri, where he attended the public schools, which at that time gave very limited advantages, owing to the Civil Was and its hardships, which left that section in straitened circum­stances. Coming to California in 1871 with his parents, he was employed on grain ranches, and later attended the public schools for several years, after which he studied at Pierce Christian College, at College City, where he pursued the scientific course for two years. Thereafter he assisted his father in farming at Maxwell. In the fall of 1981, he came to Indian Valley and pur­chased a ranch, a part of which is now under the water of the government dam. In 1885, he sold this ranch and purchased his present place, on which he moved and began the improvements that have made it one of the fine ranches of the valley. Lakeside Ranch comprises four hundred eighty acres lying four and one half miles north of Lodoga, and bordering on the east side of the East Park Reservoir dam. It is well named, as it commands a beautiful view of the lake. The location and climate are well adapted to fruit-raising and viticulture; and he has an orchard of apples, peaches, prunes, pears, and almonds, as well as a vineyard —all doing splendidly. His experience with almonds has been highly satisfactory, his orchard yielding a crop every year. Hav­ing an abundance of water from the lake and from numerous springs, it is also an excellent stock ranch; and aside from fruit and grain, he is raising cattle, hogs and turkeys.

The first marriage of Mr. Phelps took place at Maxwell, on September 22, 1882, when he was united with Sarah C: Allen, She was horn at Upper Lake, and died near Stonyford, leaving six chil­dren: W. C., who is employed at Cooks Springs; Minnie, Mrs. Stafford, of Colusa ; Archie Lee, who resides in Butte County; John Franklin, of Willows; Jesse A., of Maxwell; and Sarah E., Mrs. Sehearin, of Sites. Mr. Phelps' second marriage occurred at Sacramento, on December 29, 1913, at which time Mrs. Mary E. (Cox) Morrissey became his wife. She was born at Hepsadam, Sierra County. the daughter of John and Virginia (Perry) Cox, who were horn in Missouri and Ohio respectively. In 1832, when a very young man, the father crossed the plains to Cali­fornia. After mining a few years, he returned to Missouri to claim the girl he had left behind, and brought his bride via Panama to California, after which he continued milling in Sierra and Butte Counties. In the latter county he passed away. His widow now makes her home in Oroville. Of their three children, Mrs. Phelps is the second in order of birth. She was a graduate of the county schools, and engaged in educational work in Butte, Yuba, Solano, Kern and Colusa Counties. Through her first mar­riage, to James Pearce, who died in Butte County, she was left with two children, who were babies at the time of their father's death, after which she took up teaching, and was thus enabled to rear and educate them. They are Cecil, who attends Stanford University; and Myrtle, Mrs. Sachs, of Woodland. By her mar­riage to James Morrissey, she has one child, Robert Emmett. It was while teaching in Mt. Hope district, Colusa County, where she taught for two years, that she met and married Bob Phelps, a union that has proved very happy. Mr. Phelps was formerly a member of the Sons of Temperance, and afterwards became a member of the Independent Order of Good Templars, serving as Chief Templar. He was also Master of the Grange. Mr. and Mrs. Phelps are members of the Baptist Church; and be is super­intendent of the Sunday school at Lodoga. Mrs. Phelps is a mem­ber of the Rebekahs, and was formerly secretary of the Inde­pendent Order of Good Templars. Both are Democrats in political principle, and are strong supporters of the temperance cause. From a lad Mr. Phelps has played the violin, an accomplishment he still enjoys. At times they have musicals at their home, at which he favors the people of the community with his playing. He has served as trustee of Mt. Hope school district for about twenty years, most of the time as clerk of the board. Mrs. Phelps is a cultured and refined woman, and is proving a true helpmate to her husband.



Jochim Bruggmann was horn in Hamburg, Germany, June 18, 1857, the son of John and Geschen (Wilms) Bruggmann, farmers near Hamburg. The mother died in 1860; and the father, later in life, came to Colusa County, where he spent his last days. Jochim was the second of the three children born of this union, and is the only one in the United States. The other two were named Peter and John. The father's second marriage united him with Annie Wilkens, by whom he had seven children, six of whom are living.

Jochim Bruggmann received a good education in the public schools, and was brought up to the life of a farmer. In 1877 he joined Company Eleven, Eighty-sixth Fusileer Regiment, in which he served for three years, until the expiration of his time, being mustered out on September 27, 1880. On October 11, of the same year, he married Cecelia Weber, the daughter of John and Sophie (Cords) Weber. The father was a cabinet maker, and died at his home near Hamburg. The mother now makes her home with Mrs. Bruggmann, who is the eldest of her four living children.

In May, 1881, 3Ii.. Bruggmann migrated to California, locat­ing in Colusa County, where he was employed at ranching on Grand Island until he had saved enough to buy a big team. Thereafter he worked with the team, and later leased a part of the Moulton ranch, where he raised corn for a period of five years. He then engaged in grain-growing on a farm near Arbuckle until 1897, when he located in Indian Valley. Soon afterwards he purchased a ranch on Little Stony Creek, becoming owner of four hundred eighty acres in East Park, well improved for raising alfalfa and stock. It is now about the deepest part of the government reser­voir, the dam lying just north of his land. In 1908, Mr. Bruggmann sold the ranch to the government. The site where his land stood is now about ninety feet under water. Some years before this he had leased the present place of twelve hun­dred acres in Indian Valley, where he engaged in raising grain, cattle, horses mules, and hogs, and also White Leghorn poultry. They are also owners of real estate in Oakland and Richmond.

Mr. and Mrs. Bruggmann had seven children, of whom six are living: Gustav, a farmer near Williams; William, of Sunny­vale; Anna, Mrs. Green, of Maxwell; Wilhelmina, who died at the age of twenty years and eleven months; Henry, living in Napa; Edward, who is assisting his father in his ranching opera­tions; and Olga, now Mrs. Sidell, of Willows. Mr. Bruggmann is a member of the Knights of Pythias in Guinea. He is a Lutheran, in which church he was raised. For fourteen years he has been a trustee of the Ashton school district, and is clerk of the board.


A native son of Bear Valley, Colusa County, "Doc" Nordyke —as he is familiarly called by his friends—was born on March 26, 1875. His father, John Nordyke, was horn in Illinois, and as a young man, in the fifties, came to California across the plains with ox teams. After prospecting and mining for a while, he began farming in the Sacramento Valley, in Colusa County. Later he became one of the first settlers in Bear Valley, where he engaged in farming and stock-raising until his death. His wife, Mary Nolan, was born in Missouri, and also crossed the plains in pioneer days, coming with her parents. She now makes her home with her son, Joseph Nordyke, and is eighty-four years of age. Of her seven children, five are living, as follows: B. J., in Idaho; W. S., who resides with Mr. Nordyke; John, in Sites; Gordon, in Glenn Valley; and Joseph, of this review.

Joseph Nordyke was brought up iu Bear Valley, and was educated in the Leesville schools, after which he followed ranch work, soon engaging in farming for himself on different places in the valley. In the fall of 1907, he leased his present place, the Epperson ranch of sixteen hundred acres, in Bear Valley, devoting it to raising grain and cattle. He operates the ranch with two big teams, and gathers the grain with a large combined harvester.

Joseph Nordyke was married in Colusa to Miss Sarah Davis, who was born in Indian Valley, Colusa County, the daughter of Edward Davis, a pioneer farmer of the County and of Indian Valley. Of this marriage one child has been born, Dayton—a very bright and interesting lad, and the pride of his parents.



An enterprising and progressive man who has accumulated a competency in a few years is Mathew James Keegan, who was born at Moores Flat, Nevada County, January 11, 1872, the son of Robert and Ann (McAdams) Keegan, natives of Ireland. His father was a pioneer prospector and miner in California. In May, 1880, he came to Bear Valley and purchased a ranch, intending to move his family hither later, but took pneumonia and died in September of that year. The mother brought her family to the Bear Valley ranch in November, 1880. She rented the place for seven years, after which, with her son, she ran it until her death in 1900. Of her ten children, seven grew up, six of whom are living. Mathew J. is the eighth, in order of birth.

From the age of eight years, Mathew J. Keegan was brought up on the farm in Bear Valley, receiving a good education in the Leesville public school. At fifteen years of age he took charge of the farm, and thereafter ran it for his mother until her death. He was the administrator of the estate, and bought out the other heirs, in time paying off on the five hundred twenty-seven acres of the home farm. It is a valuable property, lying mostly in the valley and containing rich lands. He has made substantial improvements on the place, and in 1910 built a comfortable residence. Be also purchased over seven hundred acres adjoining, so that he now owns twelve hundred fifty-seven acres in all, lying in a body. Seven hundred fifty acres is under plow; and of this, three hundred acres or more is each year devoted to the raising of grain. Besides his own land he leases mountain range, on which he is engaged in raising. cattle.

In Marysville, Cal., on September 29, 1909, Mathew J. Keegan was united in marriage with Rosemarie Lang., a native of Colusa County. Her father is William H. Lang, who was born in York State. When twenty-one years of age, he came to California, and is now engaged in farming in Sutter County. His wife was Rosie Burns, a native of Colusa County, and the daughter of Peter Burns, one of the California pioneers. Mrs. Keegan received her education in the public schools and in Mrs. Wilkins' private normal school in Marysville, where she was graduated. After graduation she engaged in educational work in Colusa and Sutter Counties until her marriage to Mr. Keegan. To Mr. and Mrs. Keegan four children have been born: Rosemarie, Mathew James, Jr., Wanda Ann, and Aloise Alexa. Mr. Keegan has served as trustee of Leesville school district. Fraternally, he is an Elk, being a member of Marysville Lodge, B. P. 0. E. The family are members of the Catholic Church, in Maxwell parish. In politics he is a Democrat. He has been a member of the grand jury three terms.



One of the oldest settlers in the Sulphur Creek region, and one who is very conversant with the quicksilver mines and the curative properties of the mineral waters of the district, is William Wallace Gibson, who is a native son born in St. Louis, Sierra County. His father, John Gibson, was born in London, England, and was one of the "Argonauts," coming to San Francisco around Cape Horn in 1849. He followed mining in Sierra County, and later ran a hotel. In 1878 he came to Forbestown, Butte County, and thereafter engaged in ranching until his death. Some years after his arrival in California, John Gibson made a visit to his old home in England. There he married Elizabeth Eldridge, who was born in London, England, and then brought his bride to his California home. She survives him, and is still making her home in Forbestown. Five children were born to this worthy pioneer couple, of whom Mr. Gibson is the third in order of birth.

After completing the public schools of Forbestown, William Wallace Gibson worked in the mines and sawmills, and on various stock ranches. In 1892 he came to Colusa County, where his brother, A. A. Gibson,. was operating a quicksilver mine at Abbot, and later opened a mine on Sulphur Creek. He worked for his brother, off and on, for eleven rears, at the mine, and at teaming and ranching. He ran cattle on shares on the ranch for eighteen or twenty years. During this time, lie purchased land, which he added to, from time to time, until he now owns twenty-three hundred acres on Sulphur Creek. This property is devoted to the raising of hay and stock. He specializes in graded Hereford cattle, using the well-known diamond brand. Aside from his cattle interests, Mr. Gibson has been foreman at the Wilbur Hot Sulphur Springs, looking after the improvement of the property, and also gives attention to the quicksilver mines.

The marriage of William Wallace Gibson occurred in Williams, where he was united with Miss Bessie Smith, who was born at Lower Lake, Lake County. Mr. Gibson is interested in the cause of education, and is serving as trustee of Quicksilver district.



A ranch man highly esteemed by his fellow agriculturists, and one who is extremely loyal to Glenn County, is Henry Domonoske. He was born in Monroe County, Wis., December 28, 1855, and came to California when he was nineteen years old. On April 14, 1875, he first saw the beckoning ranch lands of the San Joaquin Valley; and he soon decided to locate near Stockton, where he worked on a ranch one year. He then went to Visalia, and for eight months added to his practical experience by working on ranches for others.

Being full of ambition. Mr. Domonoske wished to equip him­self better for competition with the world. Going to Sacramento, he found employment in the wholesale grocery house of Lindley & Co. In the evenings he took a business course in Atkinson's Business College, from which he was graduated in the spring of 188. In May of that year he came to Colusa County and found work with Williams S Co. Next he became foreman for Terrill & Williams, in whose service he remained as an overseer for four years.

In the fall of 1882 Mr. Domonoske was able to make a start for himself. He leased the French ranch, west of Germantown, bought an outfit, and for thirty-three years farmed the place to grain, with few exceptions receiving abundant harvests. He also rented at different times both the Boggs and the Murdock ranch, and in addition farmed three hundred twenty acres of his own east of Germantown, which he had bought about the middle of the eighties. For some years he owned and farmed what is known as the Eucalyptus Farm, of twelve hundred eighty acres, south of Germantown. Some seasons Mr. Domonoske has leased as high as five thousand acres; and he has bad twenty-five hundred acres in grain, necessitating the use of ten eight-mule teams to plant and harvest his crops. He has also farmed two sections of the Dudley place, eight miles southwest of Willows, beginning there in 1890. In 1911 he bought the Sutton place of six hundred forty acres, and in 1915 moved from the French place to his present home. He also rents laud outside, and is now farming some two thousand five hundred acres, including eight hundred acres on the Hart place, near Princeton, and eleven hundred acres on the Rasor place, near Butte City. On all these properties he raises grain, bogs and sheep. His specialty is wheat and barley, for which he uses six eight-mule teams, besides a seventy-five horse power caterpillar engine.

On Christmas day, 15S2, Mr. Donioneske was married in Oakland to Miss Clara Jane Price, a native of Provo, Utah, who came with her parents, James B. and Sarah (Sykes) Price, to Dixon, Solano County, and from there removed to Oakland. Her death, in 1894, was mourned by a large circle of friends. She left three children. Arthur Bouguer is a graduate of the University of California, class of 1907, with the degrees of B. S. and IL S. He taught in the mechanical engineering department of the university for five years, and then taught for two and one half years in the University of Illinois at Urbana. He then spent several years with different manufacturing companies as engineer and draughtsman, hut is now assisting his father with his large farming operations. Ile was married to Gladys Boydstnn, a native daughter, born at Dayton, Butte County, a graduate of the California School of Arts and Crafts. They have one child, Henry Arthur. Hazel Pearl and Clara are the other children of Mr. and Mrs. Domonoske. Both are graduates of the University of California, and are successful teachers. Mr. Domouoske is a Republican in national politics; and the family are members of the reorganized Church of Latter Day Saints.



A resident of Colusa County for over sixty years, John Stickney Thompson was horn at Dallas City, Henderson County, Ill., on May 21, 1851. His father, John I. Thompson, was lawn in Pennsylvania, and came to Cincinnati, Ohio, where he met and married Ruth Jane Graham, a native of Massachusetts, who was engaged in teaching school in Cincinnati. Soon after their marriage, they moved to Henderson County, 111., where they purchased and improved a farm. Dallas City was afterwards laid out on a part of this farm. John I. Thompson was a very successful man, and was in independent circumstances at the time of his death, in 1811. At that time John Stickney Thompson, the youngest of the three children in the family, wee a baby; and he is the only one of the three now living. His mother's brothers—James, Benjamin, Hiram, John and Edward Graham— had crossed the plains to California in 1849. A sister, Mrs. Jos. Tully, also accompanied them. They settled in Colusa County, and there became prominent ranchers and office-holders. They were also engaged in mining in the early days, and at one time were owners of the Eureka mine. Edward Graham had returned to Illinois, where he married Asenith Stanton; and in 1856 Mrs. Thompson, with her three children, accompanied him and his bride across the plains. They came by ox-team train, Mrs. Thompson having six teams of two yokes each. The train consisted of one hundred wagons, and had two captains, E. R. Graham and Leonard Crane. They arrived safely in Colusa County, on October 4, 1856. The mother bought a large ranch on Grand Island, but subsequently lost it by the Whitcomb and Hagar grant's claiming title to it. With it she lost all of her investment. She then settled west of the grant, locating one hundred sixty acres of land, and farmed there until 1870, when she sold and located at Venado (meaning "antelope"), a place in the southern part of Antelope Valley. There, with her children, she purchased a ranch, on which she continued to live until her death in 1876, at the age of seventy-nine years and eight months. She was a well-educated, refined and cultured woman, and left, besides her relatives, many warm friends to mourn her loss. Her three children were James, a farmer, and a deputy sheriff and constable, who died in Colusa County; William, a farmer, who also died here; and John Stickney.

John Stickney Thompson was five years of age when he crossed the plains with his mother and uncle. He received his education in the public schools of Grimes.. The two industries in California at that time were mining and stock-raising; and John S. Thompson was raised in the latter business. As a lad he rode the range and learned to care for cattle. When he was nineteen years of age, the faintly moved to the ranch at Venado. After his mother's death, he administered the estate. They sold off some of the land, retaining six hundred thirty-seven acres. John S. Thompson purchased the interest of his brothers in this ranch, and here he has since resided. His cattle brand is the well- known J. T. He still has the same strain of Tecumseh cattle they brought across the plains from Henderson County, Ill. He also has in his possession the copper kettle they used in cooking while crossing the plains. This kettle has a remarkable history. It was purchased in Scotland by his great-great-grandmother Graham, and was brought by his great-grandmother Graham to Massachusetts. It is an heirloom he prizes very highly.

Mr. Thompson was married at Venado, in 1814, to Miss Alma Lillie, who was born in New York State and crossed the plains with her father and sisters to Butte County, Cal. Later they moved to the vicinity of Venado. She died in 1910, at fifty-two years of age. Mr. and Mrs. Thompson had six children. Edwin, a deputy sheriff of Colusa County under Claude Stanton, a man of unusual quickness and an unerring shot, is assisting his father in his stock-raising; Lillie J., Mrs. Charles Moss, resides in Colusa ; John Graham, a farmer near Venado, is ex-game warden of Colusa County; Mary Alice, Mrs. Thomas Coleman, presides over Mr. Thompson's household; Warren Hiram is constable at Taylor, Plums County; and George Washington resides in Colusa., Mr. Thompson has been solicited to become a candidate for supervisor, but has always declined. He has, however, consented to serve as school trustee, being interested in educational work. For twenty-one years he was trustee of Venado district, and for eight years trustee of the Williams high school district. Mr. Thompson is an enterprising and highly respected citizen, and is now the oldest living resident in these parts. Politically, be has always been a Democrat.



A progressive and successful stockman and farmer in western Colusa County is Charles E. King of Venado, a native son of the county, born near College City, September 25, 1860. His father, Thomas Carrel King, was born in Buchanan County, Mo., and was raised a farmer's boy. Fitting himself for a teacher, he followed that profession in Missouri. He crossed the plains to California in the fifties, making the journey overland with ox teams, and spending six months on the way. He taught school on the Sacramento River in Colusa County for a couple of years. After coming to this county, be married Miss Martha Shearer, a native of Illinois, and a daughter of William Shearer, who brought his family from Missouri across the plains to California the same year Mr. King came. Indeed, the young people met in the same train. Mr. King located on a farm on Sycamore Slough; and after his marriage, he gave his attention to grain and stock- raising. Meeting with success, he purchased more land, acquiring a ranch of almost a thousand acres; and there he resided until the time of his death, a few years since. For twenty years he served as justice of the peace. An ardent supporter of good schools, he served as a trustee for many years. He was a member of the Methodist Church, and fraternally was a Mason. His wife survived him, and passed away in May, 1915. The old home farm was divided up between the seven children, and is still owned by them. Of the family, Charles Emmett is the eldest. The others are W. J., of Colusa ; Mary, Mrs. Moore, also of Colusa ; Susie, Mrs. Cobb, of Oroville ; John S., of Colusa ; Alva, the present district attorney of Colusa County; and Annie, Mrs. Dobroskey, of Redding.

Charles Emmett King received a good education in the public schools ; and as a youth he learned farming and stock raising. After reaching his majority, he engaged in farming in partnership with his father on the home place, also leasing land adjoining and in the tides. They operated at one time over ten thousand acres of land, using nine eight-mule teams to put in the crop, and two combined harvesters to gather the grain. One year the yield was thirty-six thousand sacks of grain ; but the price was so low that there was very little profit in the crop. They were also raising stock, however, which netted them a substantial income.

Wishing to engage in the stock business on his own account, Mr. King left the farm on Sycamore Slough and in the fall of 1901 purchased his present ranch of eighteen hundred acres, lying in the south end of Antelope Valley, near Venado, and known as the old Michael place. It is one of the old places in the district. The old barn, built sixty-six years ago out of hewn timber grown in the vicinity, still stands, and is kept in repair. He has added to the original acreage, and now has about four thousand acres. The ranch is watered by Freshwater Creek, as well as by numerous springs, which makes it a most excellent cattle ranch. About eight hundred acres is plow land; and he has two hundred fifty acres in alfalfa, which he raises successfully without irrigation, cutting two crops, and gathering one crop of seed. He is thoroughly experienced in cattle growing, and is making a marked success.

In Sacramento, on January 96, 1910, Charles Emmett King was united in marriage with Frances E. Benton. She was born in McDonald County, Mo., the daughter of J. S. F. and Nancy E. (Pool) Benton, and came to California in 1907. She is of the same family as Thomas II. Benton, of Missouri. Of this union three children have been born: Kathryn Ruby, Charles Benton, and Thomas Carrol. Mr. King served as a school trustee of Webster district, now Pine district; and Mrs. King was trustee of Jefferson school district for one term. She is a member of the Missionary Baptist Church of Maxwell. Mr. King is well and favorably known in Colusa County and he and his estimable wife are held in high esteem by a wide circle of friends. Politically, he has always favored Democratic principles.



A sturdy pioneer, whose life and character will long be remembered and appreciated, is Octavius Freeland Bickford, who was born on April 22, 1848, in Penobscot County, Maine. The father, Jabez Bradbury Bickford, was born in Biddeford, Maine, of an old family. Some of the ancestors served in the Revolutionary War, and are traced hack to the Mayflower. Jabez Bickford was a lumber contractor. He married Anna Dolliff, also of Revolutionary stock. Both parents died in Maine. James R. S. Bickford, a brother of Octavius, came to California in 1861, and died in San Mateo County in 1910.

Octavius F. Bickford attended the country schools of his time and neighborhood; and after completing his, schooling he worked in the great forests of Maine—a schoolroom from which have come some of the best-known of successful Americans. On coming to California, in 1877, Mr. Bickford located at Elk Creek; and in keeping with his early training, he went into the mountains and forests, and again engaged in getting nut and handling timber. After three years, he took op a place in Oriental Valley, consisting of one hundred sixty acres; and there he began carefully and systematically to improve the property, building up for himself the home place on which he still resides. At Stonyford, also, he rented a stock ranch for fourteen years; but in 1910 he gave up the stock and discontinued the venture.

Mr. Bickford bought out the general merchandise store at Elk Creek, and for two years conducted a good business there; but he was burned out in 1912, with a loss of seventeen thousand dollars' worth of stock. He then came to the old Miller place and opened a livery stable and a blacksmith business, at the same time looking after the home place of one hundred sixty acres. He brought the first threshing machine to Elk Creek, and long operated it there. For six years, also, he conducted a harness shop, which he gave up to engage in stock-raising. A prominent Democrat, he is at the same time popular with all parties. He was constable for eight years at Elk Creek. Always active in Christian work, Mr. Bickford's personal example and influence have made for the moral uplift of the community. 

In 1874 Mr. Bickford was married, in Brown County, Wis., to Miss Emma Frances Smith, also a native of the state of Maine; and by her he had eleven children. Five of these are deceased: Eva, Ervine, James, Elsie, and Amelia. The living are: Myrtle, Mrs. Skidmore, who resides in Sacramento County; Delia, Mrs. Walkup, of Stonyford ; Alonzo, a merchant of the same place; Luella, Mrs. Killebrew, of Fall River; Cora, Mrs. Heard, of Butte City; and Floyd, a member of the firm of Mulford & Bickford, at Elk Creek.



A prominent native son of California, who first saw the light of day in Chico, Butte County, on May 20, 1874, William Barham has made his influence felt for the good of the community where he lives. William Barham is the son of Marcus L. and Angeline (Finnicum) Barham. Marcus L. Barham was one of the well- known men of Glenn County, and acted as foreman of the Glenn ranch for years. He was born in Kentucky, May 7, 1847, the son of Lewis Barham, a Kentuckian who migrated to Missouri at an early day and located in Dade County, where he farmed till his death. He was survived by his wife, who afterwards married William Dunn, and with her family came to California in 1857, locating in Butte County, where Mr. Dunn engaged in the hotel business at Howla, and where Mrs. Dunn passed her last days. By her first marriage she had six children. Marcus L. Barham, the youngest of the family, remained at home until 1864. He then went to Nevada City, and from there to Virginia City, and was engaged in teaming and as a cowboy for twelve years. In 1876 he came back to California and engaged in teaming in Chico. Four years later he went to Glenn County and became foreman of the Tehama County ranch, holding the position five years. He then accepted a position on the Slager ranch, at that time a part of the Glenn estate, and remained for ten years. In 1901 he purchased a farm ten miles east of Willows, and was there engaged in raising hogs and cattle until his death.

When the canal company came through this section, they bought the old school lot; and Marcus Barham then supplied the lot for the new location of the school, and served as trustee for several years. He was a Mason, a member of Laurel Lodge, which conducted his funeral. He was a man who was always ready to do a good act for those less fortunate than himself. In national politics he was a Democrat; while in local matters he cast his vote for the best man, regardless of party affiliation. 

Marcus L. Barham was married on October S, 1871, in Chico, to Angeline Finnicum, born in Carroll County, Ohio, March 7, 1851, a daughter of James Finnicum, also a native of Carroll County, who came to California in 1857, sailing from New York on the Star of the West for the Isthmus, and from Panama on the Golden Gate for San Francisco, and was for some years engaged in the sawmill business in Placer County. Mr. Finnicum later was engaged in running stage lines to various places, and finally settled down in Chico. Mr. and Mrs. Barham had six children, of whom William was the second oldest.

William Barham attended the public schools in Tehama and Glenn Counties, and lived at home until he was twenty-two, when he went to San Francisco and was in the service of the Southern Pacific Railway for eight years. He then returned to the home Place. His mother passed away on May 5, 1907, and his father on February 1, 1911. He has since run the place, raising grain and hogs with good success.



Not every community has been so fortunate as Hamilton City in the appointment of its public officers, among whom is numbered Patrick S. Quigley, the genial and efficient postmaster, justice of the peace and notary public. Born in Beaver County, Pa., August 8, 1865, of Irish parents, he was reared and educated in the Keystone State, and there remained until his eighteenth year. Then he went westward to Indiana, and for a time clerked in a store; after which he pushed on to Duluth, Minn., where for thirteen years he was a telegraph operator for the Duluth & Iron Range Railroad. In 1887 he became a member of the Railroad Telegraphers' association.

In 1901, Mr. Quigley came to the Pacific Coast and settled in Orland, where for three years he was in the service of the Southern Pacific Railroad Co. He then clerked for the same period of time with the Orland Mercantile Co. On May 1,1906, he removed to Hamilton City, where for four and a half years he was time­keeper and paymaster at the Hamilton City Sugar Factory.

At present, Mr. Quigley is representing a number of reliable fire insurance companies, and at the same time is acting as a no­tary public. He also represents the International Tailoring Co., and takes orders for the making of clothes according to measure, forwarding orders and measurements to the manufacturers. Since 1910 he has served as justice of the peace ; and on July 21, 1915, he was appointed postmaster of Hamilton City, after the usual tests under the Civil Service Act. In both of these offices he has displayed a conscientious regard for the public weal. Since coming to Hamilton City he has erected three houses, which he owns, together with the building in which the post office is located. He is a public-spirited citizen, standing at all times for the progress of his town and county.

Patrick S. Quigley was married to Miss Elizabeth S. Tait, a native of Eastport, Maine. Mrs. Quigley is a lady of estimable personal and social qualities, and has proved an invaluable aid to her husband in his public career. Mr. Quigley is a member of the Loyal Order of Moose of Chico, and also of the Elks of that city.



While California is second to no state in the Union in the un- bounded hospitality with which she has welcomed the settler from beyond her borders, it is always a matter of natural satisfaction when one of her own sons attains to a high position and to substantial success. Prominent among such Californians, and especially well-known and popular in the Ord district, is Henry E. Reed, who was born near old Sonoma, in Sonoma County, July 8, 1864, a son of Thomas Reed, a native of Sullivan County, Mo., who came to California with his father, Samuel Peed, in 1852, accompanied by his mother and the other members of the family: John, Joseph, William, Ebenezer, and Elizabeth.

The wife of Samuel Peed was a Miss Leach, in maidenhood. She died in Solano County. John Reed was a resident of Shasta County, and died aged eighty; Joseph lives in Lake County; William resides in San Francisco, an employe in the United States post office; Ebenezer is a resident of Orland; and Elizabeth is Mrs. Buhrmeister, of Santa Rosa. After his first wife died, Samuel Reed married Rachel AI. Neff, in Solano County. He died near Orland. Henry Reed's mother was Miss Almeda Burnight before her marriage, a daughter of Lott and Sarah Ann (Vice) Burnight, both of whom are buried in the Odd Fellows cemetery at Orland. They came to this state in 1860, and became prominent in various lines of activity in the state.

When Henry Reed was but two years old, his parents moved to Solano County; and here his father died, when his son was in his seventh year. He left three other children: Elizabeth, Mrs. Deering., of Chico; Mrs. Sarah Johnson, of Hamilton City; and George Reed, of Chico. After the death of the father, the mother married Ebenezer Reed, a brother of her first husband; and by him she had two children. One of these, the son, Martin Reed of Oakland, is still living.

Henry E. Reed was reared by his stepfather from the age of seven. About that time the family removed to what is now Glenn County. Here he was educated in the common schools, and was early initiated in the work on the ranch, doing a boy's full share. When he was old enough to shift for himself, he entered the employ of Martin A. Reager, working as a farm hand for wages. He had saved some money, and so began for himself, buying land in the Plaza district, which he farmed with fair results, raising grain and stock. While living here, Mr. Reed served as a member of the board of trustees of the Plaza school for six years, acting as clerk of the board for one term.

In August, 1908, Mr. Reed settled on his present ranch of one hundred thirty-five acres of fine river-bottom land at Ord. Here he improved a good ranch property, on which he raises grain, hogs and sheep. In 1913 he erected a fine two-story suburban home, modern in every detail, where he and his family are living. Here, as in his former place of residence, Mr. Reed has championed the cause of education, and is serving as clerk on the board of trustees of the Ord school. He is ready at all times to give his endorsement to every good cause promoted in his county, where he is recognized as one of the successful and public-spirited citizens. He holds membership in Ord Camp, No. 10,300, M. W. A., and in Stony Creek Lodge, No. 218, I. O. O. E. He has passed through the chairs of the lodge twice, and in 1900 represented his lodge at the Grand Lodge in San Francisco.

In 1902, Henry E. Reed was united in marriage with Miss Delia Reager, daughter of Martin A. Reager; and five children have blessed their home: Cordelia, Phyllis, Martina, and Madge and Thomas, twins. Mr. Reed is a self-made man in every sense of the word. His success is of his own making; and the position he holds in the esteem of his fellow-citizens is in recognition of his personal worth. He is a deacon in the Baptist Church at Ord.



An honored pioneer resident of California for more than fifty-three years, Obadiah Gobel woo horn in Davidson County, N. C., on September 16, 1841. His father, John Gobel, was also a native of North: Carolina, of an old and prominent family of Carolinians of Revolutionary stock. He was a planter in his native state until 1846, when he removed to Detroit, Pike County, Ill., where he was a farmer until his demise at the age of sixty-nine years. Mr. Gobel's mother, Sarah Wyatt, was a native of South Carolina, and died in Illinois. Of the six children born to this worthy couple, Obadiah Gobel is the third in order of birth. He was reared in Illinois, and received his education in the old log schoolhouse with the slab benches. However, he received good instruction; and his early training, and subsequent study and reading, supplemented by experience and observation, combine to snake him an unusually well-informed man.

On April 3, 1864, Mr. Gohel started across the plains for the land of gold and sunshine, making the journey in an ox-team train, of which Eli Norton was the captain. One night on the Platte River, between Fort Laramie and Fort Kearney, the Indians drove off all their cattle. The next morning they started after them, being well armed and prepared to resist the Indians. However, they soon ran across the stock, which the Indians had left when they found they were pursued by a considerable force. Mr. Gobel arrived in Volcano, Amador County, on August 19, 1564. The journey had exhausted his funds, and he had only four dollars and forty cents left. For three months he chopped wood, and afterwards worked for a time in the mines. He then came to San Joaquin County and leased a farm, which he operated for two years. Coming to Woodland in 1869, he put in a crop; but this was a failure, and he lost all he had made. In the fall he worked at teaming in Sacramento, and hauled dirt to fill in the capitol grounds, on which he dumped the first load of dirt.

In February, 1570. Mr. Gobel came to Colusa County, locating six miles southwest of Williams. All he had to start with was his team. After farming on this place for a year, he leased a farm near Colusa for three years, and succeeded in getting a start ; but at the eud of the third year the levee broke, and he again lost all he had saved. He then moved to the present site of Corning, and farmed until 1881, when he returned to Colusa Comity and leased the Henry Eakle ranch of eight hundred acres in Glenn Valley school district. There he was engaged in grain- growing and stock-raising for a period of twenty-two years. For eight years of this time, Mr. Eakle was not on the place. During this time he purchased his present place of three hundred twenty acres in Glenn Valley, and began making improvements, farming the place in connection with the Eakle ranch. He now devotes his time to his own place, raising hay, cattle and sheep.

Mr. Gobel was united in marriage in Vallejo with Miss Hannah Clark, a native of Broadhead, Green County, Wis. To this worthy couple were born nine children: Charles, deceased; James, of Maxwell; John, residing in the State of Washington; Sadie. Mrs. Inshore, of Williams; Frank, of Stonyford; Mabel,

Mrs. Martin, of Maxwell; Gladys, Mrs. Gassoway, also of Max­well; Clark, assisting his father; and Mary, the wife of Max Vann, of Williams. A firm believer in good educational advantages for the children, Mr. Gobel is an ardent supporter of good schools, and has served as trustee of Glenn Valley school district for seventeen years. He is kind-hearted and liberal, and has always been willing to help worthy enterprises that have had for their aim the betterment of the conditions of the people. Politically, he has always been a Democrat.



A native son of California, Elmer J. .Huttmann was born near Paicines, San Benito County, October 24, 1992, the son of Theodore Julius and Dora A. (Carmack) Hottmann, born in Germany and Paicines, Cal., respectively. The mother was a sister of George Carmack, the first discoverer of the Klondyke, while on the first government survey in Alaska ; he now resides in Seattle. The father came to San Francisco when nineteen years of age, and became a farmer in San Benito County. On the discovery of gold in the Klondyke, in 1999, he made the trip over Chilcoot Pass into the frozen North. He was foreman for George Carmack, and also had a claim of his own. He was reasonably suc­cessful in his mining ventures; and on his return to California he invested in San Francisco realty. He died at St. Helena in 1907. After his death, his widow continued to look after the real estate, with the aid of her sons, and M. the spring of 1915 traded for the old Bank place, near Lodoga. Her family consisted of seven children, six of whom are living.: Margaret C., Mrs. Elliott, of Oakland ; II. A. and Elmer J., who are farming in partnership; Mabel A., Mrs. Wilson, of Tres Pinos; Hazel, Mrs. Evans, of Lodoga; and William, also of Lodoga.

Elmer J. Huttmann was reared on the farm in San Benito County, and received a good education in the public schools. When he was nineteen years of age, the family moved to San Francisco, where he assisted Ids mother in the care of her prop­erty. In looking up lands, he found that the old Bank ranch at Lodoga was for sale, and made the trip to the place to investi­gate the property. Being impressed with its value, he induced his mother to make the exchange for their city property. They located on the ranch in the spring of 1915, and operated it together until the fall of 1916. when he leased it with his brother, H. A. Huttmann. The ranch comprises nine hundred fifty-six acres, located on Indian Creek. Six hundred acres is under the plow. The place is well watered, and is a most excellent stock ranch. Besides growing grain, they raise a considerable amount of hay. The crops are put in with a Titan engine, of ten-horse pull, and with an eight mule team. They are making a specialty of raising Berkshire hogs, of which they have some splendid specimens. Through close application, and the adoption of modern methods, the Huttmann brothers are making a marked success.

In Indian Valley, occurred the marriage of Elmer .J. Huttmann with Lillian Rees, who was born in Colusa, the (laughter of Dr. J. S. Rees, who is represented elsewhere in this work. Mr. Huttmann is a very enterprising and progressive young man, and lends his support to the movements that have for their aim the building up of the county and the welfare of its citizens.



A native son of Colusa Comity, William Nelson McVay was born on the place he now owns, on July 3, 1875, a son of the late Joseph McVay, who is mentioned more fully in the sketch of his son, Irwin N. McVay, in this work.

William McVay was the second of three children in his parents' family, and was brought up on the home farm, receiving his education in the public schools, Sackett 's private school Oakland, and Depen and Adeflock's Business College, Oakland. After the completion of his studies, he returned home and farmed the home ranch for eight years. He was interested with his father in cattle gross in Modoc County until 1901; after which, with his brother I. N. McVay, he farmed a part of the Moulton place for one year, and then purchased a half interest in the H. C. Nelson ranch of five hundred fifty-five acres, with his mother. Thus ranch was near the old home, and he moved on it and farmed it for four years. In October, 1901, having divided tie farm with his mother, he sold his portion and located in San Francisco, where he became engaged in general contracting in the bay cities until 1912, when he sold his outfit and returned to Colusa County, where he hail heroine owner of four hundred fifty acres of the Joseph McVay ranch, located on the east side of the Sacramento River, five miles southeast of Princeton. It is a splendid ranch, with rich and productive soil. Here Mr. McVay is engaged in general farming.

In Elk Creek. Mr. McVay was united ill marriage with Miss Grace M. Rawlins. She was born in Texas, the daughter of Rev. T. F. Rawlins, who is also represented in this work. Mr. and Mrs. McVay have one child, Virginia. Mr. McVay was made a Mason in Colusa Lodge, No. 2-10, F. fi A. M.; and he is also a member of Colusa Chapter, No. 60, R. A. U., and of Colusa Commandery, No, 24, K. T. With his wife, he is a member of Wild Rose Chapter, Order of the Eastern Star, Mr. McVay is well and favorably known in Colusa County, and is looked upon as an able and enterprising man.



A lady whose first recollections are of California, Mrs. Edith Morris McGahan was born in Jacksonville, Jackson County, Ore., the daughter of Lewis and Almarinda (Bradley) Morris, who were horn in Kentucky and Tennessee respectively. They removed from Kentucky to Missouri, and in 1850 crossed the plains with ox and cow teams over the Oregon trail to Oregon, locating in the Rogue River Valley, and later in Jacksonville, where they engaged in stock-raising. In 1860 Mr. Morris brought his family to Yolo County. He bought land, which, however, was claimed by the Hagar grant; and though Mr. Morris fought for his title, he lost his case and had to leave his place. In 1867, he located at Stony Creek, near what is now Stonyford, where he improved a farm. He died in 1886, at the age of seventy-five years. Mr. Morris helped to build up the schools of his community, serving as trustee of his district. Mrs. MeGahan's mother died in 1901, also at seventy-five years of age. This worthy pioneer couple had six children: Thomas Wesley, a farmer near Stonyford ; William Adrian, a rancher near Fonts Springs; John Manor, a farmer on the old home place; James Mason, lookout man at Sheet Iron, in the Forest Reserve; Ida Amazonia, Mrs. A. T. Welton, of Stonyford; and Edith, of this review.

As a babe, Mrs. McGahan was brought to California by her parents, and resided in the Stonyford section from seven years of age, and was educated in the public schools of the vicinity. She was first married in Colusa, in 1881, to Joseph M. Walkup, a native of Kentucky. The union proved unhappy, and she separated from him. By this marriage she had four children, whom she raised and educated: Claude Vivian, a painter in Oroville ; Arthur Joseph, farming; near Stonyford; Roy Lester, forest ranger, with headquarters at Mill Creek Station; and Orrin A., teaming at Partola. She was married a second time in 1904, at Colusa, to George Thomas McGahan, who was born in Sutter County. He was a blacksmith and wagon-maker, and had a shop in Stonyford for over twenty-two years, where he built up a thriving business. In 1906 Mr. McGahan was elected justice of the peace in Stonyford Township, and served one term. In 1911 he was again elected. He died during his term of office, on January 8, 1917. Mr. McGahan was a Mason, a member of Snow Mountain Lodge, No. 271, F. & A. M., and was buried with Masonic honors. Politically, he was a Republican. For a time he held the office of postmaster under the government. After her husband's death, Mrs. McGahan was appointed justice of the peace, on February 20, 1917, by the board of supervisors, which office she is filling at the present time. She resides at her home on a forty-acre ranch adjoining Stonyford, looking after her interests there. In her religious views, she believes in the doctrines of the Christian Church. She is a charter member, and was the first Matron, of Eowana Chapter, 0. E. S.



Joseph Virgil Sanderson, the efficient superintendent of the Rodgers ranch at Fruto, for the Central Pacific Land and Lumber Company, was born in Grayson County, Texas, in 1890. When he was six years of age, his parents moved to Clinton, Okla., where he was brought up on the farm and bad the advantage of the public schools. When fourteen years of age, however, he started to paddle his own canoe, and began learning the painter's trade at Arapaho, Okla. He worked under his preceptor for three years, and thereafter worked at his trade in Enid and Oklahoma City until November, 1912.

In November, 1912, Mr. Sanderson located in Willows, Glenn County, where he followed his trade for three mouths and then entered the employ of the Central Pacific Land and Lumber Company, being employed on the Rodgers ranch near Bayliss. Here he ran the Holt Caterpillar sixty-five horse-power engine, and applied himself so closely and successfully to his work that he was selected as superintendent of the Rodgers ranch at Fruto for the same company in February, 1915, a position he has held ever since. This ranch has an area of fifty-five hundred acres, all of which is under his supervision. The ranch is operated with a caterpillar engine and an eight-mule team; and a thousand acres of grain is raised each year. About six hundred head of cattle are fed and fattened for market on the ranch yearly. All of the straw is saved and run through a cutter, and is then mixed with rolled barley. When wet to the right proportion with water and salted, it is fed to the cattle with most excellent results. The barns and buildings on the ranch are large and commodious, and ample to care for the fodder and stock.

Mr. Sanderson was married in Oklahoma to Miss Beulah Hull, who was born in Iowa. They have had three children: Lotys (deceased at six years of age), Maxine, and Joseph Walter. Mr. Sanderson is proving himself a capable farmer, and is devoting his energy to the best of his ability to making the extensive operations of his employers a success. He is affable and agreeable, and is well liked by everyone.



Frederick Laps, a resident of Colusa County for fifty years, was born at Oppenheim, Germany, February 28, 1867, the son of Frederick and Katherina Laux, who migrated to America in 1868, locating in Colusa County that same summer. The father engaged in farming on Colusa Plains for a time, and then bought a ranch on the east side of the Sacramento River, three miles south of Princeton, in Colusa County. After a residence of eight years there, he sold the place and removed to Stonyford, in 1883, where he purchased three hundred twenty acres of land and continued his focusing operations. To this property he added by preemption and homestead claims and by purchase, with the aid of his son Frederick, until they had one thousand acres of land. The father died in November, 1912. For years he held the office of school trustee. His widow continues to reside on the old home place. This worthy couple had four children, of whom Frederick is the eldest. Katie, Mrs. Elwin Golden, and Annie, Mrs. Farley, reside in Stonyford; and Edward is associated with Frederick in his farming operations.

Frederick Laux was educated in the public schools of Colima County. After rousing to Stonyford, he assisted his father in im­proving the place, grubbing and clearing many an acre. When twenty-one years of age he preempted one hundred- sixty acres ad­joining the ranch, and later homesteaded one hundred sixty acres, six miles south, which he proved up on and still owns. Since his father's death, he has continued to farm in partnership with his brother. They sold off two hundred eighteen acres of the old ranch. By reason of his assisting his father in the purchase and development of the ranch, he was entitled to the ownership of four hundred eighty acres of the place, which, with his other holdings, makes him the owner of eight hundred acres in this vicinity. He is preparing to raise alfalfa ; and with this in view he has arranged for a pumping plant for irrigation. His farming operations include the raising of grain and cattle; and he also runs a small dairy. For many years he was engaged in raising horses and mules, and was the owner of a Percheron stallion and a high- bred Jack, In 1914, however, he sold the horses and moles; and he is now enlarging his herd of cattle. Mr. Laux is by nature a genius around machinery; and during the season, he is engaged in running grain and rice separators. He enjoys hunting, and is well acquainted with the mountain country of Colusa, Glenn, and Lake Counties.



Beautifully located at the foot of the Atwood grade and over- looking the Stony Creek country, lies Glazenwood Ranch, the property of George R. Gillaspy, a native son of California, born in Green Valley, Solano County, November 30, 1806. His father, Jerry Gillaspy, was born in Kentucky in 1825, where he married Harriette Reynolds. They removed to Missouri, and there engaged in farming. Jerry Gillaspy served in the Union army in the Civil War. In 1864, with his family, he crossed the plains to California in the train with Dr. Glenn, and located in Green Valley, Solano County, where he purchased a farm. This he operated for sixteen years, after which he moved to what is now Glenn County, and for five years engaged in farming two miles below Elk Creek. From here he removed to near Tehama, where be remained two years, and then again returned to the Elk Creek district. Here he farmed mail he retired. His death occurred at the home of Mr. and Mrs. G. R. Gillaspy, on September 28, 1911, when he was eighty-six years of age. His wife died in 1915, aged eighty-seven. Of their family of fourteen children, ten grew up as follows: Sarah, Mrs. Herbison, of Solano County; David, a stockman, who died on Grindstone Creek.; James, a farmer in the Grindstone district; Thomas, who died in the vicinity of Elk Creek; Annie, Mrs. M. Squires, of Chico; Mary, Mrs. J. S. Sale, of Winslow; George R.; of this review; William, who died at Winslow; John, a resident of Elk Creek; and Hattie, Mrs. Madood, of Cordelia.

George R. Gillaspy was brought up on the ranch in Green Valley until fourteen years of age, when he came to what is now Glenn County with his parents. After completing the local school, he was employed on his father's farm, later becoming associated with him in the management of the ranch, on which he remained until his marriage, in 1891, when he purchased the old Squires place of three hundred thirty-four acres in the Grindstone school district and began in the cattle business. In this business he has achieved marked success, and has become a man of affluence and affairs. To his original purchase Mr. Gillaspy later added three hundred twenty acres, so that he now has six hundred fifty- four acres in his home ranch. The place is well improved and is principally devoted to the raising of cattle of the Durham and Hereford breeds. His brand, 72, is well known over this section. Besides this property Mr. Gillaspy also owns two hundred forty­. three acres at Endo. The home place is known as Glazenwood Ranch, on account of roses of that variety on the place.

Aside from raising cattle and doing general farming, Mr. Gil­laspy was for some years overseer of the roads under Supervisor Jackson. In 1913, in partnership with George Vanderford, he took a contract for building two and a quarter miles of road on the new Atwood grade, which is an easy grade in comparison with the old; and the job was well and satisfactorily completed.

In the Grindstone district, on December 10, 1891, George Richard Gillaspy was united in marriage with Miss Marticia Wanderford. She was born at Marysville, and is the daughter of Napoleon B. Vanderford, a California pioneer, who is represented in this work in the sketch of his son, George Vanderford. Mr. and Mrs. Gillaspy have four children: Arthur Lee, Claude Delmer, Hattie Ella, and Lester Vincent. Mr. and Mrs. Gillaspy were members of the Grindstone Christian Church, of which he was a trustee and in which Mrs. Gillaspy was superintendent of the Sunday school. The congregation was disbanded, however; so they are now active members of the Elk Creek Christian Church. Both are liberal, and ready to help any movement for the betterment of local conditions and the moral uplift of the people in the community in which they live. In his views on questions of national policy, Mr. Gillaspy favors the Democratic party.


J. S. REES, D. D. S.

A native son of California, J. S. Rees was born near Stonyford, Colusa County, on July 15, 1869. His father, Stephen Rees, came to California in the early fifties, and hi the early sixties came to Little Stony Creek, Colusa County, where he met and married Elizabeth Smith, a native of Utah, and a sister of John Smith, the founder of the old town of SmithviIle. After his marriage he engaged in ranching with success, becoming the owner of a farm in Bear Valley and also of one M. Indian Valley. He died at the age of eighty-three. His widow now resides in Napa. Of her six living children. Dr. Rees is the eldest.

Dr. Rees graduated from the dental department of the University of Baltimore in 1893, with the degree of D. D. S. He practiced in Colusa till 1899, and thereafter in Oakland until 1903, when he quit his profession to engage in ranching. Be is now farming his father's old ranch in Indian Valley, which is still owned by his mother. On this place he is engaged in raising grain, alfalfa, cattle, and hogs.

Dr. Rees was married in Colusa to Anna Meacham, a native of Indiana; and two children have been horn to them: Lillian, Mrs. E. J. Gutmann, of Indian Valley, and Harold. Being interested in the cause of education. Dr. Rees is serving as clerk of the board of Ashton school district. In his ranching operations he is meeting with deserved success.



A far-seeing pioneer who amassed a handsome estate and fortune because he had faith in California, and especially in her un­rivaled laud, was Capt. William Ash, who was born on January 30, 1822. at the old Ash family homestead in ragged and picturesque Devonshire, England, near the long-famous seaport town of Dartmonth. He was the youngest of fifteen children, and hardly knew his parents, for they had both died while he was yet a mere boy. In his youth he learned the carpenter's trade, and soon after left his native land, sailing for America when he was yet in his teens. He joined his brothers in Philadelphia, worked for a while at his trade there, and then went to Georgia. After something less than two years, however, he returned to the Quaker City. There he might have remained, had not the excitement incidental to the discovery of gold in California seized him, as it did others, and urged him to set out at once for the enchanted land on the shores of the Pacific. Leaving New York in 1852, he sailed for Aspinwall, boated up the Chagres River, crossed over the Isthmus a flimsy railroad and on mule-back to Panama, and took passage on the John L. Stevens to San Francisco, where he arrived in November. Attracted to the redwood section near Cape Mendocino, he helped to build and equip a sawmill there, returning to San Francisco after twenty months, when the work on which he was engaged had been successfully completed.

In 1854, Mr. Ash began contracting at Marysville ; and after a time he undertook teaming into the mountains from that center, and across the state line into Nevada and Idaho, his traffic soon becoming so extensive that he employed five teams of twelve and fourteen mules each. This he continued until railroading hit over­land teaming a hard blow, when he retired, in 1869, to venture in other fields. His hardihood and fearlessness hail become known; and when the Modoc Indians, in 1868, went on the war-path, he organized a company of whites to lead in exterminating the Red­skins, and became captain of the volunteer militia. This hazardous but patriotic experience led to his designation as Captain, a title of honor he bore the balance of his days.

In 1870, Captain Ash leased a large ranch West of Berlin Sta­tion; and after farming the six sections to wheat for fourteen years he bought a portion of the splendid estate, thus acquiring two thousand choice acres in one compact area, situated six miles northwest of Arbuckle. Arduous as was the task of developing so large a ranch, Captain Ash was equal to it, for he had had charge, for a while, of six thousand acres in that vicinity, using from twelve to fifteen teams, and he was one of the first to use combined harvesters. For his home ranch he employed six ten-mule teams and a Holt combined harvester. At one time Captain Ash was a heavy investor in sheep, having on his farm a flock of no less than three thousand head ; but later he gave his attention especially to the breeding of high-grade cattle and horses. He also owned a ranch of twelve hundred eighty acres seven miles northeast of Willows, in Glenn County; a ranch of seven hundred eight acres five miles east of Germantown, also in Glenn County; two thou­sand acres of well-improved land six miles north of Colusa, in Co­lusa County; and a foothill ranch of fourteen hundred acres, with plenty of timber and suitable for stock, four miles southwest of his home.

Capt. William Ash was married to Mrs. Louisa Gonter, be whom he had three sons: William Henry, a graduate of the Stockton Business College, and secretary of the William Ash Company (whose sketch is to be found elsewhere in this history) ; George, a director in the William Ash Company, who resides in Arbuckle; and Louis, also a director in the William Ash Company, who is farming the old Ash ranch. All of the sons have profited by the advantages offered for commercial training in the California metropolis, and have since made their mark. In 1884, Captain Ash built for himself and family a spacious and most comfortable residence, surrounded by lawn, shade trees and a productive family orchard. Particularly fond of birds, he had built there an aviary one hundred feet square, at that time one of the largest in the state; and this was a well-known attraction to scientists and others, since it contained many varieties of California birds, and also various species of imported birds. In 1904 Captain Ash erected the well-known hostelry known as the Ash House, at Arbuckle, long the finest hotel building in all Colusa County.

Once an active Democrat, Captain Ash, at the outbreak of the Civil War, joined the ranks of the Republican party; and a Republican he thereafter remained. When Governor Budd was elected Governor of California, Captain Ash was chosen as the representative in the Assembly from Colusa, Glenn and Lake Counties, although those districts were decidedly Democratic. While a member of the house, he aided hi the election of United States Senator Perkins; fathered and put through a bill preventing the old form of marriage by contract ; and in many other ways sought to contribute his experience and moral influence in laying broad and deep the foundations of the great commonwealth that was to be. Captain Ash was a man of recognized financial standing, and a stockholder in the Colusa County Bank. He was made an Odd Fellow in 1958, joining the lodge at Marysville. His demise occurred on August 10, 1906. Mrs. Ash, the highly-esteemed widow of the Captain, still makes her home in Colusa County; and her children reside in the same county, worthy bearers of an honored name.



A lifelong resident of the Golden State, Mr. Vanderford may be considered, as he was brought here when a child of five years, from his birthplace in Kalamazoo, Mich., where he was born on January 23, 1853. His father was Napoleon Bonaparte Vander- ford, a native of Chemung County, N. F., whose parents moved to Michigan when he was a little child, settling near Kalamazoo, where they set to work to improve a farm. Grandfather Silas Vanderford was a soldier in the War of 1812. He died when his son was but twelve years old, and the lad had to "hoe his own row" from that time until his death. Napoleon B. Vanderford was married to Martha Silver, a native of Ontario, Canada. In 1858, he brought his family by way of Panama to California. Landing in San Francisco from the Great Eastern, he at once made his way to Marysville, and near that place engaged in tilling the soil. He owned the ranch that is now the site of Sutter City, in Sutter County, and from there moved, in 1875, to Elk Creek, in what is now Glenn County. He bought a ranch on Grindstone Creek, and farmed and raised stock very successfully on his fifteen hundred acres.

Ever in the ranks of the progressive citizens of the county, he sold off some of his ranch to settlers, inducing them to come and settle in the neighborhood, so that a school could be estab­lished in that district; and upon its organization he became a trustee and served for many years. He was active iu the formation of Glenn County, and was elected a member of the first board of supervisors, serving two terms. He was known all over the county as "Uncle Bona"—a name in which respect and venera­tion were mingled. He continued a resident 'of this section until his death, at the age of eighty-seven years, on May 7, 1914, and was hale and hearty to the last. Napoleon B. Vanderford was originally a Alethodist ; but as there was no church of that denomination in this section, he joined the Christian Church, in which he served as a trustee and was a leading and very active member. His wife died in 1904. Nine children were born in the family of this worthy couple: George, of this review; Charles, who died at the age of thirty--six; Martha, Mrs. Willis Drew of Orland; Sarah, Mrs. David Squires of Ukiah; Ellen, wife of Edgar Hunter of Willows; Annetta, Mrs. E. E. Smith of Elk Creek; Marticia, wife of Geo. R. Gillaspy of Elk Creek ; Hinson, of Orland, and Mary, Mrs. Richard T. Bedford of Elk Creek.

George Vanderford was reared and educated in Sutter County, attending the school in Washington district, and was trained to farm work at an early age. At the age of nineteen he went to Mendocino County, and on the Bald Mountain range began rais­ing cattle, starting with a band of one hundred head, which he drove from the toles in Sutter County. He established the CD brand, bought land until be owned some three thousand acres, and carried on the cattle business there until 1S89, when he sold out and located at Elk Creek. After coming to this county, he continued in the live stock business, though on 'a smaller scale. He bought three hundred twenty acres on Grindstone Creek, below the land owned by his father, and leased other land, and has been actively engaged in raising grain and stock ever since. Upon the death of his father he administered the estate. He is now operating his own ranches, and has leased the old homestead. He runs a dairy and raises alfalfa, which is irrigated from Grind­stone Creek. He also owns twenty acres seeded to alfalfa near Orland, under irrigation from the government canal.

 Mr. Vanderford was married at Elk Creek to Miss Mary E. Province, a native of Pottawatomie County, Kans., and a daughter of Nathan Province. Four children have blessed this union ; Napoleon B., George Oval, Veryl, and Willard. Mr. Vanderford has served as school trustee for several terms, and part of the time as clerk of the board. He is an active member of the Christian Church, and was superintendent of the Sunday school for a long time. and a deacon in the church as well. In politics he is a Republican, and has served on the County Central Committee for years. He is a self-made man, has friends wherever he is known, and is counted one of the upbuilders of Glenn County.



One of the successful business men of Glenn County, and a native son of Colusa. County, James LeRoy Lucas was born at Arbuckle. June 2, 1989. His father, James P. Lucas, is also a native son of California, born in Sutter County. His grandfather, J. B. Lucas, a native of Missouri, was a soldier in the Mexican War, serving in a cavalry regiment, after which he became a pioneer of California. The Lucas faintly, therefore, is one of the early pioneer families of the state. James P. Lucas was a farmer at Arbuckle, Colusa County, where he first settled, until 1891. Then he located at Elk Creek, Glenn County, and engaged in horticulture, setting out a prune orchard. He was elected constable of the third judicial township of Glenn County, and has served as such ever since, this being his fourth term in the office. The marriage of James P. Lucas united him with Miss Lita Jacks, a native Californian, and a lineal descendant of Charles Carroll of Carrollton, Md., one of the signers of the Declaration of Independence.

James LeRoy Lucas is the only child of his parents. He was reared in Elk Creek, and received his early education in the public schools. When sixteen years of age, be began clerking for Knight Brothers, in their store. After one year there, he entered the Western School of Commerce, now Heald's Business College, at Stockton. However, as he was working his way through school, he took a vacation in order to earn the necessary funds, and entered the United States Forestry Service. Being only seventeen years old at the time, he was the youngest man in the service. Six months later he returned to business college and finished his course, graduating in 1909.

After his graduation, Mr. Lucas became manager for Knight Brothers' store at Fruto, and continued in that position one year, after which he went to Princeton, Colusa County, for a short time, and then to Stockton, where he worked as cleric in a stationery store. On leaving this work he went to Pittsburg, Cal., and was employed as bookkeeper at the ship yards there for a period of six months. \t the expiration of this time, he returned to Elk Creek, as bookkeeper for Knight Brothers, and continued in the same position for their successors, O. F. Bickford & Son, until they burned out, in 1913. That year Mr. Lucas formed a partnership with H. D. Knight and Charles' A. Butler, the firm being known as Knight, Butler & Lucas; and they bought a lot and erected their present large building, where they have since engaged in the general merchandise business. Aside from assisting in the management of the business with Charles A. Butler (Mr. Knight residing in Sacramento), Mr. Lucas is postmaster at Elk Creek, having been appointed in December, 1913, and is filling the office acceptably to all concerned.

The marriage of Mr. Lucas, which took place in Colusa, July 26, 1913, united him with Miss Myrtle Turner, a native daughter, born at Middletown, Lake Comity; and they have been blessed with two children, Joseph LeRoy and Colleen Saxon. Politically, Mr. Lucas is a Democrat ; and he has served as a member of the County Central Committee.



Whoever labors to secure the development of his country, striving to bring out its latent resources; whoever is devoted to the general welfare of the people, seeking to promote the cause of justice and directly or indirectly to advance their commercial, educational and agricultural growth, he it is who earns a place as a public benefactor, and is entitled to mention in the pages of history. Such is the character, and such is the record, of William Wirt Ludy, a settler in California of 1968. Mr. Ludy is a native of Ohio, born in Delaware, Delaware County, January 11; 1849. His father, Daniel Ludy, died when his son was a little child; and the lad was then taken into the home of his maternal grandfather, James Adkins, by whom he was reared, and was given an education in the common schools. Meanwhile he assisted with the work on the farm owned by his grandfather until he was nearly nineteen years old.

On January 1, 1868, William Ludy landed in San Francisco, having come to California by way of Nicaragua. From San Fran­cisco he took another boat for Sacramento, and thence to Butte City, where he went to work on the John Parker ranch as a farm hand, and remained two years. In 1870 be homesteaded a quarter section of land three miles east of Butte City, which was at that time but a straggling settlement of a few houses in what was then Colusa County, and began making improvements, as the land was barren when he settled on it. He broke the land himself with a two-horse walking- plow, built a small cabin, put up fences, and set out every tree seen on the place today. Here he engaged in the raising of grain; and though meeting with many setbacks by drought and other difficulties that beset the ranchers of the county, he held steadfastly to his work and was rewarded with success. Later he leased land in various places, which he farmed to grain, devoting his own property to the raising of stock. He specialized in the raising of mules, which be sold all over the state, thus becoming known far and wide as a mule raiser. As success rewarded his efforts, he added to his holdings from time to time, until he now has four hundred acres in the old home place, which he improved with good barns and a commodious ranch house. In addition he has nine hundred eighty-five acres of what is known as the Stone place. In 1910 he harvested forty-three thousand sacks of barley from his lands with one combined harvester, drawn by mules. In contrast with the modern methods of agriculture now employed in the county, it is interesting to note that the first crop of grain he harvested was threshed out by horses tramping it, that being the method then in Vogue. He often speaks of the primitive conditions of the county as he first saw it, when wild game abounded and antelopes by the hundreds roamed at will over the broad expanse of prairie and fed on the wild grasses that grew in abundance. At that time there was not a levee on the Sacramento River from Red Bluff to Sacramento.

Mr. Ludy has been twice married, first in Butte County, on September 11, 1873, to Mary Cornelia Thompson, a native of Illinois, who crossed the plains with her parents at an early day and settled in Butte County. Of this union five children were born, three of whom are living: Alice, wife of R. H. Young, of Glenn County ; Charles D., operating the home ranch with success ; and Abbie May, who married Eugene Snodderly. One child died in infancy, and another at the age of two years. The wife and mother passed away on January 27, 1SSO. On January 29, 1S54, Mr. Ludy was united in marriage with Miss Sarah Elizabeth Brines, a native of Illinois, by whom he bad five children: Gertrude, who married J. A. McManns, of Chico ; Pearl, now Mrs. J. C. Ohrt, of Colusa ; Wirt Walter; Beulah Ann, who became the wife of Frank Barton, of Anderson, Shasta County; and John Dale, who lives at home.

In national politics, Mr. Ludy is a Democrat; but for local offices he considers the men, and the offices to be filled. In fraternal circles, he is a prominent member of the Ancient Order of United Workmen, and also of Butte City Court, No. 1793, I. 0. F. He is a member of the Christian Church, and is liberal in his support of worthy charities. His influence as a stockholder in the Bank of Princeton, Colusa County, lends weight to the standing of that institution. While never an aspirant for public office, he has served as road overseer of his district for fourteen years. Ever a firm friend of education, he helped erect the schoolhouse in the Carson district, and has served as a trustee ever since. In the evening of his days he is surrounded by his family, and by a wide circle of friends, made during the many years he has lived in the community, by whom he is honored and respected for his many good deeds.



A man who deserves the credit of being called "self-made" is James B. Tolley, a farmer and prominent citizen of the Orland district. He was born in New York, and was educated in the public schools. In 1885 he joined the triangulation department of the United States Government Coast Survey. He worked along the northeast coast, visiting all the important lighthouses and other points of interest that came under his observation, and performing every duty required of him to the best of his ability; and from foreman in the ranks he became chief of party in 1990. Ten years later, on account of ill health, Mr. Tolley resigned his position and came to California.

After his arrival iu this state, Mr. Tolley visited all the points of interest in the Southland; and on his arrival in the Sacramento Valley he decided that Orland offered the best oppor­tunity for a settler to develop land with promise of financial success. In 1901, therefore, he located on twenty acres two miles southeast of town and began making improvements. It was necessary for him to become a student again, this time of agriculture; for he had never had any experience whatever in farming, and had never milked a cow or cared for stock. He began planting fruit trees of various kinds, and also shade trees and ornamental trees; put in a family garden; and installed a small pumping plant, and put in some alfalfa. He now has a comfortable home, and maintains a dairy of ten graded Jersey cows, with suitable barns and outbuildings to house his stock. Mr. Tolley early observed the large amount of water that was going to waste, but which could be utilized; and he prophesied that the government would some day take up the project, which later was clone. He was one of the first three men to sign up under the government irrigation service at Orland. The coming of irrigation has given great impetus to intensive farming. Where once large grain fields waved in the sum, there are now many homes of contented people, making a livelihood and acquiring a competence through the cultivation of twenty-acre tracts.

On April 5, 1893, in New York City, Mr. Tolley was united in marriage with Ella Clough, a native of New York State. They have two children : James Haviland, born in New York City, February 5, 1894, who is a member of the United States Marine Corps; and John Frederic, born in Orland, October 29, 1902. Mrs. Tolley is one of the charter members of the Presbyterian Church, and laid the corner-stone for the present building, on the corner of Mill and First Streets. Mr. Tolley served six years as trustee of the Orland school district, and for two terms was a director in the Orland Unit Water Users Association. From a boy he has always been fond of outdoor sports, and still takes an active interest in them. Descended from Revolutionary stock, Mr. Tolley is eligible to membership in the Sons of the American Revolution.



In the very front rank of American professional men who have set the pace for colleagues in the same field of scientific endeavor the world over, is the American dentist, known to be scientifically practical and practically scientific, and among the most progressive of all workers in the medical field; and among California dentists few stand higher than Dr. A. P. Deacon, one of the leading dental surgeons of Willows, and the oldest in point of service here. He was horn at Toronto, Canada, February 7, 1874; and ten years later he moved with his parents to Oakland, Cal. There he attended the excellent Oakland grammar schools, and in time entered and graduated from the Oakland high school.

Young Deacon had now evidently decided upon his profession; and so he matriculated at the University of California, and entered the College of Physicians and Surgeons, from the dental department of which be graduated in 1900. He practiced dentistry for four years thereafter ; and the place where he first hung out his shingle was at Susanville, Lassen County. While a resident there, he showed his willingness to share in civic duties by becoming clerk of the board of trustees at Susanville.

In 1904, he removed to -Willows, where he has since been active in his professional work. He bought out the dental offices of F. W. Seydel ; and it was not long before the town was aware of the advent among its bustling citizens of a loan of push and of scientific mind.

Mr. Deacon, having once established himself at Willows, soon proved to be about as active in public affairs as he was in his professional work. He was elected a trustee of the town, and served in that capacity for four years, from 1910 to 1914. During this period many matters of real importance to Willows were taken up and carried through by the trustees. The new City Hall was erected; the fire department was equipped with an up-to-date system; a sewer was put in; cement sidewalks were laid; and in 1914 the town was voted dry.

Crowning the doctor's life was his marriage with Miss Louise Ward, of Los Angeles, now the mother of two children Louise and John R. Deacon.



A worthy son of a worthy pioneer settler of California, Harry W. Manor was horn on Cache Creek, in Yolo County, November 13, 1868. He is a son of the late Alexander B. Manor (a sketch of whose life will be found On another page of this history) and his estimable wife, who was Mrs. Martha M. (Smith) Rice prior to their marriage. Harry W. Manor spent his boyhood on the ranch, and received his education in the public schools and in Sacketts Academy in Oakland, from which he was graduated. After his graduation he returned to the home ranch and assisted his father, driving big teams in the grain fields and gradually taking many- of the burdens from his father's shoulders. At the time of his , father 's death, Mr. Manor was selected by the heirs of the estate to represent them in the store at Williams. He entered actively into the management of the business in 1891. In 1893 the Manor Estate bought out the interest of Mr. Crutcher ; and thereafter continued the business until 1895.

In 1895, Harry W. Manor was instrumental in selling out the store; and he then returned to the home ranch, which he operated with his mother and his brother. F. E. Manor. The two brothers continued together until 1907, when they dissolved partnership. Mr. Manor then embarked in ranching independently, farming his own ranch of nine hundred sixty acres, five miles west of Williams, Since then he has added to his holdings from time to time, until he now owns' ten hundred eighty acres of fine farming land. Besides his own land, he leases other property, operating in all some thirty-four hundred eighty acres, all plow land, devoted to raising grain and stock. About half of his acreage is sown to wheat and barley each year. In 1901 he purchased a one hundred ten horse power steam tractor for use in propelling the combined harvester. In 1915, however, finding another kind of rig more economical, he bought a seventy-five horse power Holt Caterpillar for plowing, harrowing and harvesting; and in 1917 he purchased a new Harris separator. In addition he keeps three eight-mule teams. He also specializes in cattle and hogs; and his brand, the letter M, is well known among stockmen.

Mr. Manor was united in marriage at Williams, with Miss Ella Williams, a native daughter. Her father and mother were the founders of the town of Williams and are mentioned on an- other page of this history. Mr. and Mrs. Manor are Republicans in politics, and are prominently identified with all progressive movements for the betterment of the county and state. Mr. Manor is a member of Floral Parlor, No. 164, N. S. 0. W., and Marysville Lodge, No. 783, P. B. 0. Elks. He was a member of the committee at the celebration of the opening of the State Highway, and was one of three who gave a beef for the barbecue, when they fed some five thousand persons. Again, when the soldiers were passing through Williams on their way to the cantonment at American Lake, he was one of the committee and gave a beef for the occasion, with three other men. On this occasion, the proceeds of the meals went to the Red Cross. Both Mr. and Mrs. Manor threw themselves into the work and helped to make it a success. As a citizen, Mr. Manor is always to be found on the side of right; and in the county where he has spent the best part of his life, he is highly esteemed for his sterling qualities of manhood.



Among. the native-born sons of California, none is more favorably known or more highly respected than Fred Hart. He was born on May 29, 1872, in Colusa County, in that part which is now included within the borders of Glenn County. He is a son of James Hart, a native of Canada, who came to the States, and eventually to California, and was married at Williams, Colusa County, to Miss Mary Williams, whose parents were pioneers of this section.

Fred Hart was the only child of his parents. He received his education in the public schools, and in Pierce Christian College, pursuing his studies until he was about twenty-one years of age. After completing his schooling, he remained on the home ranch, which he operated together with his father until 1909. He is now farming three hundred twenty acres to grain and raising some stock. and is meeting with well-deserved success.

Mr. Hart was married in Oakland. Cal., to Miss Dolly Holloway, a native daughter of Sutter County; and they have one son, James H. Mr. Hart is a supporter of the Republican party, and is a progressive and public-spirited citizen.



What wonderful progress has been made in the science of dentistry, and especially in American standards and methods, and how much each professional man, fitting as a cog in the wheel of the complex mechanism of modern society, may contribute to the comfort and health of the human being, is seen in a few hours' fellowship with Dr. R. F. West, one of the most enterprising dental surgeons of Willows. His father was Silvester West, a native of Monroe County, Mo., who came to California in 1874, and settled in Willows, then in Colusa County. He worked on the Glenn ranch for a number of years, and later rented a thousand acres of the same estate, which he farmed for several seasons. He was active in the formation of the Central Irrigation District and the construction of its canal, and in -numerous other ways dis­played his aggressive public spirit. He married Miss Sarah F. Ashcroft, of Missouri, and by her he had eight children: Lulu, Henry, Richard Franklin, Mrs. Mary T. Downing, Thomas J., Chalmer E., Edmund S., and Addle Elizabeth.

Born on a ranch near Willows, March 27, 1884, R. F. West attended the local public schools, and being an ambitious student entered and graduated from the high school also. But he did not stop there. He matriculated at the University of California, choosing the dental course; sin] iu 1908 he was graduated with honors, receiving the degree of Doctor of Dental Surgery. While at the university, few members of the Xi-Psi-Phi fraternity, of which he was a member and the secretary-treasurer, were more popular than he.

For two years he practiced dentistry at San Francisco; and during that time he acted as assistant in the meteorological lab­oratory at the university. Then he removed, in August, 1910, to Willows; and here he became the equally popular successor to Dr M. Pirkey.

Richard Franklin West was united in marriage with Miss Elma Gladys Swartout, a native daughter. Three children brighten their home: Graham, Catherine and Richard. Dr. and Mrs. West are popular in social and fraternal circles. He is at present the Noble Grand of the Willows Lodge of Odd Fellows, and with his wife is a member of the Rebekahs. Busy as he is, he finds great pleasure in living for and doing for others; and it is a matter of no little satisfaction to him that he has been permitted to assist two of his brothers through college, who will soon graduate from the dental college of the State University.



Descended from pioneer stock who became influential and well-to-do citizens of the Sacramento Valley, Frank C. McEnespy is operating a ranch of three hundred twenty acres under lease from A. B. Tennant, four and one half miles northwest from Colusa. Here he has eighty acres in rice, two hundred ten acres in bailey, and thirty acres in white beans. Mr. McEnespy was born in Dayton, Butte County, on December 9, 1873, a son bf James Bradley and Inez (Spencer) McEnespy. His grandfather, Richard McEnespy, came from Bedford, Pa., to California in 1849. He was born on board a quarantined immigrant sailing vessel in New York harbor. His father and mother, both Irish, died of smallpox, and the babe was taken by a Pennsylvania German fam­ily to their home in Pennsylvania. He was reared on a farm, was educated in the German language,, and could speak no other until he was sixteen. On arriving in California, he engaged in mining and farming. He was interested in the first grist­mill in Butte County. After becoming well-to-do, he went on a note for forty thousand dollars with a friend, in 1896. When the hard times came on, he was forced to make settlement, and it broke him. He died in Chico soon after, at the age of seventy-two. When fourteen years of age, James Bradley McEnespy enlisted as drummer boy for service in the Civil War, in a Pennsylvania regiment. He was wounded at the Battle of Gettysburg in 1863, and was afterwards honorably discharged, bat reenlisted in the Fifty-fifth Pennsylvania Regiment, Volunteer Infantry, and served until the close of the war. In 1861, he came to California. Thereafter he was engaged in farming, in Butte County, until his death, at which time he left a valuable estate. His widow still lives in Chico.

The eldest of five children, Frank C. McEnespy attended the public school at Chico, and worked by the month on ranches, be­coming an expert teamster, He has several records for hauling large loads that are worthy of publication. He holds the record in Chico for hauling the largest load of beets, 22,750 pounds net, with eight horses; a load of lumber, 7,000 feet, with four horses; the largest load of loose hay, 8,410 pounds net, with four horses. He also hauled three hundred sacks of rice, 28,800 pounds, from the California Rice Company's ranch to Colusa, with ten horses. He prides himself on his knowledge of horses and on his ability to get the best out of them. While living in Chico he was engaged in teaming; and from 1905 to 1909 he was a member of the Chico police force.

In Colusa, on November 16, 1996, Mr. McEnespy was married to Fannie Tennant. She was born in Colusa, and is the daughter of Robert Tennant, who built the dome on the state capitol build­ing in Sacramento. Sir, and Mrs. McEnespy lived in Chico until 1911, when they moved to Colusa County. Since 1912 they have farmed the Tennant ranch with success. They have two children to brighten their home, Wendell James and Darrell Chapman. Mr. McEnespy is a Republican. Fraternally, he belongs to the Eagles.



For the development of the Orland district, credit is due the men who, having endured hardships in other sections of the country and won their way to success, have relinquished their homes there and, coming to California to enjoy its climate, have here selected a place to make a home. This has meant the putting forth of renewed energy in the development of a comfortable place of residence, and in the end has attracted others and made the Orland section a favored spot in California. Among the contented families in this locality who have accomplished lunch along this line is that of Jonas Lundeen. He was born in Sweden in 1858, but when a lad of ten years came with his parents to America and settled in Henry County, Ill., where he attended the common schools, worked at farming, and in 1881 was united in marriage with Ella Johnson, who was born in Minnesota but had grown up in Henry County.

After their marriage the young people farmed in Henry County for four years. With his savings, Mr. Lundeen then went to Iowa and bought two hundred acres of land, part of it in O'Brien, and part in Cherokee County. He improved this and leased additional land, breaking up the virgin soil, and for twenty- five years was extensively engaged in the raising of grain and stock, thus taking his place as one of the pioneers of that locality. He served as road superintendent and school trustee, discharging the duties of these offices with ability. He became a charter member of the Yeoman Lodge at Paulina, Iowa.

Mr. Lundeen lived and labored in Iowa with well-deserved success until 1909, when he came to California to enjoy its fine climate, and to make his home here the balance of his days. After looking about for a home in Glenn County, where his son had located on thirty acres, Mr. Lundeen bought the place where he now lives. Immediately on his arrival with his family, he added thirty acres to this tract and began its scientific development, entering heartily into the spirit of the times, with his many years of experience to aid him in his labors. He set out almonds, and oranges, and Hymalia blackberry vines, and has ten acres in prunes. He built barns and remodeled the residence, making it a comfortable home for his family. He has twenty-three acres in alfalfa, and a dairy of seventeen cows, thoroughbred Jerseys, that bring in a good income. He raises draft hones, and owns a span that weighs two tons. This team he exhibited at the Orland Fair. In order to have plenty of land on which to carry on his ranching operations, Mr. Lundeen added to his holdings until he owned one hundred sixty acres, part of which he has since deeded to members of his family. He helped organize, and since the start has been a director of, the Orland Cheese and Butter Company, and for two years he served as a director of the Orland Unit Water Users' Association. No one who has lived in this section is more favorably impressed with its possibilities than Mr. Lundeen.

Of the marriage of Mr. and Mrs. Lundeen, seven children were born: Leonard, a graduate of Ames College, in Iowa, is a rancher near Orland; Elsie is the wife of J. B. Bills; Adolph has a tract of land near by; Laura is Mrs. Ingraham; and Mabel. David, and Ernest are at home. Mr. Lundeen takes a great interest in the Swedish Free Mission Church.



Descended from French ancestry, the Manor family was early established in the new world. Peter Manor, a native of Canada, became a farmer in Ohio, ran a canal boat on the Ohio Canal, and also conducted a large warehouse. During the War of 1912, he served in the American army. At Detroit, Mich., lie was united in marriage with Julia Guyne, a native of that state. She died at the age of forty years. They had sixteen children, seven of whom attained mature years. Two of these, Alexander B. and Louis, conic to the Pacific Coast. The latter resided in Red Bluff until Ins death in 1904.

Alexander B. Manor was born at Providence, Ohio, December 4, 1824. In his youth he gained a thorough knowledge of farm, which he followed after starting out for himself. When news came of the discovery of gold in California he started across the plains with a drove of fine horses; but the Indians stole many of the animals, and he had only a small number on his arrival. He tried his luck at teaming to the mines from Sacramento until 1851, when he returned to Ohio by way of Panama. The following year he again crossed the plains and took up teaming in California, to which he added general farming. He located in Yolo County, and there resided until 1871. when lie came to the Colusa plains, and settled eight miles northwest from the town of Williams, in what was known as the Freshwater district. Here he bought land and brought it under cultivation, adding to his holdings from time to time until be was the owner of fifty-two hundred acres, which he devoted to the raising of grain and stock, and to general farming. Forty-seven hundred acres of his holdings was available for cultivation. In addition to this property he owned some four hundred eighty acres in Siskiyou County. For many years he was associated with J. W. Crutcher in the mercantile business in Williams. Their store was burned out and they then built a new brick building in the town, where the business was conducted until his death.

Alexander B. Manor was united in marriage with Mrs. Martha M. (Smith) Rice at Sacramento, on November 4, 1860. She was born in Pike County, Mo., a daughter of Matthew M. and Susan (Lane) Smith, natives of Kentucky and Virginia respectively, but for many years residents of Missouri, On time maternal side, grandfather John Lawrence Lane and his wife were of English birth, but became citizens of Virginia in early life. Mrs. Manor was the third in order of birth of eight children born to her parents. One of her brothers, J. L. Smith, came to California in 1850 and died at Sawyers Bar. A sister, Mrs. Sarah Manor, made her home in Red Bluff. Mrs. Martha Manor was born on April 10, 1833, and was reared and educated in Missouri. In that state she was married, in 1853, to Jesse S. Rice, a Kentuckian who was a farmer in Missouri. The young couple at once set out for California, crossing the plains in an ox-team train, Mr. Rice driving over one hundred head of cattle. He stopped at Salt Lake City four months, and there sold his cattle at a good price. They later joined the Reese train, and came on through San Bernardino, Cal. During the journey the train was fired upon by Indians, and several of the immigrants were killed and injured. Arriving in Los Angeles, Mr. and Mrs. Rice took a steamer from San Pedro to San Francisco, where they landed in the spring of 1054. They went at once to Yolo County, where Mr. Rice engaged in stock- raising and farming. In 1818, he started for the mines during the Fraser River excitement, but with two of his companions was killed by the Indians.

After the carriage of Mr. and Mrs. Manor, they lived in Yolo County until March, 1871, when they moved to Colusa County. Mr. Manor died on January 10, 1892, after a long and useful life. He was a friend of education, helped to establish schools, and served as a trustee for years. In religion he was of the Baptist faith. Politically, lie east his ballot for the candidates of the Republican party. By her marriage with Mr. Manor, Mrs. Manor became the mother of the following children: Joseph A.; Louis; John M., who died aged nineteen months; W. Harry and F. Ernest, farmers near Williams. Of her marriage with Mr. Rice, three children were born: Emma J., who married O. E. M. Howard; Willie B., who became the wife of Henry AC Goodfellow; and Jesse D., who because a minister of the Seventh Day Adventist Church. After the death of Mr. Manor, his widow took charge of the ranch for a time bat in 1903 she removed to the home of her son Louis. There she lived until she moved into the town of Williams, where she now resides. She is a member of the Seventh Day Adventist denomination.



To preserve the judiciary of the state as a bulwark of the sacred rights of the people, it is highly important to select men with a practical knowledge of life and familiarity with the every­day affairs of business and society. This is well illustrated in the public record of August F. Harder, the conscientious and fearless justice of the peace of Germantown. Born in Schleswig-Holstein, in Germany, on January 17, 1867, he came to the United States with his parents when only nine years old, and settled near Germantown, where he finished his schooling.

His first employment was on his father's farm; and no better guide and companion could he have had. Later, he learned the carpenter's trade; and when he came to Germantown he assisted in erecting here a number of the pioneer buildings of the place. Among these were the Union Hotel and the Lutheran Church; and good specimens of architecture they were for their time.

In 1911, he abandoned carpentering and entered the employ of the Roehdale Store at Germantown, where he is now engaged, acting, as secretary of the company. A sound and wide-awake establishment, the Rochdale Store has served the community long and well and it enjoys an enviable patronage in return.

Prominent in the councils of the Democratic party, Mr. Harder was elected, in 1903, to the office of justice of the peace; and through all the ensuing fourteen years he has continued in that official capacity, looking after the public interests and the maintenance of law and order.

As early as 1893. August Harder married Katherine M. Mordhorst, a native of Germany, by whom he has had one son, Harry. Harry Harder married Miss Eliza Schuyler, of California. Judge Harder and his wife attend the Lutheran Church. He is a charter member of the Woodmen of the World.



Every one knows that when it comes to automobiles and the best of every such thing on wheels, Glenn County can line up with, if not surpass, any other section of the state, of equal population; and everybody should know that Harvey E. Sparrow and his brother, Howard C., who, as Sparrow Bros., are agents for the Overland automobile, have had much to do with bringing Glenn - County to the fore. Harvey Sparrow was born in Chicago, No­vember 6, 1882, and came to San Francisco three years later, where he grew up and attended the public grammar schools. In the northern metropolis, he was for nine years one of the book­keepers with Shrene & Company, jewelers, on Post Street. After­wards, he was for four years located at Verdi, Nev., where he was in the employ of the lumber firm of Fleischhacker & Company. In 1910, he came to Willows and connected himself with the Sacramento Valley Irrigation Company, now the Superior California Farm Lands Company, in which concern he has held the position of cashier ever since.

Harvey E. Sparrow married Miss Alma Hoever, a native of Willows, and a charming woman, by whom be has had a son, Jack, and a daughter, Virginia. Mr. and Mrs. Sparrow are fond of society, and are much in demand in social circles. Mr. Sparrow is an active Mason, and a popular member of the Blue Lodge.

Howard Sparrow, the junior partner, is a native son, born at San Francisco, September 24, 1888, where he attended the public schools. Later, he went to the Hitchcock Military Academy at San Rafael, and also to the California Business College in San Francisco. Having thus received an excellent preparation for business, be has filled numerous positions, one of them being as solicitor for the Providence Fire Insurance Company. He was also stationed in Alaska for a time in the service of the Alaska Packers' Association. In the season of 1906-1907, he was with the Healey-Tibbetts Construction Company, at San Francisco, when that well-known firm was working day and night to assist in the rebuilding of the afflicted city after the fire; and he took part in the erection of many large hotels and office buildings, now monuments to San Francisco's enterprise. Coming to Willows in the same year in which his brother Harvey arrived, he engaged with the Sacramento Valley irrigation Company, and was also for a time in the county assessor's office. Then he returned to San Francisco and became cashier of the Monarch Oil Refining Company.

Early in 1915, Howard Sparrow took up his permanent residence in Willows. Ile married Miss Louise Markham, by whom he has had one daughter. Mr. Sparrow, like his brother, belongs to the Masons, and is a participant in their social affairs. He joined his brother as agent for the Overland automobiles; and in this line both brothers have been phenomenally successful. The year before they took the agency, for example, but three of these cars had been sold in Glenn County; while during their first year here they disposed of twenty-one. The Overland made a non-stop record in two races—one of three hundred seventy-five miles and the other of five hundred—at the Panama-Pacific Exposition, and was the only car to go the entire distance without a stop. They carry sixteen different models. Their eight-cylinder model com- pares favorably with the eight-cylinder Cadillac ; and their Model 90 is the most powerful low-priced car in the world. Sparrow Bros. are also distributors for the Savage Tires, and also carry a line of electrical automobile supplies.



The varied interests with which Edward J. Golden, the popular and efficient postmaster at Germantown, has been identified, indicate very clearly the resourcefulness of his mind, and his unusual adaptability to almost any kind of enterprise. Born at Alabaster, loses County, Mich., in 1879, the son of Michael and Sarah C. (Bidwell) Golden—the former from Ohio and the latter a native of Michigan—Edward accompanied his parents to California when he was but seven years old. The family settled at Germantown, and there be finished his education. His first employment here was with the mercantile house of Eppinger & Company; and later he entered the service of the McCloud River Lumber Company, at McCloud, Cal. Then he was engaged by the mercantile store of the Chatfield & Smith Company, at Biggs, Butte County, after which he returned to Germantown to enter the employ of Hochheimer & Company. He next went to San Francisco and took a position in the office of Swift & Company, but after six months shifted to Lindsay, Tulare Comity, where he assisted for a year and a half in the Rochdale Store. Returning to San Francisco, he had charge of the grocery store of Henry Bruukhorst, con­ducting the same for half a year.

Once more taking up his residence in Germantown, in 1908, he became the manager of the Rochdale Store, of which he was also one of the founders. This establishment started in a small way; but it has come to be looked upon by the community as typifying local commercial life, and has been phenomenally successful. It has fifty members among the farmers of the surrounding county; and its officers at present are as follows: President, H. H. Rase; vice-president, John Beeck ; secretary, A. T. Harder; manager, E. J. Golden. Recognizing the influential relation of Mr. Golden to the community, the government appointed him postmaster in 1911. Fraternally, be is a Woodman of the World.

Edward T. Golden was united in marriage with Miss Elsie Beeck, a native daughter of California. Mrs. Golden is a charming lady and a gracious hostess; and no little credit is due to her for the large measure of success which has attended her husband's efforts and enterprise.



Although a native of California, Mr. Pinney has not confined his activities to the state of his birth, but spent the greater part of his life in the busy centers of the East and Middle West until in 1908, when he decided he would settle down and enjoy life on a ranch in his native state. He owns fifty-five acres of laud, part of the Reese tract, lying five miles northwest of Colusa on the west side of the Sacramento River ; and here he has thirty-five acres in prunes. On the twenty-two and one half acres he first pur­chased, the trees are now four years old ; on the balance of the thirty-five acres, they are three years old. The rest of his land is devoted to alfalfa, a fine family orchard, small fruits, and gardens. William M. Pinney was born in San Rafael, June 1, 1879. His father, William Seward Pinney, was born in Connecticut and died in Chicago, in 1S89. He was with the Union Iron Works in San Francisco; but when his son was six years old, be moved his family to Chicago, Ill. During the time of their residence in that city, he was employed as auditor by the Illinois Central Railroad Company. He married Winona Elizabeth Morse, who was born in Oroville, Cal., and is now living in Winnetka, Ill. She was the daughter of A. Clark Morse, a pioneer of California, who crossed the plains with ox teams in the early fifties. He was married to Miss Abby, a native of England. Mr. Morse was a lawyer, and served as district attorney of Tehama County.

William M. Pinney was educated in the public schools of Chicago, and at the Pennsylvania Military College, at Chester, Pa. He was graduated with the degree of Civil Engineer in 1902, after which he was engaged with the Thompson-Starrett Construction Company, in Chicago, as assistant superintendent. He worked his way to the front and in 1907 was one of their superintendents of construction. He was actively engaged in their service during their extensive operations in the rebuilding of San Francisco after the fire and earthquake, and remained with them until 1908. Wish­ing to engage in farming, he resigned in June of that year. After a visit to several points in Oregon and in the Sacramento Valley, he decided to locate in Colusa County, being much impressed with the possibilities for development in this section; and he has ever since been identified with the county's best interests. On his property he has installed an electric pumping plant and an irrigation system. using thirty-inch redwood pipe and pumping his water from the river with a Byron Jackson twelve-inch pump, thereby securing ample water for all his needs.

Mr. Pinney was married in 1913, in San Francisco, to Miss Charlotte McLean, who was born in Grass Valley, Cal., the daughter of a pioneer miner. Mr. and Mrs. Pinney have one child, Van Hollis. Mr. Pinney is devoted to the county and its interests, and believes that a great future is in store for the Sacramento Valley, when its opportunities shall have become more widely known; and he is ever ready to support 'any worthy object that will bring about that end.



On his forty acres of land in the Orland section of Glenn County, Peter E. Moline has developed a fine fruit, alfalfa, and dairy ranch. Of Swedish ancestry, he was born in Henry County, Ill., on February '23, 1871, and was educated in the public schools of his native state. His early- years were spent on a farm; and when twenty-one years of age, he went to O'Brien County, Iowa, and began farming for himself on two hundred eighty acres of land, which he leased until 1909, when with his savings he came to California. In looking about the Orland section, he selected his present property, which is located two miles southeast of the town, and is under irrigation from the United States government irrigation project. He developed this property, building fences and erecting new barns and outbuildings, and has made of it a comfort­able home place. Sir. Moline applies the methods of intensive farming in the operation of his ranch. He checked the land for irrigation, and now has thirty-five acres in alfalfa. On his ranch he maintains a dairy of eleven cows. He has a fine family orchard of primes, almonds and other varieties, and a vineyard of Tokay and Muscat grapes ; and on the place there is also a small orange grove now some fifteen years old. Mr. Moline was one of the organizers of the Orland Cheese and Butter Company; and other movements for the building up of this section receive his hearty support.

Mr. Moline married Henrietta Johnson, a native of Iowa; and they have six children: Luella and Stella (twins), and Diruell, Clarence, Gladys, and Lillie. The. family are members of the Methodist Church, and have a large circle of friends, who wish them a full degree of prosperity in their new home.



Not every money-making concern in Willows besides the Crystal Baths and Amusement Company may be looked upon as a public institution, managed in part for the public health; but such is the splendid service performed by this prosperous undertaking, that the people have come to regard it as their own, and to feel both a pride in its progress and a real interest in its future.

This park is located on twelve lots, facing on Tehama Street and running through to Butte Street. It has a concrete plunge thirty-five by ninety feet in size, fully equipped with high diving platform, slides, spring-board, rings, etc. In connection with the baths there is a nicely furnished hall used as a dancing pavilion, in which is located an up-to-date fountain and ice cream and candy parlor. Later there will be added camp cottages, .tennis courts, croquet grounds, roller skating, and moving pictures, as well as other attractions. The property was bought in 1916 by James Lanier Napton ; and since its opening in 1917 improvement after improvement has been added. With such an institution an agreeable reality, the history of its founder becomes a matter of general interest.

James Lanier Napton was born in Pettis County, Mo., on February 15, 1880. He is the son of James S. and Mary Lee (Houston) Napton, both natives of Missouri. On his father's side, his grandfather was Judge William Berkeley Napton, of Missouri; and on his mother's side, his grandfather was Col. Thomas Franklin Houston. It will be seen, therefore, that on both sides of the house Mr. Napton is a descendant of families who took a prominent part in the history of the Iron State.

After finishing his schooling, at the age of fourteen, James L. Napton set out for Eastern Oregon, and for seven years rode the range as a cowboy in that state and Southern Idaho. For several years thereafter, he managed a large stock ranch. Then, changing his line of work, he conducted a group of mercantile stores at Jerome, Wendell and Hillsdale, Idaho, with which he was very successful.

In 1910, Mr. Napton came to Willows as salesman for the Kuhn Irrigated Land Company, with whom he was connected until 1913, when he opened his present business as a dealer in lauds and live stock, and as .President of the Crystal Baths and Amusement Company. In many ways a decidedly self-made man, Mr. Napton can look back on an active career with quiet satisfaction. The partner of his joys and sorrows was formerly Miss Mary Lee Woodruff, of Iowa, who has shared the responsibilities of these strenuous years, and is entitled to no little credit for the fruits of their labors together.



More than ordinary interest attaches to the methods, the preparation, and the previous experience of any man who makes such a specialty as that of Raymond E. St. Louis, the widely known turkey king of Glenn County. He was born near Willows, on September 21, 1891, a son of George E. St. Louis, a substantial citizen of Glenn County, who gave his children good educational opportunities and every advantage possible at that time and place. Raymond attended the public schools of the Jacinto district, and further prepared himself for an independent career by taking a course in Heald 's Business College at Stockton. His first business experience was obtained when he began soliciting for life and fire insurance in his native county. Afterwards he bought five acres of river bottom land along the Sacramento River, which he devoted to garden truck. He had marked success with his potatoes, his yield being some sixty-five sacks to the acre.

In 1912 Mr. St. Louis started in the commission business, buying and selling poultry for the San Francisco market. Since then he has represented the commission houses of John F. Corriea, Charles Campodonico Company, J. Garbini Company and the Crown Commission Company, all of San Francisco. On January 15, 1917, he opened a branch commission house for Charles Corrlea & Bro., of San Francisco, at the corner of Butte and Walnut Streets in Willows. He is now representing in this enterprise the largest concern of its kind iu the northern metropolis. In addition, during the fishing season, he handles all the fish caught in the Sacramento River in this section of Glenn County, which are shipped to San Francisco and Sacramento. Of late years Mr. St. Louis has become the most extensive shipper of turkeys in Glenn County. In 1916 he sent to San Francisco over seventeen thousand birds, besides exporting thousands of coops of poultry. In the early fall he travels all over the northern part of the A-alley, compiling data as to the numbers of turkeys available and making his contracts with the raisers. He has met with more than ordinary success in this enterprise.

On June 30, 1912, Mr. St. Louis was married to Miss Sophia Glenn, a native of Paint Rock, Concha County, Texas, and a daughter of G. P. Glenn, now a resident of Willows. Of this marriage two children have been born, Glenn Harrison and Selina Ray.



How, so to speak, a giant oak in the business world has grown from a small and unpretentious acorn, is demonstrated in the rapid and substantial development of the Orland Creamery, whose presi­dent and general manager is Edward F. Hale. His father was Titus Hale, a native of Missouri, who came across the great plains in 1849 with an ox team, when he was only seventeen years of age. Settling in the northern part of the state, and later moving to Santa Cruz County, where Edward was horn, Titus Hale ran a dairy, and also became interested in railroad building. He became a prominent man in his section, and in time controlled large interests in the neighborhood. After that he lived at Rio Vista, in Solano County, Cal., where he owned and tilled a large tract of land. He is now retired, and lives in comfort at Oakland, taking a live interest in pioneer matters, and especially in the Society of California Pioneers. For fourteen years he was a director of this organization, and for two years he held the office of president.

Educated at the public schools in his district, Edward F. Hale lived on his father 's ranch near Watsonville until he was fourteen years of age, when he went to Solano County and worked in his father's dairy at Rio Vista. In 1902, he came to Glenn County and started a small creamery in Orland; and from this humble beginning has grown the fine and thoroughly up-to-date Orland Creamery of today. During the first year of its business the creamery was supported by ten patrons, who took their cream to the plant to be made into butter. At that time about two hundred pounds of butter a day was turned out. This product has gradually increased; and in 1910 the Orland Creamery Company was formed, with the following directors : President and general manager, Edward F. Hale; vice-president, Leonard Boot; secretary, J. E. Fallings; directors, David Brown and J. M. Leonard. A reinforced concrete building was erected in 1912, and fully equipped for the enterprise. There is a cold storage department, forty by eighty feet in size. For the three hundred and mid patrons now sending their cream to the plant, over two thousand pounds of butter is made per day.

Mr. Hale has become one of the most experienced dairymen in this part of the state. He buys and sells dairy cattle, and has sixty-five acres of land planted mostly to alfalfa, and another ranch of three hundred six acres devoted to dairy purposes, on which he has a herd of seventy cows. The most improved apparatus is everywhere used, both in the creamery and on his ranches. All the milking, for example, is done by machine. Not only has Mr. Hale been wide-awake to the development of his own interests and those of the creamery he represents, but lie has done much to advance dairy affairs in the Orland district.

In 1895 Edward F. Hale married Miss Louise Leslie, a charming lady of San Francisco, by whom he has had three children. Martha and Florence are both graduates of the San Francisco Girls' High School, and are now students at the San Francisco Normal School ; and Edward F., Jr., attends the San Francisco Polytechnic.



A man who, in his time, has played many parts, and each one well, is John Thomas, the agent of the Northern California Power Company, and for twelve years the popular and efficient constable of Orland. Born at Mansfield, Ohio, February 2, 1865, he moved with the family when lie was a boy of six years to Jackson County, Mo., and there grew to manhood. His father was a wagon-maker, and he learned his father's trade. In 1886, he arrived in California and went to work as a ranchman near Newville, in what is now Glenn County. Three years later he turned to the liquor business at Paskenta and in Orland ; but finding that unsatisfactory, he afterwards worked as a carpenter in the northern part of the state. On his return to Orland, he followed various lines of occupation. He had a bicycle shop, made wagons, and busied himself with repairing.

Associating himself with the Northern California Power Company in 1904, he became the company's local manager, and at the same time devoted himself to other interests. He has sold hardware and electrical appliances, photographic supplies and similar commodities, and has managed a butcher shop. At one time he owned a ranch of one hundred acres, eight miles west of Orland, the same being a part of the Hall ranch. This he devoted to cattle and the raising of fruit, He set out apricots and prunes, and bought and sold cattle in the market. In October, 1916, however, he sold his ranch. The butcher shop was conducted under the firm name of Thomas & Church, Quality Butchers.

For a number of years Mr. Thomas has been engaged in commercial photography, and has made an enviable reputation through taking outside views in Glenn County and in the mountains of Northern "California. He is an expert in this line, and has a fine collection of California subjects. He has also given much of his time to installing irrigation and pumping plants, and electrical machinery, and also for selling gas engines, acting as agent for Fairbanks, Morse & Company; and so successful has he been in this latter field, that he has.sold more gas engines than any other man in the company's employ north of San Francisco. While a genuine hustler personally, he is also a real booster for Glenn County.

John Thomas was united in marriage with Miss Alice L. Templeton, a native of Michigan. Two children, both daughters— Helene and Genevieve—have blessed this union. Mrs. Thomas is a member of the Eastern Star, and of the Women's Improvement Club of Orland. Mr. Thomas is a popular member of the Odd Fellows Lodge, and also of the Masons.


History Of Colusa and Glenn Counties, California

Historic Record Company, Los Angeles, California, 1918

Transcribed by: Martha A Crosley Graham, Pages: 906-955

                                                                                       Site Updated: 21 June 2010 

                                                                                       Martha A Crosley Graham