History Of Colusa and Glenn Counties, California - Pages: 255-322

History by Charles Davis McCormish and Mrs. Rebecca T. Lambert
Historic Record Company, Los Angeles, California, 1918
Transcribed by: Martha A Crosley Graham.

Note: Click the divider between biographies to return to the top of the page.

Brown, David
A life spent in successful private enterprise and faithful public service, with nothing to mar its efficiency or cloud its record, is an achievement worthy of mention in the biography of California pioneers. David Brown has been a resident of California since 1869. During the long period of his residence in the state, he has watched its development and helped in its advancement, with a keen perception of its resources and future possibilities. Born in Ontario, Canada, on June 24, 1850, he came to California when a youth of nineteen. Being entirely dependent upon his own efforts, and eager to do any work that would teach him the methods used in his new surroundings, he worked for some years as a farm hand on ranches in Yolo, Merced and Colusa Counties. It is from just such beginnings that many of our prominent pioneers have sprung, who have made a name and place for themselves in the annals of the state. After working for wages for several years, Mr. Brown settled in Orland, Glenn County, in 1877. In 1876, he and his brother had first come to this section; and at once seeing the possibilities it afforded for irrigation, they thought it the place to put a stake and build up with the country. Here Mr. Brown built a livery stable, which he conducted for twenty-five years and eleven months, continuously. For eight years his brother, Thomas Brown, was his partner; but after that time Mr. Brown was sole owner of the business. He has met with deserved success in his various undertakings, meanwhile finding time for the public positions he has held, and taking an active part in all projects for the advancement of his section of the state. He is now serving his fourth term as supervisor of Glenn County, making fourteen consecutive years in office, during which he served for one term as chairman of the board. He has proved himself a most able county official; and his record for unswerving loyalty to the county’s best interests has gained for him the firm friendship and support of his community. He has always been a great advocate of good roads; and the roads in his district are kept in the best of condition. He has a thorough knowledge of conditions throughout this entire section. Progress is his watchword; and he gladly does his share in support of all movements for the good of his county. He is a member of the Glenn County Farm Bureau and a director in the Orland Creamery; he served as a director in the Orland Unit Water Users ‘ Association; and in early days he was a director in the Lemon Home Ditch Company.

The marriage of David Brown united him with Alzora Harelson; and they are the parents of seven children: Mabel, wife of W. B. O’Hair; Arnold, connected with hospital work in Berkeley, Cal.; Lena, wife of J. W. Rucker; Zozie, wife of W. E. Carroll; and Opal, Ima, and David, Jr. The home ranch, two and one half miles northwest of Orland, consists of three hundred eighty acres, and is one of the most productive in the county. Mr. Brown has seeded eighty acres of it to alfalfa, and the balance is devoted to grain and pasture land. He maintains a dairy of forty blooded Jersey cows, and has one hundred twenty-five head of cattle besides. With all the varied interests that have occupied his attention since he made his residence here, Mr. Brown has found time to be an important factor in the development of his district; and he is today one of the best-known and best-liked men in the county. Fraternally, he is a Mason, a member of Orland Lodge, No.” 285, F. & A. M.
Burrows, Rufus G.
One of the earliest settlers in the Newville section of Glenn County, who became a large landowner there, controlling thousands of acres, and whose influence, always for the better things in life, is still perceptible in that favored region of our state, is the late Rufus G. Burrows, who was born at La Porte, Ind., April 8, 1834. His father was Arthur Burrows, a native of Pennsylvania, who became an early settler in Indiana, removed to Illinois, later went to Missouri, and still later located on the present town site of Sidney, in Fremont County, Iowa. In 1845, he crossed the plains to Oregon, and settled for a while in what is now Hillsboro, Washington County. Then he removed to the Umpqua Valley, where his death occurred. His wife, who was formerly Nancy Rice, a native of Ohio, married again, becoming the wife of Rufus Hitchcock.

In 1848, Rufus Burrows, with his stepfather and his mother, started across the plains for California. William Wambaugh was the captain of the train, which consisted of fifty wagons, two hundred emigrants, two hundred fifty head of oxen, two hundred fifty head of stock cattle, and fifty head of saddle horses. They arrived in Sacramento in August, of the same year, and reached Sutter’s Fort on September 10, 1848. There they leased the old Sutter residence, and utilized it for a hotel until the following spring, when they removed to Carson Creek, en route to the southern mines. On account of the death of a daughter, they returned to Sutter’s Fort, after which they went to Green Springs, El Dorado County, and there engaged in the hotel business. While in that vicinity, both Mr. and Mrs. Hitchcock passed away. Rufus Burrows was the fifth in a family of six children, and was educated in the schools of the Middle West, coming to California, as has been stated, in 1848. Later, he was sent back East to Albany, N. Y., to attend school there; but the death of his stepfather led to his being called back to California. After the death of his mother he went to Oregon, where he remained until 1857, when he settled at Newville. There he resided up to the time of his death, which occurred on September 13, 1913. At that time, he had some three thousand acres well stocked with cattle, sheep and hogs, and devoted to the farming of grain. In the later years of his life his two youngest sons became partners with him on his ranch.

In Multnomah County, Ore., on May 24, 1854, Rufus Burrows was married to Charlotte T. Hull, a native of Pike County, ILL., who was born in 1841, and who is now living in Willows, the old home ranch at Newville being rented. Her father, Cyrus B. Hull, a native of New York, was a carpenter and millwright by trade, who crossed the plains to Oregon with her and her mother in 1852, and who met with a sad accident on the journey. He was shot by his own gun, and although every relief possible was offered him he never fully recovered from the wound. For a number of years he resided in Oregon, and in 1863 settled at Newville near his daughter, where he engaged in sheep-raising. Notwithstanding the accident referred to, he lived to be seventy-six years old. He was survived by the following children: Mrs. E. G. Burrows, of Willows; Mrs. Electa Murphy, deceased; Mrs. Mary Hooper, of Humboldt County; Telemachus Hull, also of Humboldt County; John J. Hull, farming in the Newville section; Daniel Hull, of Tehama County; Charles Hull, deceased; Mrs. Aurora Marilla Millsaps, of Corning; Mrs. Ellen Metoalf, of Los Angeles; Cyrus B. Hull; and Mrs. Emma Scribner, of Washington. The maiden name of Mrs. Burrows’ mother, who died many years ago, was Nancy Shinn.

Several children blessed the family life of Mr. and Mrs. Burrows. Orlando A., a merchant at Sites, is married and has a son and a daughter. Isaac F. and Sylvester are both deceased. Mary C. married William Millsaps of Glenn County, and has two sons. Elo E. is the wife of John W. Millsaps of Stonyford, and is the mother of two daughters and a son. Annie is the wife of William Markham; she has two daughters and a son, and resides in Willows. Ira Ancil, of Newville, has two daughters and one son; and Aura C, also of Newville, has three sons. Mrs. Burrows has fourteen great-grandchildren. Mr. Burrows was a Mason, and was Master of Newville Lodge, No. 205, F. & A. M., for thirteen successive years, after which he missed one year, and was then elected again and served until his resignation a few years before his death.

Mr. Burrrows had a personality that made him a very interesting companion, especially when he was induced to talk of the historic past and his own relation to it. Having himself experienced much, he was able to portray graphically those scenes which were typical of the early settler’s life, describing vividly the famous Sutter’s Fort, the lawlessness of the times, and the constant changes which impressed themselves upon his youthful mind. As a pioneer, he began in an undeveloped wilderness, and with the passing years added much, through his self-sacrificing efforts, to the upbuilding and growth of the county.

On May 24, 1905, Mr. and Mrs. Burrows celebrated, with their children, their golden wedding, and were the recipients of congratulations and best wishes from a large circle of friends who knew them more or less intimately. In April, 1916, Mrs. Bur- rows moved to Willows, where she lives surrounded by every comfort. She is the oldest woman settler of Glenn County now living.
Cramer, Douglas
A “booster” for Arbuckle and Colusa County, as well as one of the leading business men and the president of the Chamber of Commerce of Arbuckle and College City, Mr. Cramer is making a name for himself in the Sacramento Valley. He was born near Cincinnati, Hamilton County, Ohio, on January 20, 1861. His father, King Cramer, was born aboard a vessel three days before it reached New York City while his parents were migrating from Germany to Cincinnati, Ohio, where he was reared and educated. In 1852 he crossed the plains to California; and there he followed mining until 1855, when he returned to Cincinnati via Panama, and there married Elizabeth Hildreth, a native of that city. They followed farming there until the father’s death. The mother afterwards came to California, and resides in Arbuckle, aged eighty-six years. She had two children, Charles and Douglas, both residing in Arbuckle.

Douglas Cramer was educated in the common schools, and was reared on the Ohio farm until he was eighteen years old. In 1879 he came to California to begin life on his own responsibility. He was willing to work at any honest labor. to gain experience of Western men and methods; and for three years he worked as a rancher in Yolo County. In 1883 he engaged in the butcher business at Yolo; and from there he went to Fresno, where he continued in the same business in the shop of W. J. Williams. After a time spent in Fresno, he returned to Yolo County, and for six years ran a shop of his own in Dunnigan.

In 1903 he came to Arbuckle and entered the employ of Houchins & Mitchell. Four years later he purchased the interest of Mr. Mitchell; and since then the firm has carried on business under the firm name of Houchins & Cramer. They conduct an up-to-date meat market, modern in all its appointments, owning and operating their own slaughter house, and draw patronage from a wide section of country surrounding Arbuckle. Prompt service and courteous treatment of all is the motto of this enterprising firm. Mr. Cramer was united in marriage with Miss Elizabeth C. Bolander, who, with her husband, enjoys the esteem of a wide circle of friends. Fraternally, Mr. Cramer was made a Mason in Yolo Lodge, No. 81, in the year 1882, but is now a member of Meridian Lodge, No. .182, F. & A. M., at Arbuckle, of which he is a Past Master. He is also a member of the Modern Woodmen of America. To the later-day development of Arbuckle, there is no man who has lent his support more willingly, or with a freer hand, than has Mr. Cramer.
Crutcher, James Wilson
The history of many a notable American family is a story of successive migrations. This is illustrated by the family of James Wilson Crutcher, whose ancestors came from Virginia, where the family was established in colonial days; removed to the frontiers of Kentucky; and afterwards entered upon a timber claim in Missouri. Here both the grandfather and his sons toiled at the heavy task of clearing the land and preparing the soil for cultivation.

The grandfather lived to an advanced age, and in his later years was surrounded by comforts, and even luxuries, where once there was only a wilderness. Among his children was a son named Samuel, who was born in Kentucky, and became an extensive farmer in Montgomery County, Mo. Samuel Crutcher married Miss Eliza Ann Holliday, a native of Kentucky, and a member of the Virginia Hollidays, who came from England. Stephen Holliday married Miss Annie Hickman, the daughter of James and Hannah (Lewis) Hickman, who were also pioneer Virginians. In Stephen’s family was a son, Elliot, who was born in Culpeper County, Va., in 1786, and when two years old was taken by his parents to Clark County, Ky. In 1810, he joined the Christian Church; and he continued in that communion until his death. In 1812, he volunteered in Captain John Martin’s company at Winchester, Ky., and actively served against the Indians until the River Raisin defeat, January 18-22, 1813, when, after having maintained the bravest kind of fight for two days, he was taken prisoner by the savages, who subjected him to most cruel treatment and to intense suffering by cold. After returning home, in April, 1813, he took up farm pursuits; and the following year he married Miss Rachel Johnson. She was born in Maryland in 1791, of German descent, and died in 1874,having survived her husband five years. Among their eleven children, the eldest, born in 1815, was Eliza Ann, who was married to Samuel Crutcher. Samuel Crutcher and his wife both died in Missouri, the former at the ripe age of seventy-three years. In their family there were three sons and a daughter.

The sons came West. E. W. Crutcher settled in Idaho. O’Bannon Crutcher died in Nevada; and James W. Crutcher is the subject of our sketch. James Wilson Crutcher was the youngest of the family. He was born in Montgomery County, Mo., on April 17, 1842, and passed his boyhood days uneventfully on the home farm, attending school in a log cabin. On April 15,1863, or two days before attaining his majority, he joined a large party of emigrants with mules and horses and set out for the long trip across the plains to the Pacific Coast. He traveled by way of Omaha, along the north side of the Platte River, across the Rockies, through South Pass and on to Salt Lake, along the Reese River to Austin, and then to Muddy Springs. He stopped for a time at Carson City, Nev., before coming on to California. Soon after reaching Sacramento, he met Major Jeff Wilcoxson, and took charge for him of his private toll road in Placer County, a position he held for more than four years, collecting the tolls, and keeping the road in repair. In the spring of 1868 he went to Sacramento, where he took up work in Mr. Wilcoxson’s office. About that time he entered and attended the Pacific Business College, in San Francisco, after which he returned to Sacramento and continued his office work for a couple of years. He then went to Jacksonville, Ore., in 1870, as book-keeper for Major J. T. Glenn; and when he came back to California, in 1874, he was employed in the ranch store of Dr. H. J. Glenn, at Jacinto, Colusa County.

While at Jacinto, in June, 1875, Mr. Crutcher was married, on the Glenn ranch, to Miss Annie E. Houchins. She was born in Monroe County, Mo., and about 1873 accompanied her father, Samuel Houchins, and other members of his family, to California, where they settled upon a farm at Jacinto. Nine children were born to Mr. and Mrs. Crutcher : Clarence W., of Woodland; Leona, the wife of L. L. Wilson, of Madeira County : Sam. E., postmaster at Maxwell; Nellie, the wife of the Rev. Emrich, pastor of the Williams Christian Church; and James C, Crawford, Harry H., Glenn, and Anna Belle, the wife of Otto Miller, of Williams.

In 1876, in partnership with Alec Manor, Mr. Crutcher opened the second store at Williams, and there engaged in general mercantile pursuits, continuing the same until 1878, when he was elected justice of the peace. The store remained in his possession until he was chosen by the people, in 1898, on the Democratic ticket, as county clerk and recorder. He won the election by a majority of eight hundred, and in January of 1899 took the oath of office. In 1902 he was again elected, without opposition, to serve until January, 1907. During that time he made his home at Colusa. For the past six years he has been justice of the peace at Williams, where he is now serving his second term. In early days Mr. Crutcher was a school trustee, and he is still interested in the cause of education. He is an active member of the Chamber of Commerce of Williams. Fraternally, he is a charter member of Tuscan Lodge, No. 261, of the Masons at Williams, of which he was secretary for many years.
Donohoe, Charles L.
An authority on rice culture, and a man of large experience in affairs involving broad surveys and energetic initiative, Charles L. Donohoe has done much to advance the interests of California agriculturists, especially in matters pertaining to irrigation. He was born in Sutter County, Cal., October 24, 1868. His father, John Donohoe, was born in Dublin, Ireland, and was a sailor before the mast for many years, finally arriving in San Francisco, in 1851. Going at once to the mines, he followed the fortunes of a miner for about eighteen months near the site of the present town of Oroville, Butte County. Later, he settled on a farm which he had purchased seven miles north of Yuba City, and there followed farming and stock-raising until his death, which occurred on June 12, 1902, at the age of seventy-six years.

He was united in marriage with Susan Lunney, who was also a native of Ireland, born in County Tyrone, and who, after a useful life, passed away on June 15, 1900, when in her sixty-fourth year.

Charles L. Donohoe was reared on the farm in Sutter County, and attended the public schools to secure an education. After he had finished school, he began teaching, and for four years was thus employed in the schools of San Joaquin, Calaveras and Sutter Counties. He then took a course in the Stockton Business College, after which he studied law. He was admitted to the bar on November 11, 1889, and that same month opened an office in Marysville, where he began his practice. In 1890 he was a candidate for the office of district attorney of Yuba County, against E. A. Forbes, but was defeated at the election. Since then he has not mingled in politics.

Upon the organization of Glenn County, Mr. Donohoe was attracted to the new section, and in November, 1891, took up hisresidence at Willows. Ever since that date he has been actively identified with the upbuilding and development of the county of his adoption. In 1891, he was one of the organizers of the Stony Creek Irrigating Company, the pioneer concern of its kind in Glenn County; he served as its secretary and manager, and carried on the project with his associates until 1907, when they sold out to the United States Government in furtherance of the Orland project. In 1895, Mr. Donohoe organized the Orland Real Estate Association, which purchased five hundred acres of land in the northeastern part of Glenn County and subdivided the same into fifteen-acre and twenty-acre farms. These were advertised extensively throughout the East, and eastern men have profited by answering the call and settling here. The organization and success of this enterprise in irrigation and land development in the Orland district was what brought about the government project in this section in 1907.

Mr. Donohoe was instrumental, likewise, in the organization of the Central Canal and Irrigation Company, which took over the original ditch, of fifty miles in length, taking water from the Sacramento River, and started the development of the lands now under the Sacramento River Canal; and he was also one of the organizers of the Sacramento Valley Land Company, which purchased three thousand acres of the Glenn ranch, six thousand acres of the Packer ranch, and all of the John Boggs ranch. This land was subdivided into smaller tracts, and was sold for from forty to fifty dollars per acre, with water rights. Mr. Donohoe is still interested in the subdivision of large tracts of land in the Sacramento Valley, which include property in the Orland section under the government irrigation project, and other holdings in the valley. In 1917 he completed a large deal involving some nine thousand acres of land.

Mr. Donohoe handled all the litigation for the landowners in connection with the Water Irrigating System, and succeeded in getting the water necessary to supply their demands. He won a fight in the courts that was carried on for a number of years, thus securing a victory in the people’s interest. He is considered one of the best-posted men on water rights, irrigation laws, and matters pertaining to real estate in the Sacramento Valley. It was his reputation for expert knowledge along the lines indicated, that led to his appointment by Governor Hiram Johnson as a member of the Water Problems Conference Commission for the purpose of revising the water laws of the state, which commission went out of existence at the session of the state legislature in 1916-1917. As one of the organizers and directors of the Pacific Rice Growers’ Association, Mr. Donohoe has taken an active interest in rice cultivation in the valley. His company was the first to utilize the alkali lands, known as “goose lands,” for growing rice, having put in eighty acres in 1914. The success of that venture brought about the present development; and in 1917 about twenty thousand acres was seeded to rice, which will yield a revenue of some two million five hundred thousand dollars — principally from land that was formerly of no value except as pasture for sheep and cattle. This company is a live organization. In 1916 it had some eleven hundred acres in rice; and in 1917 this had been increased to over two thousand acres.

From the time of his arrival in Glenn County in 1891 until 1909, there were no important cases in litigation before the courts that Mr. Douohoe was not associated with on one side or the other. Since 1909, however, on account of ill health, he has turned his attention entirely to the real estate interests of the county and surrounding country. From the beginning of the Johnson administration he has been a stanch supporter of Progressive policies, and has done much to further the movements of the party in the northern part of the state. He is not a seeker after office, but always gives his influence to promote good government, moral uplift, and county development along every line. He is a self-made man in every sense of the word. With his brother, Thomas J. Donohoe of Alaska, Mr. Donohoe owns the old home ranch in Sutter County.

In 1896, on August 13, occurred the marriage of Charles L. Donohoe and Miss Jessie Keith, a native of Missouri. They have one daughter, Frances Louise Donohoe, a student in the San Jose Normal School.
Drew, Willis
A highly respected resident of Glenn County, now living retired in his comfortable home at Orland, Willis Drew is well deserving of all the honor shown him. He was born on a farm in Perry County, Ind., August 30, 1845, a son of Jonathan and Elizabeth (Sampley) Drew. The father was born in Vermont and was descended from an old New England family, while his wife was a native of Georgia. Jonathan Drew located in Perry County and there engaged in farming and raising tobacco. Later be moved across the river into Kentucky, where be continued in the same occupation. In 1848 he became a settler, in Jones County, Iowa, on the then western frontier, where he improved a good farm and raised grain and stock until 1862, in which year we find him crossing the plains to California. On his arrival here he located in Sutter County, and was there engaged in raising grain and stock until his family had scattered and he and his wife were once more alone. He then made his home with his son Willis, until his death in 1902, at the age of ninety-two. His wife also died at this son’s home.

Third in order of birth in a family of ten children, Willis Drew attended the common schools in Iowa, and at the age of seventeen came with his parents to this state. He worked in the mines for a time, and then went into the timber of the Sierras, where, with a brother, he began taking contracts for getting out logs. He was engaged in this enterprise for five summers. Returning to Sutter County, he farmed there until 1872, finding that a surer way to prosperity. Meanwhile, he began looking about for some good land; and this he found in Colusa County, in the vicinity of Elk Creek, now in Glenn County, where he purchased a half section and began its improvement, raising grain and stock with profit. In 1880 he homesteaded one hundred sixty acres, seven miles north of Elk Creek. In addition to farming, he did a general teaming business; and for one season he owned an interest in the Oriental Sawmill. In 1889 he bought the property that became known as the home place, which he improved by erecting suitable buildings, and which has ever since been devoted to grain and to stock-raising. He retired from active work in 1913.

In Sutter County, Willis Drew was united in marriage with Martha Elizabeth Vanderford, who was born in Michigan, a daughter of Napoleon B. and Martha (Silver) Vanderford. Mrs. Vanderford was born in Toronto, Canada. Napoleon Vanderford was born in Steuben County, N. Y., August 22, 1827, and was taken by his parents to Ann Arbor, Mich., in early childhood. He received his education in the common schools; and in 1851 began operations as a lumberman and contractor. In 1858 he came to California by way of Panama. Going to Sutter County, he took up a quarter section of land, to which he added from time to time until he owned four hundred eighty acres. In 1876 he sold out and moved to the Elk Creek section of Colusa County. There he bought two -thousand acres of land and was engaged in raising sheep and cattle until 1903, when, upon the death of his wife, he leased the ranch, and later sold it, and made his home with his children. He was a stanch Republican, and was active in the movement to organize Glenn County, serving on the board of supervisors for twelve years. Mr. Vanderford was always a consistent member of the Christian Church.

Of the marriage of Willis Drew and his wife, seven children were born: Laura Elizabeth, who married E. F. Zumwalt; Sarah Ellen ; William Walker, a rancher in Modoc County; Napoleon B., a teacher in the Sacramento High School; James Edison, of the Elk Creek district; Leland Stanford, principal of the Orland grammar school; and Truman Willis. Mr. Drew is a Republican, and a member. of the Christian Church.
eathcote, Edward
A resident of Colusa County, living nine miles north of Colusa, Edward Heathcote, now in the ninety-first year of his life, is in point of years the oldest living white settler in the county. He was born at Furness, England, sixteen miles from Manchester, on March 14, 1827, a son of Joseph and Hannah (Bailey) Heathcote. When he was sixteen years of age, in 1843, he came to Waukesha, Wis.; and seven years later, in 1850, he crossed the plains with ox teams to California. For about five years he mined for gold at Nevada City, Cal. Not meeting with the success he had expected, he then turned his attention to agricultural pursuits. He came to Colusa County in 1856, bought some land, and began farming. He was successful in this venture, and kept adding to his land until he became owner of seven hundred twenty acres, which he controlled until 1912. He then sold out, and is now living retired with Mrs. Mary G. Jones.

In the Heathcote family there were twelve children, seven of whom grew up. George died in Wisconsin; Hannah was married in Wisconsin to James Jones and came to Colusa County, where she died, the mother of five children; Edward is the subject of tbis review; Joseph died in Wisconsin; Mrs. Mary Woodard died in Iowa; Mrs. Elizabeth Wright died at Red Bluff, Cal.; and Samuel died in Orland, in 1916. Mr. Heathcote has taken an active interest in public affairs. He has served on grand juries, and has been a member of the board of trustees of Butte Creek school district.

In polities he has usually aligned himself with the Republicans. He is a strong advocate of temperance. Now in the evening of a long and busy life, Mr. Heathcote is still well preserved. He has retained his faculties, and is an interesting conversationalist, discoursing on events of the early days in the state in an entertaining manner. He has lived a conservative and consistent life, and has made a host of friends since be became a pioneer settler of Colusa County.
Graves, Fountain Columbus
The late Fountain C. Graves, of the Stony Creek section of Glenn County, was one of the most prominent and well-known men of the Sacramento Valley, in which he had lived since 1861. In March of that year, he came to what was then Colusa County, and bought one hundred acres of land, to which he added from time to time, as he prospered, until he owned a thousand acres. Here he raised good crops of grain, having on an average from five to six hundred acres. Besides this, he raised cattle, sheep and hogs, together with such other stock as he needed to carry on his ranch work properly. With the advent of modern machinery, he always kept abreast of the times and was up-to-date.

He was born in Pulaski County, Ky., July 6, 1828, a son of Hiram T. and Parmelia (Nunnelley) Graves, both natives of that same state. Robert Graves, the grandfather, was born in North Carolina. He crossed the Blue Ridge Mountains with Daniel Boone, his wife riding a mule, with her child strapped to her back, and settled in Kentucky. Robert Graves was closely related to many prominent families of historical renown. He was a nephew of John and William Hancock, and a cousin of Gov. Clayborn F. Jackson, of Missouri. He died in Pulaski County. In 1832 Hiram T. Graves left Kentucky and settled in Macon County, Mo., where he farmed for seven years, returning then to Pulaski County, Ky. Four years later he went back to Macon County, where he was busily engaged in raising tobacco until his death. Here, also, his wife passed away.

The oldest of eight children, Fountain C. Graves was but four years old when his parents settled in Missouri. He returned with his parents to Kentucky in 1839. As his services were needed on the farm, to help support the large family, he found little opportunity to go to school. When he was old enough to strike out for himself, he learned the trade of the stone mason, which he turned to good account in later years. He remained in Kentucky until 1854, following his trade, and then moved to Missouri, whither his parents had preceded him. There he continued at his trade, and also raised grain and stock.

On April 29, 1861, Mr. Graves started from Macon, in company with a band of emigrants, comprising fourteen wagons drawn by oxen, bound for California. En route the oxen were exchanged for mules. The party reached Red Bluff on September 25, that same year. Soon after, Mr. Graves came down to Colusa County, locating in what is now Glenn County, and the following year purchased the place that thereafter remained his home until he died. He suffered a severe loss when his house burned down in 1903; but he afterwards erected a modern residence, where he and the family lived in comfort. He was always interested in progress, and was one of the organizers of Stony Creek Irrigation Ditch. He served as one of the commissioners of the county.

He it was who circulated the petitions for the road from Newville to the river, for the first voting precinct between Newville and St. John, for the first school district north of Nye district, and for the location of the first post office between Newville and St. John, of which he was appointed postmaster. He located the Chamberlain brothers on a quarter section where Orland now is, declaring that it would be the town site. In politics, Mr. Graves was a Republican. Fraternally, he was a Mason of the Knights Templar degree.

Mr. Graves was married in Missouri to Lavina Jane Ashurst, who was born in Pulaski County, Ky.; and eight children were born to them: Fernando Cortez, now deceased, who married Sadie Hughes; Col. Fremont Ashurst, who married Nellie Estes; William Robert; Harry Francis, who married Jessie Gav; Elizabeh, Mrs. W. H. Bates; Amy Helen, who became the wife of W. P. Gay; Annie Bidwell, who married William A. Glenn; and Margaret Carrie, the wife of Edwin Neilsen. Mr. Graves died at his home on January 30, 1915; and his widow passed away on July 24, 1916. Their lives were well rounded out with good deeds and with years of usefulness. They lived to celebrate their sixty-first wedding anniversary. With their passing the state lost two more of its pioneers, and two who always did their share to build for all time.
Green, Parley H.
In the life of this successful banker of Willows are illustrated the results of perseverance and energy. He is a citizen of whom any community might well feel proud, and the people of Glenn County accord him a place in the foremost ranks of the representative business men. Identified with the history of Glenn County from its beginning, he has witnessed its gradual growth, the development of its commercial interests, and the increase of population by the removal hither of men of enterprise, intelligence and high standing. No better name could be selected to suggest the commercial soundness and the financial stability of Willows than its far-seeing and enterprising banker. Parley H. Green. He was born at Fort Wayne, Ind., March 25, 1855, a son of Corydon and Sarah (Huss) Green, both natives of Ohio and descended from old New England stock. He is also a lineal descendant of Gen. Joseph Warren, killed at the Battle of Bunker Hill. Corydon Green was a grain buyer and a well-known business man of Fort Wayne.

It has meant a good deal to many Americans to have been born in the Hoosier State, and Parley H. Green made the most of his boyhood there. He was educated in the grammar and high schools of his native city, after which he chose as his profession the work of an accountant. In 1877 he came to California, and for a time was in the employ of the Sweepstake Plow Co., at San Leandro. Two years later he removed to Colusa County, and here entered the employ of his uncle, Warren Green, who was engaged in the sheep business. Three years later he accepted a position as an accountant in the Benicia Agricultural Works in Benicia, continuing there until 1881, when he resigned to enter the Bank of Willows as assistant cashier.

When B. II. Burton was elected president of the bank in 1904, Mr. Green was made cashier, a position he now holds. He is one of the best-known bankers in Northern California, and his record of more than thirty-six years in this one bank is something to be proud of. He is now the oldest director of the bank, in point of service, having been elected a director on January 15, 1885, and having served continuously ever since. He is one of the directors of the First National Bank of Willows, and of the Bank of Princeton, which was organized by Colusa and Willows capitalists; and he has been a director and secretary of the Willows Warehouse Association since 1883. Besides these varied interests, Mr. Green has been active in the affairs of the county and of Northern California in general.

The agricultural interests of Mr. Green are large, including a stock ranch of over eleven thousand acres in the foothills and mountains west of Willows. His ranches support over eleven hundred head of full-blooded and graded Durham cattle, which are grazed on the mountain ranges in the summer, and in the fall are brought down to the foothill and valley ranches. Those ready for beef are marketed each spring.

Mr. Green chose for his partner in life Miss Mary Augusta Knight, a native of Michigan. They were married in Sonoma County in 1898. Mrs. Green is an active participant in social, religious and civic affairs in Willows; and like her husband she has proven a positive factor in the welfare and progress of the community.
Greenwood, Hiram A. (Pp. 322-404)
Since an early date the Greenwood family has been identified with the development of the agricultural and stock interests of the Sacramento Valley. Especial mention is due to Hiram A. Greenwood for the part he took in laying the foundation for the present-day prosperity of the section about Orland, now within the confines of Glenn County, but when he located here, in Colusa County. A native of New York State, he was born on February 7, 1835, of a family long identified with the Atlantic States. He received his education in the common schools of his native state, remaining a resident there until 1864, when, desiring to explore the Western country, he set out with horse teams to cross the plains, desert and mountains, on the way to California. Mr. Greenwood was chosen captain of the wagon train; and this duty made it necessary for his wife to drive nearly all the way to California. Many hardships were endured on the journey. Indians were encountered, and several fights ensued. Some of the men of the party were killed, and many horses were stolen. The eldest child of Mr. and Mrs. Greenwood was taken ill and died, and was buried on the plains.

On arriving in this state Mr. Greenwood took his family to Red Bluff, where he located them, and then began freighting between that city and Susanville. Rates were high; and during the three years he was so engaged he was able to save enough to start in farming. He then leased the Rawson ranch, near Red Bluff, and began his operations as a grain-grower. In 1870 be moved to the vicinity of St. John, on the Sacramento River, and later to what became known as the Greenwood ranch, three miles south of Orland. With the passing of the years be became very well-to-do, adding to his landed interests very materially until, at the time of his death, he left one of the most valuable properties in Glenn County. About 1885 he had moved to Stony Creek; and there he passed away, on April 27, 1888. Public- spirited in all things, Mr. Greenwood promoted all projects for the public good. He was a liberal supporter of schools, churches, and charitable organizations, and aided in the establishment of public markets. In polities he was a strong Republican, and a stanch advocate of good government. A man of strong personality and kindly nature, he made and kept friends; and when he died, he was mourned throughout the entire county.

On March 29, 1859, Mr. Greenwood was united in marriage with Harriett M. Harvey, in her native state of Illinois. Mrs. Harvey survived her husband until January 25, 1905, at which time she died on the ranch near Orland. They had four children, three daughters and a son. The oldest child died while crossing the plains; and a married daughter died on December 22, 1888.

Eva E. Behrens, of Redwood City, and Willis A., survive. Mr. Greenwood was a member of the Baptist Church, and held membership with the Odd Fellows Lodge at Chico. His success was of his own making; and he was recognized as an important factor in the development of the best interests of the Sacramento Valley.
Harbison & Kitchin
The ranch of thirty-nine hundred acres known as the Harbison & Kitchin Ranch, located in Colusa County, is an illustration of what can be accomplished by hard work, good management, and intelligent application. Until 1916 the partners raised wheat, barley and stock on this property and other tracts that they leased. They kept forty head of brood mares, and raised horses and mules, together with about fifty head of cattle each year. To carry on this large ranching project properly, it was necessary to make use of the most modern methods. They employed modern machinery and implements, including a forty-five horse-power Holt caterpillar tractor and a Holt combined harvester. Three sets of buildings have been erected on different parts of the property; and everything has been put in shape to facilitate the work of the partners and their helpers.

In 1916 two hundred acres of the land was prepared for irrigation and planted to rice under lease. It yielded a good crop, and the partners determined to plant a large acreage to rice in 1917. They entered into an agreement with Mallon & Blevins to line, check up, irrigate and plant to rice three thousand acres of their land. This was a gigantic undertaking. When the work is completed, Mallon & Blevins are to get a deed to about nine hundred acres of the tract, and a two-year lease on the balance of the land that is put in rice. Under the terms of the agreement the owners of the property are to receive three dollars per acre for all land planted to rice in 1917, and six dollars in 1918. They have great faith in the project, and are aiding in every way to make it a success.

After the decision to plant their land to rice had been made, the partners purchased nine hundred sixty acres in the hills of the county and moved their stock to new pastures. If the rice project proves anywhere near as profitable as present prospects indicate, the increased valuation of the large ranch will place Messrs. Harbison & Kitchin on an independent basis, and amply reward them for the many years of labor they have spent in developing the land from its original condition. Separate mention of both members of this firm will be found elsewhere in this work.
Harlan, William F., M.D., D.O.
A man of wide knowledge in all branches of medical science, and a graduate of several colleges in his pursuit of a thorough preparation for his chosen profession, Dr. William F. Harlan, the well-known physician and surgeon of Arbuckle, Colusa County, is winning for himself a prominent place among the medical men of the county. A native of Wetzel County, W. Va., where he was born on November 12, 1875, Dr. Harlan was raised on a farm and received his preliminary education in the local schools, after which he clerked in a store at Littleton, the same state, until 1901. It was at this stage in his career that he decided to prepare himself for the medical profession and began the study of Osteopathy. Going to Kirksville, Mo., he took a course in the American School of Osteopathy, graduating in 1904 with the degree of D. O. Following his graduation he located in Grand Forks, N. D., and practiced there until 1911. While practicing in North Dakota, he went, in 1906, to Battle Creek, Mich., and took a course under Dr. Kellogg in Hydrotherapy; and in 1908, he pursued a postgraduate course at the American School of Osteopathy, his Alma Mater. In 1911 he came to Arbuckle, Colusa County, to retire from active practice. Here Dr. Harlan purchased a twenty-acre ranch south of town and engaged in horticulture. He set out almonds on the acreage, built a home, and settled down to enjoy the peaceful life of a rancher. But the lure of further study proved too great, and in 1915 he went to Los Angeles and took a course at the Pacific Medical College, graduating that same year with the degree of M. D. He also took a postgraduate course at the Osteopathic College of Physicians and Surgeons, in that city.

Completing his studies in Los Angeles, Dr. Harlan returned to Arbuckle; and in June, 1916, he opened his present offices in the Ash Hotel. These are fully equipped, including an operating room fitted up with all the modern conveniences for operating. Dr. Harlan is specializing in ear, nose and throat troubles. He is meeting with a success made possible by his recognized professional skill, and by his intimate knowledge of the most recent discoveries in medical science, supplemented by years of searching study along both general and special lines. His practice is not confined to Colusa County, but extends into the different counties of the Sacramento Valley.

While in North Dakota, Dr. Harlan was president of the State Osteopathic Society for two years, and the next two years was a member of the executive committee of that body. Fraternally, he is an Elk, a member of Marysville Lodge, No. 783; and an Odd Fellow, a member of the Grand Forks (N. D.) Lodge, No. 4, I. O. O. F., and of the Encampment at Arbuckle. Dr. William F. Harlan was united in marriage with Leona Yale, a native of North Dakota. They are the parents of three children: Virgil, Gertrude, and Melvin V.
Harrington, Hon. William Pierce
A California pioneer of 1849, the late W. P. Harrington was the leading citizen of Colusa during the thirty-three years of his residence there. He was the pioneer banker, merchant, and railroad builder, and was universally loved for his public spirit and generosity of heart. He was born in Damariscotta, Maine, on April 17, 1826, and received his education in Lincoln Academy at New Castle, after which he hired out as a clerk in a store in Rockland. On March 4, 1849, when nearly twenty-three, Mr. Harrington started for California by way of Panama, with a party of thirteen others. On reaching the Isthmus, they found that there were fully four thousand persons waiting to get transportation to San Francisco. His party separated, but he organized another which was successful in getting through; and he arrived in San Francisco on August 1, of that year. He at once set out for the mines at Big Bar, on the Consumnes River, and spent three months at placer mining. He was soon convinced that his forte lay in some other direction; so he went to Placerville, where he was given management of a general merchandise store for a time. In the fall of 1850 he opened a store for himself; but the excessive drought that year caused a scarcity of water, and mining could not be carried on except at heavy expense. So he quit business and went to Marysville; and there he engaged in the mercantile business under the name of Crockett and Co., the firm later becoming Harrington and Hazelton.

In 1859 a larger field opened up in the mining regions of Nevada; and with J. C. Fall, J. A. Paxton, Judge Mott and James Wilson, he chartered a stage and visited Carson City, Virginia City, Gold Hill and other mining camps. All were impressed with the magnitude of the mineral resources of these places; and a partnership was formed by Mr. Harrington, under the name of J. C. Fall & Co., and a general merchandise business was carried on at Carson City, with considerable success. The firm later became Kincaid & Harrington, and then Kincaid, Harrington & Co. During this time Mr. Harrington was a member of the first legislature of Nevada Territory, which met in 1861.

After he retired from business in Nevada, Mr. Harrington came to San Francisco and became a stock broker. His attention was soon called to Colusa County, where the public lands were being taken up by capitalists; and in 1869, in behalf of Decker & Jewett, he came to Colusa to view, grade and purchase lands. He remained six weeks, and was so much impressed with the natural resources of the county that he disposed of his business in San Francisco and the next spring came to Colusa to make it his permanent home. He first engaged in the real estate business with W. F. Goad, and during that summer sold about one hundred thousand acres of land. On September 15, 1870, with others, he organized the Colusa County Bank. Without solicitation, he was tendered the position of cashier; and from that time until his death he was one of the bank’s principal factors, having been a director, and its president at the time of his death. He also held the same position in the Bank of Willows and in the Colusa and Lake Railroad, and was a director of the Colusa Gas Co., the Colusa Milling Co., the Colusa Packing Co., and the Colusa Agricultural Association. He was a member of the Pacific Union Club and of the Society of California Pioneers, being vice-president of the latter at the time of his death, on November 30, 1903. No more fitting tribute can be paid to his memory than the opinions of his associates and friends, who unite in saying that he was a conservative banker, one of the first men of Colusa County, and one of the up-builders of the Sacramento Valley.

On May 1, 1861, W. P. Harrington was united in marriage with Sallie H. Tennent, a daughter of John Tennent of Marysville, and a native of Lancaster, Ohio. They had five children, one of whom died in infancy. The others are: Tennent, born July 11, 1864; William Merrill, teller of the Colusa County Bank, born November 18, 1866; Mary Augusta, born April 7, 1869, the wife of A. P. Niblack, captain in the United States Navy; and Louise T., born February 15, 1876, the wife of W. D. Leahy, lieutenant-commander in the United States Navy.
Henning, August
A pioneer of what is now Glenn County, August Henning plowed the land and planted grain on the very spot which is now the town site of Willows. He was born in Germany, in 1850, of poor but deserving parents, who gave him such advantages for obtaining an education as they were able to afford. He could see no promising future for himself in his native land, and being ambitious to forge ahead, he counseled with his parents and decided that the United States held the opportunities he was seeking. In 1870 he arrived in Grand Island, Nebr., a stranger in a strange land, and unable to speak English; but he was willing to work,and accepted the first opportunity offered, spending two years in that city. His objective point, however, was California; and as soon as he had saved money enough to pay his fare and expenses, he started, in 1872, for the land of his desire. Arriving in what was then Colusa County, he worked for two years for wages on the Zumwalt ranch. His experience there gave him confidence; and in 1874 he leased two hundred forty acres in what is now the eastern part of the town of Willows, where the county hospital now stands, and with his brother Henry for a partner, began raiding wheat. Success crowned his efforts, and in due time he bought four hundred acres north of Germantown, besides which he leased three hundred twenty acres of the Montgomery ranch. Here he continued in the raising of grain, which had to be hauled to Princeton and thence shipped by boat to the markets. In 1879, still having his brother as a partner, he rented two thousand acres of the J. R. Talbot ranch, west of Willows. Meeting with good success, the brothers continued their farming operations together until 1882, when they dissolved partnership. That same year, August Henning opened a liquor store in Willows, which he ran for some time. In 1901 he bought three hundred acres on the Sacramento River, in Glenn County.

August Henning has been twice married. His first wife died in 1882, leaving two children, Walter Henning and Mrs. Laura Duncan. At his second marriage, which occurred in 1887, Miss Ellen McCallum became his wife. Two daughters blessed their union. Gussie is now the wife of Dr. L. E. Tuttle; and Nellie married William Dean. Mr. Henning served from 1901 to 1905 as a member of the board of trustees of the city of Willows. He has always been a progressive, public-spirited citizen, giving of his time and means to advance the interests of his county. During the many years of his residence in Willows he has made a host of friends, who speak only in the highest terms of his upright, moral character, and high ideals of citizenship. Fraternally, he is a member of the Knights of Pythias and of the Odd Fellows, at Willows.
Hochheimer, Hon. Amiel
An enterprising merchant of prominence and a man of varied interests and large affairs, Amiel Hochheimer has frequentlyplaced his valuable experience at the service of the community in which he lives. He is a native of Pittsburgh, Pa.; but when a small boy he came to California, by way of Panama, with his parents' family. His father, Simon Hochheimer, went to the Southern mines in Calaveras County, and there had indifferent luck. The lad was educated in schools at Stockton, and later went, with his younger brother, Moses, to Solano County, where they got their first experience in the mercantile business, working in stores in old Silveyville and Dixon.

In 1879 Mr. Hochheimer settled in Willows, where he has resided ever since. His brother Moses had preceded him in 1876, and had already established the mercantile business which later was to develop into the well-known firm of Hochheimer & Company. He became a partner, and is still the president of the company. The store stands on the corner of Tehama and Sycamore Streets, where it has been since 1878. It is a large, modern, up-to-date department store, doing the largest business of any concern in Glenn County, and possibly in the Sacramento Valley. Like many other similar establishments, it is the outgrowth of a progressive evolution, for it has been enlarged and remodeled a number of times. The present building was erected in 1891, and was remodeled and modernized in 1911. As a natural sequence of the well-known Hochheimer enterprise, branch stores have been opened and are now maintained at Bakersfield, Orland and Germantown. The Bakersfield store is one of the largest and best- equipped modern department stores in Central California, and is under the able management of two of the sons, Ira and Monroe.

Mr. Hochheimer is one of the most prominent men in the Sacramento Valley. He is a director of the Bank of Willows, and was one of the organizers of the Sacramento Valley Bank & Trust Company, of Sacramento. He is also a director in the California Agricultural Credit Association of San Francisco. For twelve years he was a member of the board of managers of the Mendocino State Hospital of Ukiah, and for four years president of the board. Politically, too, Mr. Hocliheimer has been prominent. He has been a delegate to three national Republican conventions (St. Louis, 1896; Chicago, 1908; and Chicago, 1916), and for thirty years has been a leading member of the Republican State Central Committee. His years of experience in business and public life have made him well qualified to hold the positions for which he has been selected. He has accepted them, not because of profit to him-self, but because he could thus better serve the people of the great state in which he is so interested. He is a very magnetic and fluent speaker, and holds the attention and interest of his audiences. In addition, he is so thoroughly conversant with every portion of the state and of its needs that his words have weight and carry conviction.

In the real estate world Mr. Hochheimer has been identified with a number of important deals, which include a subdivision in East Willows and the Hochheimer subdivision three miles north of Willows, both of which properties have all been sold off. He is one of the owners of the Lemon Home Colony Tract, located north of Orland, under the government irrigation system. This valuable property of one thousand acres has recently been subdivided, and is being sold off in forty-acre farms. Mr. Hochheimer has also an equity in a number of ranch properties in the county.

Amiel Hochheimer was united in marriage to Miss Bertha Blum, a native of San Francisco. They have four children: Ira, manager of the Bakersfield store; Monroe, assistant manager of the Bakersfield store; Jack, of Willows; and Mrs. Elsie Brownstein, of Los Angeles.
Hochheimer, Ira
Guided by the example and experience of two such prominent and successful men in the department store business as his father, Amiel Hochheimer, and his uncle, Moses Hochheimer (whose sketches appear in this book), it is not surprising that Ira Hochheimer, while still a young man, should become the successful manager of the branch store of Hochheimer & Company, located at Bakersfield. Mr. Hochheimer was born in San Francisco, August 6, 1876, and removed with his parents to Glenn County, where he grew to manhood. After the usual course at the public schools, he attended the University of California, from which he graduated with honors in the spring of 1898. Immediately on finishing his college course he returned to Willows, and became manager of the Hochheimer store here; and on the death of M. H. Wangenheim, the manager of the Bakersfield establishment, he was transferred to that city and became Mr. Wangenlieim's successor. How well he has fulfilled all expectations since, at the age of twenty-six, he entered on the heavy responsibilities of his new post, may be seen from the successful development and almost phenomenal growth of the Bakersfield store.

The same superior qualities which have characterized Mr. Hochheimer's mercantile activities, have manifested themselves also in other fields. For some time he was on the staff of Colonel Seymour, of the National Guard of California, and also on the staff of Governor Gillett, with the rank of colonel. Popular socially, he has belonged to the Bakersfield Club, the Army and Navy Club of San Francisco, and the Argonaut Club of San Francisco. He is a thirty-third degree Mason and a Shriner.
Hochheimer, Moses
A man of great executive ability, Moses Hochheimer was a moving spirit in the upbuilding of the well-known firm of Hochheimer & Company, with its successful branch stores at Bakerstield, Orland and Germantown. He was born in Pittsburgh, Pa., and when still very young came with his family to California, making the trip by way of Panama. In early manhood he and his older brother, Amiel (whose sketch appears in this book), laid the foundation for their future success in the mercantile business by working in stores in old Silveyville, Solano County, and at Dixon.

In June, 1876, Mr. Hochheimer came to Willows and established the first store, before the town was even surveyed. It occupied a small building located on the present site of the Glenn County Lumber Company. William Johnson was his partner, and the name of the enterprising firm was Johnson & Hochheimer. When, at the end of three years, his partner sold out his interest to him, his brother Amiel moved to Willows and became a partner in the business, from which has developed the present large corporation.

Mr. Hochheimer married Miss Hattie Crawford, a daughter of Colonel Crawford; and one daughter, Mrs. Lester Sheeline, of Willows, blessed their union. Mr. Hochheimer was a director of the Bank of Willows. He was a brilliant man, and a scholar of fine education, as well as a live business man; and when his death occurred, in 1911, his loss was deeply felt in social, educational and business circles.
Tubman, Hosea B.
One of the leading cattle men of Colusa and Glenn Counties, who has succeeded despite the many obstacles thrown in his way, is Hosea B. Tubman, who was born in Clark County, Ohio, January 24, 1846, the son of Isaac and Frances (Lowe) Tubman, both natives of Ohio. With the usual ox team and a drove of cattle, his father crossed the plains in 1854, taking six months for the journey, and shooting wild game, including the buffalo, for food. The family settled near Petaluma, and engaged in stock-raising; and in 1866 the father retired from active business life. Hosea Tubman‘s first independent ranching operations began in 1866, when, with Tom Harlan, he leased three hundred acres of land of the old Colonel Hagar ranch, four miles south of Colusa, paying a hundred fifty dollars a year rental for the entire lot.

They had many exciting adventures with cattle thieves and horse thieves in Colusa County in those days; and notwithstanding their unremitting vigilance, Mr. Tubman lost many of his cattle and his best horses. When he was able to do so, he drove a band of cattle to Grass Valley, in Nevada County, continuing there in cattle-raising; and he bought a large lot of land, in 1868, in Bear Valley, from which he anticipated much profit. In 1870-1871, however, he was farming near Williams, and the drought of that season swept away nearly all that he owned. In the spring of 1872, Mr Tubman settled in Ash Valley, Modoc County; but after a short time he went to Reno, Nev., for horse trading. The next year he bought a lot of horses and mules at a dollar a head at Santa Barbara, and took them to Ash Valley; but again, through the unprecedented snows that year, he lost all his stock.
In this brief recital of the early operations of this pioneer stockman, is outlined a series of setbacks such as might easily have discouraged the average man; but he was bound to succeed, and so he kept at it, and his present prosperity was obtained largely by hard work and unremitting perseverance. In October, 1874, he set up on a dairy ranch near Colusa, and for the long period of thirty years he was active in dairying. During the latter days of his residence there, he started in to buy and sell cattle; and since then his efforts as a stockman have been attended with marked success.

In 1900, Mr. Tubman came to Willows; and eight years later he formed the Tubman-Mitchell Land & Cattle Co., of which he is the president. This company controls ten thousand acres of grazing land on the hills west of Willows, where their cattle range and are fattened. This company also owns nearly a half interest in the Lake County Land & Cattle Co., of Oregon, which possesses six thousand cattle. In addition he is the president of the H. B. Tubman Co., which has another fifteen hundred head ranging and grazing, and a ranch of four hundred eighty acres three miles northwest of Willows. One hundred eighty acres of this ranch is in alfalfa, and the rest is in grain. The company also rents grazing land west of Willows. As a cue to Mr. Tubman ‘s capacity for enterprise, mention may be made of a big deal engineered by him when he bought one thousand forty steers in Arizona, on which he cleared forty thousand dollars six months later.

Mr. Tubman has been married three times. On the first occasion he was wedded to Miss Mary Semple, a native of Benicia, Cal, the daughter of Dr. Robert Semple. With Will S. Green, Dr. Semple founded the Alta California, at Benicia, the first newspaper printed in this state. He was president of the committee which framed the constitution of the state in assembly in Monterey. Mrs. Tubman was one of the first white girls to be born in California. Three children of that union are living, who assist their father with his various stock and ranch operations: Joseph Benton, Lewis Frank, and Robert Semple. The oldest child of the family, Oscar B., is deceased. The second marriage united Mr. Tubman with Mrs. Susan H. Nye, also a native of California, and a daughter of Dr. Lull, founder of the town of Princeton, Colusa County. His third wife was Meta Stephens, a daughter of Dr. L. P. Tooly, of Willows. Mr. Tubman is a charter member of Colusa Lodge, I. 0. 0. F., of which he is a Past Grand; and he is also a member of the “Clampers,” of Willows. Incidents related by this pioneer of the early days in this section of California are very interesting. He recalls seeing as many as five thousand cattle grazing or lying about on the ground near old “Willow Slough,” where, in the fall of the year, was found the only water nearer than the river. All were sleek and in good condition. Another incident happened in 1867, at one of the rodeos held one and one half miles east of what is now the site of Willows. When rounding up the cattle, the vaqueros drove in a herd of twenty-four antelope with the stock. When the band passed Mr. Tubman he threw a rope and caught one animal, which they had for dinner that night. Many other thrilling incidents of the pioneer life in this section, now fast passing from the memory of the present population, are recounted in the interesting conversation of this pioneer citizen.
Kaiser, Amiel (Pp. 322-404)
One of the largest stock-raisers and grain farmers of Glenn County, Amiel Kaiser was born at Ploen, in Holstein, Germany, May 12, 1879. His parents, Frederick and Katherina (Pries) Kaiser, both were natives of Holstein, Germany. Of their family, Emma was the first to come to California, where she married John Pieper. They now reside in Oregon. The other children are: Henry, who died in Glenn Connty; William, a farmer near St. John; Sophia, Mrs. Gattsch, of Oakland; Andrew, a farmer near Germantown; and Amiel, of this review. Several of the children having- migrated to Glenn County, Frederick Kaiser, with his wife and two youngest sous, Andrew and Amiel, voyaged to the United States, locating at Willows, Glenn County, where they engaged in farming. The father died in 1896, and six months later the mother passed away.

Amiel Kaiser received some schooling in Germany, and finished his education in Willows and Germantown, Cal. His father’s death left him on his own resources at the early age of sixteen years, when he started to earn his own way, going to school in winter and doing farm work during the summer months. He worked eighteen months for Herman Quint on his ranch east of Germantown. His next employment was on the Kelly ranch, where he remained four years. At the end of that time he began working for his brother, Andrew Kaiser, later becoming foreman for him, in charge of his large ranch interests.

After working for his brother nine years, Mr. Kaiser started in to farm for himself. He rented the Western ranch, at St. John, Glenn County, and engaged in grain farming, having seven hundred acres under cultivation; and one year he put in twelve hundred acres. He next rented the Peter Garnett ranch for three years, and farmed eleven hundred acres, two hundred acres of which was pasture land. In all this extensive farming Mr. Kaiser proved successful. He is now renting three sections, nineteen hundred twenty acres, of the James Talbot ranch, eighteen miles southwest of Willows. He has about twelve hundred acres under plow, putting in about one half of it to grain each year, besides which he raises cattle, hogs and mules. He specializes in the Berkshire bxeed of hogs, keeping a registered boar, and raises from two to three hundred hogs yearly. He carries one hundred head of cattle of his own, and also a larger herd on shares. His brand is the well-known Quarter-circle K.

Mr. Kaiser is in every sense of the word a self-made man, owing his success entirely to his own efforts. He is a man of untiring industry, and is at the same time gifted with far-sightedness and business ability. As a citizen, he is progressive and public- spirited, always willing to do his share to further the good of the many. His well-deserved prosperity is an example of what can be accomplished by a young man of sixteen when thrown on his own resources, if his efforts are accompanied by industry and natural business ability, two qualities which make of obstacles but another step in the ladder.

Mr. Kaiser’s marriage took place in Germantown, September 25, 1907, where he was united with Miss Martha Hill, a native daughter. She was born in Germantown, Cal., a daughter of Max Hill, a native of Holstein, Germany, and one of the early settlers of Germantown, Glenn County. He was married here on September 22, 1877, to Miss Wilhelmina Pries, also a native of Germany. They were farmers at Germantown, where they owned and operated four hundred acres two and one half miles northeast of the village. In 1915 Mr. Hill retired; and the home farm is now being operated by his son, Henry. Mr. Hill was twice married; and of the two children by his first marriage Henry is the only one now living. Of his second marriage there was only one child, Martha, now Mrs. Kaiser. Mr. and Mrs. Kaiser have had four children born to them: Florence, Ernest, Bernhardt, and Hugh. The family are members of the German Lutheran Church, and have the respect and esteem of a wide circle of friends in their community..

Knock, Thomas L.
A retired public official to whom the people of Glenn County owe much a debt, they willingly acknowledge is Thomas L. Knock, for many years county surveyor, and in 1891 an active advocate of county formation. He was born in New York City, February 10, 1844, and was educated at the University of the City of New York, where he took courses in navigation and geology. For six years he was a member of the United States Merchant Marine. He rose to second mate of a sailing ship, and visited nearly all of the most interesting parts of the world. For a time, too, he mined in Australia, New Zealand, and South Africa.

In 1869, Mr. Knock came to California, sailing on a ship from Australia. He settled for a while in Colusa, and then went to the mines in Nevada. Returning to California, he took up government land, which he improved, and also bought some acreage north of Orland. Eight hundred acres of his tract he farmed to wheat. In 1891, however, he sold out and again took up engineering and surveying. The following year he became surveyor of Glenn Count; and for twenty years be held that responsible office. He surveyed all the roads in the county, laid out the county's boundaries, built bridges, and acted as engineer for the construction of the Central Canal. In 1900 he took charge of the Spaulding ranch, a vast area of eleven thousand acres, and somewhat later began the development of the same.

In recent years, Mr. Knock has devoted himself to real estate and business interests at Willows, assuming charge of three different estates in the county. In this enterprise he has established an enviable reputation, handling with marked success the interests entrusted to him.

Thomas L. Knock was united in marriage with Agnes M. Pullman, a native of New Zealand, of English parentage. He is the father of three sons and three daughters: Ada, in the Sandwich Islands; Elma, well-known in insurance circles in Willows, having the largest insurance business there; Thomas; Bayard, the present county surveyor, a sketch of whose life will be found else-where in this work; Malcolm, in the Sandwich Islands, assistant manager of the Spaulding ranch; and Effie, of Willows. Mr. Knock is an active Mason, and a director of the Masonic Temple Association at Willows.
Thompson, Leonard
A pioneer who will be long and gratefully remembered for his uprightness of character and his rare personal qualities, and for the influence of his example in the community in which he lived, was Leonard Thompson, now deceased, who was born in Ohio, in 1831. He was a son of Samuel Thompson, a Methodist minister, who died at the home of his son, in Iowa. When Leonard Thompson was only fifteen, he moved from the Buckeye State to Henry County, Iowa; and there he was raised on a farm. In a few years, with characteristic enterprise, he was tilling the soil for himself; nor did he take his hand from the plow until he had made his position secure among Iowa farmers.

In the fall of 1875, he came West, to California; and arriving in Orland, he bought a hundred forty acres of raw land, six miles to the southeast of the town. At that time there were very few settlers in the neighborhood. It was a difficult task to improve the place and make of it a habitable home and a paying investment. However, he leveled the land, fenced it in, built a house and barns, and planted trees; and in the end the Thompson ranch and ranch house were an attractive sight to all who saw the place. The fig trees on the ranch are now among the largest to be found anywhere in California. For many years, Mr. Thompson ran the ranch, farming to grain; and when he gave up active life, his sons carried on the work he had begun. Of late the place has been managed by Frank W. Thompson, who lives two miles south of Orland. The land is still being devoted to grain-raising.

Leonard Thompson was twice married. One son by the first marriage, Thomas A. Thompson, is the father of one daughter, Lucille. The second marriage occurred in 1856, when Mr. Thompson was united with Miss Hannah Newby, a native of Henry County, Ind., born in 1841, who moved to Henry County, Iowa, in 1852. W. Lawrence Thompson, a son horn of this union, is married and has three sons, Verner, Lester and Ralph. For forty-two years Mrs. Leonard Thompson has lived on the old home ranch; and she recalls with interest the pioneer days in Colusa County, when all the trading was done in Chico, Butte County, some twenty miles from the ranch, and at Jacinto. At that time Orland was not on the map. Leonard Thompson was a man of fine education. He was fond of books and had a well-stored mind, having been for years a wide reader. In keeping with his natural aptitudes, he early turned his attention to the field of education.

In every way possible he supported California schools; and for years he served as a trustee in the Plaza district. When he died, in 1908, California lost one of her most conscientious and efficient citizens.
Logan, John Stephen
In California, more than in any other state in the Union, the vigorous prosperity of the state is directly traceable to those pioneers who came out of the East to help build up the West, leaving behind them all the comforts of an entire civilization to confront a life of untiring effort, full of hardships and rough edges, but with promise of rich rewards to spur them on with renewed energy when they found their spirits flagging. Among those who chose that portion of the state which is now Glenn County as the scene of their activities, John Stephen Logan is worthy of mention as having been identified with the development of this section. Born in Warren County, Mo., October 28, 1843, be comes of an old Scotch-Irish family who settled in Kentucky, and later in Missouri, being contemporaries of Daniel Boone. It was in Missouri that Mr. Logan was reared and educated, a son of Alexander and Elizabeth (Quick) Logan, natives of Lexington, Ky.

Feeling the call of the West, as his fathers had before him, Mr. Logan came to California, in 1866, via Panama, and located in what is now Glenn County, where he engaged in farming and stock-raising with the late Hugh A. Logan, with whom he became associated and financially interested in the operating of large ranches and stock interests, an association in which they continued in amicable and harmonious cooperation. They incorporated their holdings as the Hugh A. Logan Land & Cattle Company, and he has been director and treasurer of the company ever since, devoting to the business his time and the practical knowledge which his years of experience have given him.

Aside from the stock-raising business, Mr. Logan is much interested in horticulture. He has set out an orchard of a large variety of trees, having found that locality particularly suitable for both deciduous and citrus fruits, as well as almonds and walnuts. A man of keen intelligence and a close observer, well read and well informed on current topics, he is an interesting conversationalist. Like most pioneer Californians, he is very generous, dispensing the old-time hospitality; and fortunate is the visitor who has the pleasure of being entertained by him. Liberal and kind-hearted, he is ever ready to help those who have been less fortunate than himself. A great lover of children, he never tires of doing for them; and they, in turn, show their gratitude for his kindness. Emphatically a man of energy, Mr. Logan has never been idle, but has continued to be one of the most enterprising and active men in Glenn County, giving substantial encouragement to every plan for the promotion of the public welfare.
Reager, Louis M.
A pioneer educator, and for more than ten years a member of the county board of education of Glenn County, Louis M. Reager has made his influence felt for good in his native county. The son of Martin A. Reager, a forty-niner, whose sketch is given elsewhere in this history, he was born in Colusa County, December 21, 1861; and practically his entire life has been passed within the old county boundary lines. His schooling was obtained in the common schools and in Pierce Christian College, at College City, from which he was graduated in 1885. He at once secured a school and began teaching; and during the years that have intervened since then he has been following his chosen career. Today he is recognized as one of the leading educators of Colusa and Glenn Counties.

Mr. Reager has taught in Orland, where for seven years he was principal of the high school, and for two years, of the grammar school; and in the Hamilton and Bayliss districts. In 1916-1917 he was principal of the Bayliss school. So satisfactory have been his services that he was chosen a member of the Glenn County board of education. For more than ten years he has served in that position, part of the time as president of the board. By his service on the board he has aided materially in bringing the public school system to its present high state of efficiency.
Mr. Reager has wisely invested in city and country property. He owns a fine dairy ranch of eighty-two acres east of Orland, a part of the proi^erty once owned by his father, which was purchased in 1860. He also owns thirteen acres west of town, and has his fine home place of three and one half acres in the city. He is a Mason, belonging to Orland Lodge, No.- 265, F. & A. M., of which he is a Past Master.
On November 9, 1887, occurred the marriage of Louis M. Reager with Miss Anna Durham. Mr. and Mrs. Reager have two children, Orrin D. and Xavie. Xavie is a teacher in the Orland grammar school.
Marshall, William W.
In the roll of honor of those pioneers of California whose lives, and work, and sacrifices are reflected in the present prosperity of the state, the name of William W. Marshall, now deceased, will have an enviable place. Born in Macon County, Mo., September 26, 1837, he crossed the plains in 1852 in company with J. C. Wilson, driving a herd of cattle all the way to California. Once arrived here, and somewhat settled, he mined for a while in Calaveras and Amador Counties, and then, in 1857, went to Colusa County, where he took up government land fifteen miles northwest of Willows. He engaged in cattle-raising and sheep-raising, and meanwhile kept adding to his holdings, until at one time he owned three thousand acres of land. At one time he farmed about two thousand acres to wheat and barley. His stock operations also included the raising of mules and high-class trotting horses; and among the latter, his horse Stranger won many races at the local fairs, and on the trotting courses of San Francisco. Such was the quality, too, of his sheep and cattle that they won for him numerous medals. The old home ranch, consisting of twenty-two hundred acres, is still in the possession of the family.

In 1862, Mr. Marshall married Miss Elmira Halley, a native of Illinois, who crossed the plains in 1854 with her parents, from Iowa, then their home, when she was only ten years old. Her father was G. W. Halley, who settled in Colusa County, where he bought government land, and for many years successfully engaged in the raising of cattle and hogs. G. W. Halley married Miss Jane Sherman, a native of Illinois. Besides Mrs. Marshall, they had two other children: Oscar Halley, of Red Bluff; and Mrs. M. E. Alvarado, of Mountain View, Cal. Mrs. Marshall still relates many interesting experiences of pioneer days. They came into Colusa County with their ox teams; and for some time there after they used the oxen for travel about the country. She remembers very well the antelopes and the wild Spanish cattle roaming everywhere about the plains at Colusa. Four children were born to Mr. and Mrs. Marshall. The eldest, Mrs. Nellie Bressler, now deceased, was the mother of three children: Mrs. J. E. Carter, of Sebastopol; Mrs. E. G. Callender, of Petaluma; and Lyle Bressler, now twenty-five years of age, who lives on the old home ranch of his grandfather, of which he has charge, and on which he is meeting with success. The other children of Mr. and Mrs. Marshall are: Mrs. Leonora Neate, of Willows; James Edward, deceased, the father of one son, Leon W. Marshall, who is studying dentistry in San Francisco; and Roy Marshall, of Willows.

William W. Marshall died in 1911, and was buried with due Masonic rites. In his death the community lost an exemplary citizen and an enterprising builder of the state. He was one of the largest grain farmers in the county. His greatness, however, did not consist merely in his spirit of enterprise. It was rather his high sense of personal honor, and the elevated principles which actuated him, and which he applied in every transaction and would have the commonwealth adopt as its own, that made him conspicuous as a leader among his fellow men. Mrs. Marshall, who survives her husband, is still an active and energetic business woman. She is a charter member of Marshall Chapter, O. E. S., of Willows, of which she is Past Matron. In her religious life she is a consistent member of the Christian Church.
McDaniel, Levi Jefferson
One who played a part in the right control of public affairs in Glenn County, where his memory is still held in reverence, was Levi Jefferson McDaniel, born in that part of Colusa County which is now Glenn County, August 8, 1858. He attended the public schools, and later took a course at the Pacific Methodist College at Santa Rosa, after which he settled on the old home ranch of thirteen hundred acres near Butte City, and engaged in raising grain, and stock. His father was Elijah McDaniel, a native of Roane County, Tenn., where he was born on July 4, 1820. At the age of fourteen Elijah McDaniel went with his father to Illinois, where, in January, 184:2, he married Sarah Ann Gore. He settled in Wayne County, and later removed to Schuyler County. In 1853, with his wife and four children, he crossed the plains to California in an ox-team train, and in the fall of that year settled in the Sacramento Valley, where he built a log house at Painter’s Landing; and here, on October 4, was born a daughter, the first white child born in the valley on the east side of the Sacramento River, who later became Mrs. Annand. Mrs. McDaniel died on September 8, 1889.

In 1881, Levi McDaniel married Hattie Griggs, an estimable woman, born in Santa Rosa, who proved her value as a true help-mate. By her he had four children: J. E. McDaniel; Mrs. Ethel Lane and Mrs. Elva Melville, both living at Oakland; and Franklin, who died in infancy. Politically, Mr. McDaniel was a Democrat; and he was active in the latter years of his life in the councils of the party. Fraternally, he was a Mason and a Forester, being Past Chief Ranger of the Butte City Lodge. He was an active and consistent member of the Methodist Episcopal Church, South, and was a steward of the church at the time of his death, on January 15, 1905. At his passing the state, and particularly Glenn , County, lost a progressive citizen, and a man who commanded the respect of all who knew him. After his death, Mrs. McDaniel took over the management of the ranch, with the aid of her son, and conducted it successfully until the property was sold.
Mehl, John (Pp. 322-404)
The pioneer shoe dealer of Orland is John Mehl, who has been a resident of California since 1873, when he arrived in Marysville, a youth of seventeen. He was born in Baden, Germany, and up to the age of sixteen attended the schools of that country, gaining a good knowledge of the common branches of education. During his last year in his native land, it was arranged that he should go to America to join Charles Mehl, an uncle, located in California and engaged in the bakery business at Marysville. Accordingly, he boarded a vessel for New York, and on his arrival came direct to Marysville, where he worked about a year for his uncle. He was very much dissatisfied with his environments, however, and did not like the bakery business; so he left there and went to Colusa. There he served a three-year apprenticeship with Benjamin Bropst, learning the trade of shoe-maker. After he had mastered the trade, he worked for one year in Yuba City and three months in Red Bluff. He then came to Williams, Colusa County, and worked one year for Samuel Wild. Some time later he bought out Mr. Wild's business, forming a partnership with Otto Lunz, and carried on a shoe shop with growing success. They opened a branch store in Orland, in August, 1882, when the railroad was built to that town; and since then Mr. Mehl has been in the shoe business in Orland. His partner died in 1883, and their interests were then divided.

There is not a man doing business in Orland today whose connection with the commercial interests of the place dates back to the time of Mr. Mehl's arrival. In point of service, therefore, he is the oldest merchant in the town. The first year he had a small shop on Fifth Street. He then moved to his present location on Fourth Street, where he had a modern front put on his original store. He carries a full line of both dress shoes and serviceable shoes, in all sizes, for men, women and children, and also does a general repair business. Besides his place of business, he owns a comfortable home in Orland; and he has taken an active interest in every movement that has been put forward to build up the town. There were only five stores in the town when he started his establishment; and all the development of this section has been witnessed by this pioneer merchant.

Mr. Mehl has been twice married. His first wife was Esther E. Birch, born in Illinois, by whom he had three children: Bernhard L., a graduate of the University of California and now a civil engineer in San Francisco; Flora, the wife of W. H. Newhouse; and Ross B., who assists his father in the store. His second marriage united him with Emily Brooks, also born in Illinois, and a lady of culture and refinement. Mrs. Mehl is a prominent member of the Rebekahs. She has passed all the chairs of the order, and attended the Grand Lodge in San Diego. Mr. Mehl is a member of Stony Creek Lodge, No. 218, I. O. 0. F., of Orland. He has served as treasurer of the lodge for twenty years; and he attended the Grand Lodge in San Francisco. He is a charter member of the Encampment and also of the Rebekahs. As a man and citizen, Mr. Mehl has a high standing in Orland, where he is looked to for cooperation with every public movement for the betterment of the community. He is a member of the Lutheran Church.
Miller, William Frank
When it conies to talking of the pioneer days of '49, then William Frank Miller, the popular merchant of Butte City, Glenn County, will have a story to tell, and one that is always worth hearing. He was born in Anderson County, Ky., April 13, 1848, the son of Marshall and Amanda (Walker) Miller, both natives of the sunny South, who came to California in 1849, crossing the plains with an ox-team train of emigrants. Soon after their arrival the father began to operate a ferry between Fremont and Vernon, and it was here that his good wife died. She is buried at the latter place. After his wife's death the father then went to Nevada County and became one of the pioneer merchants of that county, being located at Nevada City, or in the vicinity of that place, at a settlement known as Coyoteville. He died there in 1859.

It was while living in Nevada City that W. Frank and his brother, Merritt H. Miller, had a narrow escape from death. The incident is worthy of record, for Providence certainly interceded in behalf of the future merchant of Glenn County. The home of the Miller family, for his father had married again, was one of the pioneer structures of that day in the mining camps. Near by stood a large dead pine tree that threatened to fall and crush the building. One night the parents heard a creaking of the tree during a strong wind; and before the crash came that would have crushed the two boys asleep in their bed, they dragged them away from danger just as the tree fell across the bed where the boys had been sleeping but a moment before.

W. Frank was in his twelfth year when his father died. He was thus left to shift for himself at an age when most boys are considered helpless and entirely dependent. His schooling was very limited. His education has been acquired largely by elbowing the rough edges of the world, and his diploma came from the "College of Hard Knocks." He is a pioneer, and the son of a pioneer; and he had the usual experiences of the pioneer's off-spring. Ever since he was twelve he has made his own way in the world, so that whatever he has accomplished is due entirely to his own indefatigable exertions in self-reliantly following a definite course.

He worked in the mines in Nevada County, and then went to Virginia City, in Nevada, where he mined for a time, mingling with men of every description. Afterwards he worked at various kinds of employment to make a living. He returned to California, and for a time was employed on ranches in Colusa County. In 1863, he settled in what is now a part of Glenn County, and there farmed on his own responsibility until the public lands came into the market, when he preempted a tract near the present site of Butte City. Later, with his brother, Merritt H., for a partner, he carried on a grain ranch southeast of that place and made a stake, so that he was enabled to open a store. This was in 1873, when, with a partner, he opened one of the first stores in the little settlement. Starting on a very small scale and in a very small building, the firm of Miller and Eyan began to do a flourishing business.

Ever since the opening of the establishment, Mr. Miller has been connected with the business, although several partners have been associated with him at various times. The name of W. Frank Miller & Co. has long stood for reliability, and the business has grown to large proportions with the settling up of the country round about. Branch stores have been opened at Princeton and at Glenn, and a large and varied general stock of merchandise is always to be found in their stores.

The pioneer spirit of this worthy man was again demonstrated when he went to the Klondike at the time of the gold excitement in Alaska; but he did not find it attractive enough to stay longer than two years, at the end of which time he returned to his California home. Ever since, he has been a familiar figure in Colusa and Glenn Counties.

As might be expected of a man who has met with success in his various undertakings, Mr. Miller has been prominent in public life. He is a loyal Democrat, and has served as a member of the County Central Committee for many years, and as a delegate to both state and county conventions. He was a member of the board of supervisors of Glenn County after the division was made, filling the office two terms with satisfaction to all his friends, for he served the whole people with impartiality. For twenty years he was postmaster of Butte City, and for a like period was agent for Wells-Fargo Express Co. He was one of the organizers of the Butte City school district, and has been a member of the board of trustees ever since its organization. No more public-spirited man can be found in Glenn County than W. Frank Miller.

On September 29, 1869, William Frank Miller was united in marriage with Miss Elizabeth Rantz, a native of Illinois, who crossed the plains to California with her parents in 1850, behind the slow-moving oxen. Of this marriage nine children were born, six of whom are still living. The oldest daughter is Mrs. Effie Frances Wylie, of Corning, and she has three children. Mrs. Lena Barham is the second daughter, and she has two sons and a daughter. Mrs. Gloria May Bondurant has one daughter and two sons, twins. Alice D. is the fourth daughter, and married Charles Hanson; and Mrs. Achsah Moler, of Sacramento, is next to the youngest. Miss William Franklin Miller, Jr., or "Frankie," as she is known to her friends, is the youngest member of the Miller household, and her father's namesake. The other children died in infancy and early childhood. Mrs. Miller passed away on September 11, 1914, one day less than sixty-four years of age, mourned by her family and a very large circle of friends. The family are members of the Christian Church of Butte City. Mr. Miller is a Knight Templar Mason, and belongs to the Independent Order of Foresters, being a charter member of Butte City Lodge, in which he was the first Past Chief Ranger. He is known far and wide throughout the Sacramento Valley as a man whose word is as good as his bond, a tribute paid to comparatively few men.
Monroe, Daniel F.
A well-known citizen of Glenn County, who has made his influence felt in the upbuilding of his locality, is Daniel F. Monroe. He was born on Spencer Creek, Lane County, Ore., near the town of Eugene, on May 27, 1854. His father was James Monroe, born in Fort Hempstead, now in Howard County, Mo., October 8, 1814, who came by way of Panama, in 1849, to mine for gold in California. James Monroe prospected about Hangtown, now Placerville, for a time, but did not meet with the success he had anticipated. While in Hangtown he was a member of the E. Clampus Vitus organization, which cleaned up that mining camp of undesirables. After his mining experience, he returned over the same route he had come to this state, with the intention of bringing his family West to make their home. The next year, 1852, he crossed the plains with his family in an ox-team train numbering some one hundred wagons, of which he was selected as captain, to guide them in safety on their long journey. After passing the danger line for Indians, the train divided, some coming on to California and the others going to Oregon. Mr. Monroe was among the latter. On arriving in that state, he settled in Lane County; and while living there he became well acquainted with John Whittaker, who was elected the first governor of Oregon. Mr. Monroe became influential in politics, as a prominent Democrat. He served one term as county commissioner of Lane County and one term as assemblyman, and was twice elected to serve in the state senate.

On May 13, 1865, the Monroe family left Oregon for California, the father bringing a band of one hundred fifty horses, which he drove down to Yolo County. These he sold, and purchased land, on which he lived one year. The following year he returned to Oregon, bought a band of cattle, and drove them into California, grazing them on the open range in what was then a part of Colusa County, but is now in Glenn County, on Stony Creek; and for four years he was engaged in raising cattle with success. In 1872 he bought government land in Clark's Valley, and engaged in the sheep business until 1875, when he sold his band and went to Lompoc, in Santa Barbara County, where he made his home until 1884. He then moved back to Colusa County, but soon thereafter met with an accidental death. A team ran over him, causing an injury, from the effects of which he died, October 17, 1884 another pioneer builder gone over the "Great Divide."

James Monroe was married to Cynthia Brashear, who was born in Kentucky, near Roachport, March 21, 1816, of French descent, and who bore all the trials of a pioneer's wife as bravely as any who ever crossed the plains. Her death occurred at Newville, Glenn County, March 10, 1892. She gave birth to nine children, eight of them boys. James, George, Charles, and Lemuel died of diphtheria in Oregon; while Isaac, Martha, William, John, and Daniel F. lived in California. All are now numbered with the "silent majority" with the exception of Daniel F. Monroe.

Daniel F. Monroe was taught by his mother until he was eleven years old; and he first attended school in Yolo County. He was reared on a farm, and worked as a farm hand when a young man. On October 23, 1876, he was united in marriage with Mary Vanlandingham, whose father crossed the plains to California in 1860 from Missouri, and ranched for many years near Elk Creek, Glenn County. In June, 1877, the young couple moved to Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, where for seven years Mr. Monroe worked at the carpenter's trade and farmed. While there, he took an active interest in the public school question, and helped to build the schoolhouse in the Stuart district, serving as a trustee for four years. Coming back to what is now Glenn County, he bought land two miles west of Newville; and there the family made their home until Mrs. Monroe's death, on June 2, 1901. Here he also took an active part in building up the West Side School, in the Newville district, hauling lumber and working on the building, and served as a trustee for a number of rears. While living at Newville he was constable for several terms, and served as road overseer, helping to build the roads in the district.

Of the marriage of Daniel F. and Mary Monroe, five children were born: John W., county treasurer of Glenn County; James S., of Orland; Charles E., of Oakland; Melissa Olive, who married Enoch Knight, and died on June 9, 1906, aged twenty-two years; and Mrs. G. E. Schwan, of Aptos, Santa Cruz County.

After the death of his wife, Mr. Monroe went to Elk Creek and for three years did teaming and farmed. In 1904 he moved to Orland, and continued to do teaming until 1908, when he came to Willows and joined his son, John W., in contracting and building, erecting many houses in Willows and vicinity; and he has lived in that city ever since. Mr. Monroe is of sturdy Scotch stock. His grandfather, William Munro, as he spelled it, was a Virginian who went into Missouri, and was associated with Daniel Boone in the early days. Mr. Monroe is a member of the Willows Lodge, No. 5, E. Clampus Vitus.
Hanson, Nicholas Wilson
The records of California show the birth of many men who have attained to a prominent place in the history of the various counties, besides those of national repute. Of the men who have taken hold with a zeal and a determination to perpetuate the deeds of the forerunners of ourcivilization, Nicholas Wilson Hanson is a worthy representative. He was born in Lake County, September 8, 1868, a son of William P. Hanson, a Kentuckian by birth, but who was reared in Coles County, 111. William P. Hanson came as a forty-niner to this state by way of Panama, accompanied by his father, George M. Hanson. They located in Marysville; and later William P. went to the mines on- Feather River for a time, after which he returned to Marysville and with his father built the first bridge across the Feather River between Yuba City and Marysville, costing some $30,000. It was also one of the first bridges built in this part of the state. They ran it as a toll bridge for a year, when the flood waters washed it away. Grandfather Hanson erected the first brick house in Yuba City, a two-story structure, the material for which was shipped around the Horn. This building is still standing, and is occupied as a residence.

The Indians from Lake County, Cal., went to the rancherias along the Sacramento River to hunt and fish, sometimes visiting Marysville. Their bartering attracted the attention of William Hanson, and he found some Indians to act as guides, going with them to Upper Lake, in that county. They traveled by way of Sulphur Creek, through Grizzly Canyon; and when going through the latter Mr. Hanson killed a large grizzly bear, giving the name to the canyon, by which it has ever since been known. He was one of the first white men to make the trip through by Sulphur Creek. After he had explored the country in Lake County, he returned to Marysville for his family. Mrs. Hanson traveled all the distance on horseback, as no roads were in evidence at that date; while her two small children were carried on the saddles of her husband and his father.

The grandfather, George M. Hanson, was born in Tazewell County, Va., March 13, 1799. He was married in Lebanon, Va., in 1819, to Miss Polly Ellington. They had seven sons and three daughters, all of whom crossed the plains except two daughters, Sidney “Elizabeth and Jerusha, who married in Illinois and died there. One daughter, Elizabeth, came to California. The sons were William P., Nathan E., George M., James F., Daniel, Rufus, and David M., who resides at Vallejo, the only one now living. In 1821 the grandfather moved to Kentucky and engaged in mercantile business. He later emigrated to Clark County, ILL., and for twenty-five years was in public life in that state, twelve years in the house and senate. In 1847 he visited Texas with the idea of locating there, but returned home dissatisfied and outfitted for Oregon Territory. Before he was ready to start, news of the discovery of gold in California came aud he again changed his plans. He left Coles County in April, 1849, with three ox teams and a family carriage drawn by horses. They rendezvoused at Independence, Mo., where they joined a train of thirty-five wagons and teams and one hundred persons, among whom were only three women and a dozen children. John G. Allender was chosen captain to guide the train to -California. They arrived at Yuba City in November, 1849. They were destitute, having lost everything they had in the mountain fastnesses and the snows of the Sierras. Mr. Hanson opened a hotel, and soon built up his fortunes in the hotel business and by building a ferry, and later the toll bridge mentioned. After it was destroyed he and John C. Fall built another. He became prominent in politics and was a delegate to the convention that nominated John C. Fremont. He was a warm friend of Lincoln, and from him received a commission as Superintendent of Indian Affairs for the Northern District of California. He was a Mason for over fifty years. He died in Lake County, August 1, 1879, after a long and useful life as a pioneer frontiersman and a builder of our great commonwealth.

The father, William P. Hanson, took up farming and stock-raising as a surer way to prosperity than mining. He began in Lake County, and later took up government land in Sutter County; and in 1879 he located in what is now Glenn County, near the set- tlement of Willows. Besides his own claim he leased land near by; and here he raised grain and stock until his death in 1889, when he was accidentally killed by being run over by a train. At his death the community lost one of its most efficient upbuilders. He was a member of the Methodist Church. In politics he was a Republican. He married Lydia Wilson, a native of Maryland, who located in Illinois at an early date, where she and Mr. Hanson were married upon his return from California by way of Panama, in 1853; and together they came across the plains with ox teams. Eight children were born to this pioneer couple, of whom the oldest and youngest are deceased. Those living are: Mrs. T. H. Newsom, of Glenn; Mrs. Ella Stout, of Sacramento; Mrs. Clara Miller, of Hammonton, Yuba County; George M., near Glenn; Nicholas W., of this review; and Mrs. Lydia Huffmaster, of Leesville. All were born, reared and educated in California. Mrs. Lydia Hanson passed away at the home of her son, Nicholas W., on November 21, 1910.

Nicholas W. Hanson was the sixth child in order of birth in his parents' family. His schooling -was obtained in the public schools of Sutter and Glenn Counties. Meanwhile he worked on his father's farm until the death, of the latter; and ever since he has been following his chosen vocation in Glenn County. In 1902 he came to the section where he now lives, purchased a ranch of three hundred thirty acres of the Glenn estate and began making improvements by clearing the land and planting to grain and produce, also raising hogs and cattle. His ranch, as seen today, shows what labor he has expended in getting it under cultivation during the past fifteen years. In the beginning it was covered with heavy timber and underbrush. He raises good corn on the bottom land; and produce of every description is grown in abundance on his property, which is kept in a high state of cultivation through his close personal supervision of the ranch work.

In 1897, on December 8, was celebrated the marriage of Nicholas W. Hanson and Miss Bertha A. Hull. She was born in Kansas, and came to California with her parents in 1889. Both Mr. and Mrs. Hanson are recognized as leaders in their social circle. They are charitable and hospitable, and have a host of friends, who admire them for their many fine qualities of mind and heart. In 1916 Mr. Hanson built one of the most substantial and modern houses in the county, the contract being executed by J. W. Halterman of Willows, who prepared the plans from ideas given by Mr. and Mrs. Hanson. In this home the many friends of this worthy couple are entertained in a fitting manner. Mr. Hanson counts five generations of the family in this state, beginning with his grandfather, George M. Hanson, and coming down to the Stout family in Sacramento, who have children married and with families. Like his father, he has made a name and place for himself in the county. He is serving as one of the levee trustees of Levee District No. 1. In politics he is a Republican. Fraternally, he is a member of the Odd Fellows at Willows.

O'Brien, James Patrick
Near Fruto, in Glenn County, as that section was named after its separation from Colusa County, is the large ranch that was the home of one of the pioneers of the county, known by all his intimate friends as Patrick O'Brien. He was born in Ireland, and when a small child was brought to the United States by his parents, who settled near St. Louis, Mo. He attended the district schools of St. Louis County, and grew to young manhood on the farm operated by his father. When the news of the discovery of gold in California was sent broadcast throughout the world, this sturdy young man and a friend, J. W. Robertson, decided to try their fortunes in the mines. In 1850 they joined an emigrant train, which reached this state five months later. The slow-going ox teams ended their long journey in Nevada City, where Patrick O'Brien and his friend began their mining experiences. They were successful there, and later went to Downieville, with their good fortune still following them. In 1852 they returned to Missouri by way of Panama, and bought six thousand dollars' worth of cattle, which they drove back over the plains. On arriving in California with their two hundred eighty head of stock, they settled on Bird Creek, in Yolo County.

In Yolo County, James Patrick O'Brien was united in marriage with Miss Sarah Jane Musick, a native of Franklin County, Mo. She was a daughter of William L. and Elizabeth (Pritchett) Musick, native Missourians, who came to California across the plains in 1853, settling near Woodland. In 1865 they removed to what is now Glenn County and established their home near that of their daughter, Mrs. 'Brien; but twenty years later they moved to Shasta County, where, at Millerville, Mr. Musick 's death occurred in 1888. His good wife also died there. Mr. and Mrs. O'Brien had nine children, one of whom died very young. The others were: Mary, Mrs. Frederick Miller, and Frances, Mrs. G. C. Prentice, both now deceased; Margaret, the wife of Dr. Burnell, of San Francisco; Susan, Mrs. McLaughlin, deceased; Thomas Edward, who married Mabel Williams in 1894, and died in 1900; Philip; Gertrude, Mrs. M. H. Diggs, of Orland; and James P., of San Francisco.

In 1857 Mr. O'Brien took up a government claim of one hundred sixty acres, located fourteen miles west of what is now the town site of Willows. Here he improved a home place; and as success rewarded his efforts, he kept adding to his property until he owned some ten thousand acres of fine grazing and farming land. He made all the improvements on the place. He erected a good house, built barns, and fenced his land; and in time he had one of the best places in that part of the county. There he made his home during the remainder of his life. He died on May 2, 1893, at the age of sixty-eight years. His passing was a loss to the community, where he had endeared himself to all his neighbors and friends. He was well known throughout Glenn County, and held the respect of his fellow citizens wherever he was known. In national politics, he aligned himself with the Democratic party. He was buried according to the rites of the Roman Catholic Church, of which he was a devout member.

After the death of her husband, Mrs. O'Brien was assisted in the management of the ranch by her son, Thomas Edward O'Brien. He was a likely young man, born in Colusa County and educated at the Brothers' School in San Mateo. His school days over, he returned to the farm and worked with his father until he passed away. He then assumed charge of the ranch, and operated it until he, too, was called to join the great majority, leaving a widow and one daughter, Phelieta Scyoc, to mourn his death. After he died, Mrs. O'Brien made her home on the ranch until 1913, when she moved to Willows, where she is now living. The place is still devoted to the stock business and to the raising of wheat and barley. Mrs. O'Brien is a member and Past Grand of the Rebekahs.
Petersen, William J.
William J. Petersen is the owner of eighty-four acres of fine land, situated three and one-half miles northwest from Orland. Mr. Petersen was born in Schleswig-Holstein, Germany, April 8, 1886. He was a pupil in the grammar schools of his home place until he was fifteen, when he decided to come to the United States. California was his objective point, and he arrived in Sonoma County in 1901. For some time he was employed on a ranch near Sebastopol, learning the ways of the country and acquiring the ability to speak English, thus equipping himself to conduct his own business at some future time. The young man saved his money; and when he had enough to make a start for himself, he rented some land and bought the implements and machinery necessary to operate it with success. He raised fruit, grapes and chickens, and also conducted a dairy. To do this successfully meant hard work; but he was young and vigorous, and ambitious to build a sure foundation for his future success.

On January 6, 1914, Mr. Petersen arrived in Orland with money to invest in land if he could find what he wanted. The place where he is now located seemed to fill the bill, and he there-fore bought it and took possession. Since then he has given his time to improving the property and making it what it is today. He has a fine dairy of thirty cows, high-grade Jerseys, with a registered Jersey bull at their head. Fifty-five acres of the land is seeded to alfalfa, which averages six tons to the acre, yielding five crops annually. Mr. Petersen is a stockholder and a director in the Orland Cheese and Butter Co., a firm which very materially furthers the interests of the dairymen in the Orland district.

William J. Petersen was united in marriage with Miss Keike Matsen, one of his countrywomen, who has proven her worth in every way as a faithful helpmate and counselor. They have two bright children, lima and Lillian, to add comfort and cheer to their home. Both Mr. and Mrs. Petersen have a wide circle of friends in their new home locality, who predict much prosperity for them, and admire their thrift and public spirit.
Purkitt, George Henry (Pp. 322-404)
The story of the life of George Henry Purkitt is one of interest; and, were he alive to narrate it, the scenes that he witnessed during his active career in California, the hardships that he endured, and the obstacles that he surmounted would make a large volume. His biography dates from January 18, 1838, when he was born at Griggsville, Pike County, Ill., and closes with his death at Willows, Cal., on September 14, 1915.

Mr. Purkitt came of good old Colonial stock on both sides of his family. His paternal great-grandfather was Col. Henry Purkitt, of Boston, Mass., who was a member of the Boston Tea Party, and who later served with distinction throughout the Revolutionary War. He is buried in the Boylston Street Cemetery on the edge of Boston Common. The maternal-grandfather was Frederick Prevost, a son of Sir George and Lady Theodosia Prevost. Sir George was an officer in the English navy. Upon his death, Mrs. Prevost remained a resident of America, and later became the first wife of Aaron Burr.

George H. Purldtt's father, George Tuckerman Purkitt, came west from Boston to Illinois in 1831. In that state he attended Jacksonville College with Richard Yates, who later became the famous war governor of Illinois. On November 24, 1836, George T. Purkitt married Miss Henrietta Prevost, at the old Prevost homestead, about fifteen miles southwest of Jacksonville, the county seat of Morgan County. They spent their lives in that vicinity, and are buried in Mt. Sterling Cemetery.

Like his father, George Henry Purkitt attended Jacksonville College, selecting civil engineering as a profession; and also, like him, he responded to the call, "Westward ho!" He started for California with an ox-team train, and arrived in Sacramento on July 6, 1862. From the capital city he went to San Francisco to visit an uncle, John H. Purkitt, who was then in the employ of the government in the custom house. After a short visit he went to Sierra County and followed hydraulic mining for a year, and then went to Yuba County and there continued mining on the Rabbit Creek road for six months. Not succeeding in finding the "elusive yellow metal", he went to Brown's Valley, in that county, and was employed in a general merchandise store for a time. On May 5, 1865, he located in Marysville, where he kept books in the whole-sale grocery house of G. A. Polk & Co., until 1868. He then went to Colusa, where, in 1869, he served as deputy sheriff under I. N. Cain. From 1872 to 1874 he filled the office of county surveyor.

In Sacramento, April 27, 1873, George H. Purkitt was united in marriage with Miss Theodora Tiffee, a daughter of John Richard and Rebecca (Terrill) Tiffee. After his term of office as county surveyor was completed, in 1874, Mr. and Mrs. Purkitt removed from Colusa to the northwest part of Colusa County, that part now included in the boundaries of Glenn County, and took charge of the Tiffee estate, a ranch located nine miles west of Willows. There they lived and farmed until 1889, when they moved to the town of Willows.

Mr. Purkitt was always a stanch Democrat, and took an active part in political affairs. Together with B. N. Scribner of Orland, Nelson Davis of Butte City, Milton French and Joe Troxel, both of Willows, he was appointed by Governor Markham a commissioner for the formation of Glenn County. This commission met in executive session on May 11, 1891, complimenting Mr. Purkitt with the chairmanship. As a result of their labors, Glenn County came into being with its present boundaries, and with Willows as its County seat.

Mr. Purkitt was the father of six children, five of whom survive him. There are three grandchildren. Herbert Titfee Purkitt, the oldest son, died on August 24, 1901. Those living are: Claude Fouts Purkitt, of Willows; Theodore Tiffee Purkitt, of Woodland, who is the father of one daughter, Theodora; Edna Louisa, the wife of J. E. Knight, of Willows, and the mother of two children, John Richard Tiffee and George Purkitt; Georgie Harriett, the wife of Homer S. Henley, of San Francisco, Cal.; and Rebecca Terrill, the wife of Charles F. Lambert, of Willows. Mr. Purkitt was a man of unquestioned integrity, and loyal to his friends to a marked degree. His body rests beside that of his beloved son, in the family burial plot in the city cemetery, at Sacramento.
Purkitt, Mrs. Theodora Tiffee, M.D.
The native ability, tact and consequent enterprise and ambition of the Argonaut are reflected in the professional advance and financial success made by Dr. T. T. Purkitt, a member of one of the most prominent families of the state, and the daughter of John R. Tiffee, of whom mention is made on another page of this volume. Theodora Tiffee was born in Petaluma, Sonoma County, but was reared in Glenn County, where she attended the public schools. Later she took a course at the Sacramento Seminary. On April 28, 1873, she was united in marriage with George H. Purkitt, a civil engineer. He was a native of Illinois, and had come to California as a young man, where he followed his profession and served for several terms as surveyor of Colusa County. Mrs. Purkitt had been reared on her father’s ranch, and was very much interested in the various branches of agriculture and stock-raising. After her marriage she devoted some of her time and attention to pioneer experiments in the raising of fruits, as early as 1877, setting out an orchard of a variety of fruits, which she cared for so well that the fruit from her trees was considered the finest grown in the valley. Her experiments with deciduous fruits in those early days were an aid to many in their subsequent choice for planting in their orchards.

After living on a ranch for several years, Mrs. Purkitt decided to take up the study of medicine; and having sold the ranch she removed to Willows. Soon afterward, she entered the Cooper Medical College, San Francisco, and in 1894 she was graduated with the degree of M. D., receiving the highest honors. She began her practice in Willows; and here she has since resided, an honored member of the State Medical Association, and a contributor to the State Medical Journal. Dr. Purkitt has the distinction of being one of the first woman physicians in the Sacramento Valley. While devoted to her profession, she has not lost her love of the country life in which she was reared, but has kept her interest in the raising of live stock, and in agriculture and horticulture, on land she has purchased in the county. She has developed fine fields of alfalfa and rice; has set out fig trees, and eucalyptus trees; and raises high-grade Holstein and Jersey cattle, and Berkshire hogs that are prize-winners. She loves nature, and takes delight in seeing trees, vines and flowers grow and flourish, to beautify the homes throughout city and country. Her home at 444 West Sycamore Street is one of the most comfortable in the city, the yard being replete with all kinds of trees and flowers. She is liberal and enterprising, always willing to aid those less fortunate than herself; and many are the men and women who have received benefactions at her hands, as well as encouragement to make another attempt to overcome the obstacles that seem to confront them in their road to success.

Dr. Purkitt is the mother of six children. Her eldest son, Herbert T., is now deceased; Claude F., a prominent attorney of Willows, is State Senator from the Fourth District in California; Theodore T., who married Miss Minnie Hume, of Redding, is proprietor of a pharmacy and lives in Woodland; Edna Louisa is the wife of J. E. Knight, of Willows; Georgie Harriett became the wife of Homer Henley of San Francisco; and Rebecca T. married Charles Lambert, Jr., of Willows. Dr. Purkitt saw that her children all received a good education; the daughters all graduated from Mt. St. Gertrude’s Academy at Rio Vista, and were popular and successful teachers in the schools of Glenn County before their marriage. All this has been the result of her personal efforts; and she is proud of her children’s standing in the county where their lives have been spent. There has been no project advanced in the county for bettering the condition of the people, or for the development of the county, with a view to making of it a better place in which to live, that has not had the hearty cooperation of Dr. Purkitt; and she has often taken the lead in such movements. There is no one in her community that is more universally loved and respected than is she.
Lowe, Samuel James

As a contracting carpenter and a man of affairs, the late Samuel J. Lowe was both literally and figuratively one of the builders of Willows. He was born in Maryland in 1833. When twenty-one years of age he moved to Missouri, and at Paris, in Monroe County, followed his trade as a carpenter. When the Civil War broke out, he espoused the cause of the Confederacy and enlisted for service; and throughout the terrible conflict he fought under the Confederate banner.

In 1885 Mr. Lowe settled in Willows and hung out his sign as a contracting carpenter and builder. His first work here was done on the old Baptist Church. Many of the buildings he erected are still standing as monuments to the honesty of his workmanship. Samuel J. Lowe was united in marriage with Miss Willie Maupin, a native of Virginia; and of their union the following children were born: Mrs. M. Hannah, of San Francisco; Henry H., of Hamilton City; Samuel, now deceased; Leatha A, and Mrs. Sadie Ajax, of Willows; Lemona, of San Francisco; and Clifton 0., a traveling hardware salesman in San Francisco. Mrs. Lowe died in 1894, and Mr. Lowe passed away in 1904. Mr. Lowe was a consistent member of the Methodist Church. His passing was felt as a distinct loss to the community in which he lived.
Miss Leatha A. Lowe is the proprietor of the leading millinery establishment in Willows. Her store was established in 1907, and is recognized as the local headquarters for artistic millinery. Miss Lowe specializes in the latest designs and styles. She has built up a large trade, her patrons coming from all over Glenn County. With her sister, Lemona, she is also interested in a millinery establishment in the exclusive Geary Street district in San Francisco..
Sehorn, Cathy M.
A man who was always working for the interests of his fellow citizens, and who held the esteem and good-will of his community, was the late Cathy M. Sehorn, of Willows. He was born in Wytheville, Va., in 1851, a son of Marion and Rebecca Jane (Wallace) Sehorn, both of whom represented prominent families of the South. The Sehorns are of German ancestry. Grandfather Sehorn was a major in the Revolutionary War; and the maternal grandfather was Colonel Adam Wallace, who also distinguished himself in the Revolution. A brother of Cathy M. Sehorn is Andrew Wallace Sehorn, or “Wall” Sehorn, as he is best known by his friends in Glenn County.

The education of Mr. Sehorn was obtained in the subscription schools of Virginia; and he shared the fortunes of the family until he came to California. After his arrival in this state, he was engaged in farming and stock-raising in Tehama County for several years. In 1888 he sold out and moved down into Colusa County, and in the Elk Creek district resumed his farming operations. In 1893 Mr. Sehorn moved to the vicinity of Willows, and three years later purchased a quarter section of land near town, paying two thousand two hundred dollars for the tract. It was a barley field; and with the exception of some eucalyptus trees, there were no improvements upon the place. Mr. Sehorn wove the wire fencing for cross-fencing the property; and aided by his wife, he made every improvement now seen on the ranch. He laid out a neat farm and set out trees of lemons, oranges, figs, and English walnuts.

He was among the first to graft English walnuts; and he did that service for many of his friends and neighbors, for years. He sank a well and developed an excellent water system on his land, being one of the first men to put in a pumping plant in this section. He put in about twenty acres of alfalfa, and did a general farming and stock-raising business with a fair degree of success. He erected the present family residence, with other suitable outbuild-ings necessary to the conduct of the ranch.

In the midst of his own prosperity, Mr. Sehorn gave some thought to the comfort and well-being of his neighbors. He built the first swimming-pool in the county, a cemented tank thirty-five by sixty-four feet in size. This is used as a public swimming- pool, and is largely patronized by the citizens of Willows during the summer. A public-spirited man, with decidedly Democratic preferences, Mr. Sehorn sought to accomplish all the good he could during his life; and when he died, in January, 1916, he was mourned by every one. He was a man who loved his home and family, and his happiest hours were those spent in their society.

In 1888, while living in the Elk Creek district, Mr. Sehorn was united in marriage with Miss Nellie Keith, a native of California, and a daughter of Richard Keith, who came to California by way of the Isthmus of Panama, and on his arrival here went to the mines for a time, afterwards settling on a farm near Madison, Yolo County. In 1871 he came to what was old Colusa County, bought some railroad land, and began developing a ranch; but finding that he could not get title to the land, he then moved into Tehama County, where he became a large grain-raiser. He finally gave up farming, and made one or two trips back to Nebraska, after which he came to Elk Creek and there made his home. His last days were spent with his daughter, at whose home he died in 1913, at the age of eighty-one years.

Mrs. Sehorn‘s mother was Ellen Hubbard Cook, a woman widely known among the pioneers of Glenn and Colusa Counties for the many charitable and kindly services rendered to her neighbors in time of trouble and sickness. She was teaching school at the time of her marriage to Mr. Keith; and afterwards she acted as a correspondent to the local papers. She passed away in 1888. Four children were born to Mr. and Mrs. Seborn. Leslie is married and has one daughter; Marion is Mrs. H. J. De Tray, and is the mother of one daughter; Vivian is the wife of Theodore Kreiberg; and Cathy M., Jr., is employed by Klemuier Bros., in the hardware store at Willows.

It was about five years prior to the time of Mr. Seborn‘s death that Mr. and Mrs. Sehorn began the dairy business, furnishing milk to customers in Willows. Mrs. Sehorn has forty Holstein and Jersey cows, of high grade and well cared for, which are milked with automatic milking-machines. This dairy was the first in this section to use clarifying processes, and also the first to submit to the tuberculin test. With the assistance of her son-in-law, Mr. Kreiberg, Mrs. Sehorn is making a marked success of this part of her ranching enterprise.
Snowden, James William (Pp. 322-404)
As a prominent factor in the upbuilding of Glenn County, James W. Snowden occupied an important place among its representative citizens. Descended from an old Eastern family, he was born March 1, 1854, in Scott County, Ill(inois), a son of John P. and Sarah A. (Mills) Snowden, the former a Virginian and the latter born in Scott County, Ill(inois. John P. Snowden moved to Scott County at an early period and became a very successful farmer. In 1867 he migrated to Missouri and continued to farm for a time, eventually going back to Illinois, where, in Macoupin County, he lived until his death in 1902, aged seventy-seven years. Mrs. Sarah Snowden lived at the old home until her death in 1915. Eleven children, seven girls and four boys, were born to this worthy couple.

James William Snowden was a student in the public schools in Illinois. He was the eldest in the family, and assisted his father on the home farm, which experience he found valuable in after years. When he was thirteen, the family moved to Missouri. When he was twenty-one, he struck out for himself, and farmed near Sedalia, in Pettis County. He came to California in 1877; and after a year spent on Campbell and Spurgeon's ranch, near St. John, he entered the employ of Dr. Hugh Glenn. Soon his ability was recognized, and Dr. Glenn made him foreman of the home ranch, where he remained in that capacity for twenty-three years.

In partnership with his brother, George W. Snowden, he leased eight thousand acres of the Glenn, ranch, which included the home ranch, and farmed that property until it was divided into smaller tracts. During this time the brothers leased the Boggs ranch of five thousand acres, near Princeton, and raised grain. They operated on a large scale, using eighteen eight-mule teams to put in their crops, and harvesting with three combined harvesters. At times they had as high as thirteen thousand acres under lease, one half being sown to grain each year. They were among the largest grain farmers in the valley. At the time of his brother's death, in 1907, the property was divided and the partnership was dissolved. In 1900 he bought six hundred forty acres eight miles southwest of Willows, and began making improvements on it. He also leased the Garnett ranch for some years, and also a part of the Logan property, the latter in partnership with his two nephews, and raised large quantities of grain and some good stock. Mr. Snowden believed in farming with the latest and most modern machinery; and in 1911 he purchased a sixty-horse-power caterpillar tractor, which did good service in facilitating his extensive operations. He became interested in horticulture under the firm name of Snowden, Graves & Wickes, which firm owned an apple orchard of ninety acres in Watsonville, fifty acres already in bearing condition, of the Newtown Pippin and Bellefleur varieties. He was active up to the time of his death, which occurred on March 18, 1916. He was buried with Masonic honors.

Mr. Snowden was a prominent Mason, a member of Laurel Lodge No. 245, F. & A. M., at Willows. He belonged to the Chico Chapter and Commandery, and to Islam Temple, A. A. O. N. M.S., in San Francisco, and also to Marshall Chapter No. 86, 0. E. S. He was also a member of Chico Lodge No. 423, B. P. 0. Elks. In politics he was a staunch Republican, and was a member of the County Central Committee for several years. At the time of the county-division fight he was strongly in favor of the creation of the new county.

Mr. Snowden was twice married. His first wife, whom he married in Bates County, Mo., was Lovenia Jane Woolf; and they had a son, Herbert Asa. Mrs. Snowden and her son died in April, 1891. His second marriage united him with a native daughter of California, Mrs. Adelia Charlotte (Gray) Brown, born near Lincoln, Placer County. They were married in San Francisco on September 5, 1904. Mrs. Snowden is a daughter of Benjamin F. and Martha E. (Heryford) Gray, both born in Missouri, who crossed the plains in pioneer days with ox teams and wagons, with their respective parents. They met and were married in California, and were farmers in Colusa County, but spent their last years in Chico. They had eight children, seven of whom are living. Mrs. Snowden was graduated from the Chico State Normal in 1895, and followed educational work until her marriage with Mr. Snowden. Since the death of Mr. Snowden, his widow has carried on the ranching interests and looked after the large business affairs left by her husband. She is accounted a good business manager.

Mr. Snowden was one of the largest stockholders in the Masonic Temple Association at Willows, and was largely instrumental in erecting the building. With him, Mrs. Snowden was interested in building the Willows Creamery, and in the Glenn County Garage; and she retains the interest he owned in the Elmore Pharmacy at Red Bluff. Mrs. Snowden is a member of Marshall Chapter No. 86, 0. E. S., being Past Matron and Past District Deputy. Mr. Snowden was one of the most lovable of men, liberal and kind-hearted, helping the ambitious and needy alike a fast friend, a loyal American citizen, and a gentleman. At his passing, Glenn County and the state of California lost one of their foremost citizens and upbuilders.
Somers, Charles Hugh
The name Somers recalls the reader of history to the period of the early days before there was such a town as Willows, and before there was a railroad running through the valley; and to the time when cattle roamed at will over the broad expanse of the plains and through the foothills into the mountainous country. The Somers family is one of the oldest in this section. Charles Somers, the father of Charles Hugh Somers, owned a part of the land upon which Willows was laid out. His name was a familiar one to the early settlers, for he was one of the Argonauts of fortune. A native of Rutland, Vt., he busied himself in that state until the discovery of gold in California lured him away from peaceful pursuits to chance a trip around the Horn to San Francisco on a sailing vessel. On his arrival here he sought the mining districts in Placer County, and tried his fortunes there; but not finding the bonanza he had expected, he took up freighting from Sacramento, and also engaged in farming.

In 1872 he removed to what was then Colusa County. Later, when the division was made, his holdings were in Glenn County; and he had land right where the bustling city of Willows now stands. He improved his quarter section of land, built suitable buildings for his family, and raised grain and stock with a fair return for his labor. He sold out about the time the railroad was building through this section; and the farm was later cut up into town lots and built up with residences. Mr. Somers started the first draying business, which he followed until his death.

He married Mary Cameron, a native of Jackson County, Ill., who came across the plains in 1854 with her uncle, Joe Zumwalt, in an ox-team train of immigrants. Joe Zumwalt was a pioneer landowner in what is now the Willows section of Glenn County. The family is still represented by a son, James Zumwalt. Mary Cameron Somers is now residing on North Lassen Street, in Willows. She is an interesting woman, who can relate many thrilling incidents of pioneer days in the Sacramento Valley. Of the ten children born to this pioneer woman, two are deceased: Katherine, Mrs. J. D. Crane, and Arthur. The eight living are: Mrs. Brigman, Charles, Jennie, Belle, Lottie, Abbie, William, and Dollie. All reside in Willows except Mrs. Brigman, who lives in Sacramento, and Lottie, of San Francisco.

Charles Hugh Somers was born in Placer County, near Auburn, on November 13, 1862. He was reared and educated in Willows after he was ten years old. As a lad he helped his father on the home ranch, where he remained until he was twenty-one, after which he went to work for wages on neighboring ranches in the valley. He saved money enough to start in the express business, which he followed for a time. Later he ran a wood yard, until 1895, when he entered the employ of the Southern Pacific Railroad Company. Four years later, he was made foreman of the section on the Fruto branch, a position he filled with satisfaction for ten years. He was then transferred to the Willows section, on the main line, where his entire time is taken up with his duties. Mr. Somers was a member of the old parlor of the Native Sons of the Golden West, until it was disbanded. He has always taken great interest in all matters that pertain to the early days in the history of the state.
Stovall, Jesse Curl
Two notable pioneer families are represented in the life story of Mr. and Mrs. Jesse Curl Stovall. Mr. Stovall was born in Rutherford County, Tenn., on January 19, 1822, a son of William Preston Stovall, a farmer of that state, who removed to Missouri and settled in Carroll County, where he prospered as an agriculturist until his death. William Stovall 's wife was Mary Drake, before her marriage. She also passed away in Missouri. The oldest in a family of two sons and two daughters, Jesse Stovall grew up to manhood on his father's farm in Missouri, meanwhile receiving such instruction as was possible in private schools sup- ported by his father and other neighbors. Until 1850, he was engaged in farming and in running a flour mill at Carleton, Mo.

That year, Mr. Stovall set out as a member of an ox-team train, to cross the plains to the Pacific Coast. He underwent the usual hardships, braving the dangers incidental to that adventurous undertaking, and arrived safely in Placer County. There he mined for a year, and then threw aside the pickaxe and shovel because failing health warned him of the necessity of a change. At Sacramento lie took up freighting and teaming; but soon after, he went to Cache Creek, Yolo County, where, with Jefferson Wilcoxson, be began to raise sheep, cattle and horses. Experience showed, however, that their range was insufficient; and so they drove their stock into Colusa County, where they bought government land, and added as fast as possible to what herds they possessed. In 1858 they purchased one hundred sixty acres, long the old home place of the Stovalls, situated some seven miles west of Williams; and this formed the beginning of the great area a range of some forty thousand acres which the partners acquired and continued to hold, their partnership lasting throughout their life. In 1890, . the enterprising ranchmen incorporated their interests under the firm name of the Stovall-Wilcoxson Co., of which Mr. Stovall became president; and for years the sheep-raising operations of this company were among the most extensive on the Coast. They sometimes owned as many as ten thousand head. Economic and other conditions, however, operated to make the enterprise less profitable than it had been; and the Stovall-Wilcoxson Co. then sold most of their flocks, or exchanged them for cattle and hogs, and went in for the raising of grain. The company also erected a flour mill and put up warehouses at Williams, where they carried on a live grain business.

Decidedly a prominent factor in the promotion and upbuilding of almost every worthy interest here, the late Mr. Stovall was the organizer of the Bank of Williams, and served as its president until his death, on November 19, 1902. His active participation in the fraternal life of the Odd Fellows contributed to his popularity in social circles; while his energetic support of Democratic doctrines and policies brought him before the public and enabled him to extend his range of influence.

In the old town of Sonoma, the scene of the raising of the "Bear Flag," Jesse Stovall was married on March 3, 1859, to Miss Mary E. Moore, a native of Monroe County, Mo., and a daughter of Robert Moore, who was born in Kentucky. The family was originally of Virginia, where the grandfather, Travis Moore, was a farmer until his migration to the Blue Grass State, and then to Missouri, where he was engaged as a farmer till his death. Robert Moore also followed the life of a farmer, remaining in Missouri until 1853, when he rigged up a comfortable prairie schooner for his family, which then consisted of his wife and seven children, and crossed the wide plains to California. Leaving home on April 19, the train traveled along the Carson route to Eldorado County, and on September 19 reached Gold Hill — historic ground, for in that locality was the spot where gold was first discovered at Colonel Sutter's mill. Although there was but a small party in the train, loaded on to seven wagons, the emigrants had come through safely after exactly five months of trying experiences on the road. At Gold Hill, Mr. Moore stopped for a year to try his luck at mining. He then located further down in the Sacramento Valley, on the Norris grant, but later removed to Sonoma, where he bought and improved a fine farm, engaging in both general farming and horticulture. Later still, he removed to Hollister, San Benito County; and there his death occurred at the age of seventy-four years. He had been a consistent member of the Presbyterian Church, and was no less a faithful Odd Fellow.

Mrs. Moore was equally well connected. Before her marriage she was known as Lucilla Sproul, a daughter of William Sproul, who moved from Kentucky, where she was born, to Missouri, and there farmed until his death. His wife was Sarah Davis, a cousin of Jefferson Davis, Ex-President of the Confederacy. They, too, were valued members of the Presbyterian Church. Mrs. Moore died at Santa Ana, the mother of nine children, of whom four sons and three daughters are still living. Among these is Mrs. Stovall, who spent her thirteenth birthday on the plains, en route for her new home in California, and who, during her first year in California, at Gold Hill, frequently visited the place where gold was first discovered- by John Marshall, at Sutter's Fort. She was educated principally in the public schools at Sacramento and Sonoma, and had the satisfaction of being married in her father's home.

When Mrs. Stovall settled on the ranch west of Williams with her husband, in 1859, conditions were indeed primitive. Wild cattle roamed the plains, for there were no fences. Colusa was the nearest trading point. The old home place was a bare field, very different from the acreage now covered with large shade trees. For the first twelve years they lived in a small house. Later a modern residence, of one and one-half stories, was erected; and, little by little, orange and lemon trees, as well as other fruit trees and bushes, were set out. Today, the largest orange, lemon and fig trees in the county' are to be found on the ranch. Mrs. Stovall has thus been a witness to all the changes that have taken place.

Since the death of her husband in 1902, she has made her home in Williams. She is a member of the Wednesday Club and the Eed Cross Society of Williams, and a communicant of the Presbyterian Church. She is a woman of sterling character and winsome personality, who imparts to others some of the cheerfulness and inspiration which have brightened her own life.

Among the children born to Mr. and Mrs. Stovall are Cordeia, who became the wife of Reuben Clarke, and died near Williams ; Mary, who died at the age of thirteen years; William Preston, who died at the age of twenty-nine years; Jesse, who accidentally shot himself while hunting, at ten years of age; James M., cashier at the Bank of Williams; H. Carl, manager of the Stovall-A Wilcoxson Co.; Charles E., who was accidentally killed by being thrown from his horse; and Mabel, the wife of E. A. Brim, a rancher near Williams. Among the pioneers of California, Mr. and Mrs. Jesse Curl Stovall well deserve a place.
Tremblay, Francis X., M.D.
Among those who contributed no little to the welfare of Willows by helping to make and to keep people well and happy, Dr. Francis X. Tremblay will always enjoy an honored place. A native of Quebec, Canada, where he was born on June 12, 1856, the son of one of Quebec’s well-known laymen, John B. Tremblay, Francis X. Tremblay was reared and educated in his home town, where he concluded his studies in the State Normal, preparatory to specializing at the Victoria Medical College, in Montreal, from which he was graduated in 1885.

After receiving his diploma from that famous Canadian institution. Dr. Tremblay came direct to California, and at Willows began the practice of medicine. A close student, and energetic and ambitious by nature, he has spared neither time nor effort to make himself a recognized authority on medical subjects among his professional brethren. He is a valued member of the Glenn County Medical Society. His constantly increasing practice has taken him into practically every section of Glenn County, as well as to parts of Colusa and Tehama Counties. He has made a name for himself as one of the most active and progressive members of the medical profession in his section of the state. As a public officer he has served a term in the office of county coroner and public administrator; two terms as one of the town trustees, being president of the board one term; and also a term as health officer of Willows.

Soon after the arrival of Dr. Tremblay in Willows, he bought a piece of land in the southern part of the town and erected for himself a fine brick and stone residence, around which he planted a varied orchard of orange, lemon, olive and walnut trees. To these he has given the most painstaking attention, testing each in respect to its growth in this climate and soil. He was among the very first to experiment with fruits of this character in this section. Adjoining his home, also, he acquired an acre of ground planted with eucalyptus trees; and not far away on the hills he has set out four hundred olive trees, this being the first attempt at olive culture in Glenn County.

In addition to his professional activities, Dr. Tremblay has participated to some extent in real estate development. He has erected five houses in Willows, all of which he has sold. He was one of the owners and developers of a chrome mine between Newville and Elk Creek, Glenn County, which was later sold. He is now interested in a manganese mine located near Stonyford, and also in very promising gold-mining claims in Plumas County.

In 1911, Dr. Tremblay retired to private life on account of ill health, caused by long rides in all kinds of weather to minister to the sick, for he never gave a thought to self when so called. Instead of spending his time in his home and with his books, he wanted to get next to nature, and in consequence gave his time to prospecting the hills of this section with the result mentioned above. When he recovers his health it is his intention to once more take up his profession, but along different and broader lines.

Two daughters were born into the home of Dr. Tremblay. One is Mrs. Theolesca Hedden, who resides in Napa, Cal. She has three children, Theodore, Marie Wuellesca, and Francis. The other daughter, Xavia Tremblay, is a resident of San Francisco. Dr. Tremblay is a member of Chico Lodge, B. P. O. Elks. He is accorded a high place in the citizenship of his adopted city.
Ware, George A.
The Ware family is of New England stock, and became established in California at an early period in the history of the state. George W. Ware, who was born in Penfield, N. Y., in 1832, came to California by way of Panama in 1852, and settled in Colusa. He established a general merchandise store with his brother-in-law, under the firm name of Case & Ware, of which he became sole owner some years later. As his business grew, the demand for more room necessitated his erecting a new building; and he put up the second brick building in the county, opposite the old Colusa House. For more than thirty-one years he conducted business in the town. During that time people came from all parts of thecounty to trade with him; for he was noted for his reliability and honesty, and made warm friends among his customers. In 1868 he began to buy land and devote it to grain and stock-raising, adding to his first purchase until he had over four thousand acres. His estate was the result of his own industry, for he had no assistance in any way. Some years after locating in Colusa George W. Ware married Mary A. Corwin, who was born in Quincy, Ill., and came across the plains to California in 1853, with her parents and other members of their family. Her father, Elisha Corwin, settled in Marysville and followed the carpenter's trade for several years, later removing to Colusa, where he died.

Of the marriage of Mr. and Mrs. Ware six children were born, of whom three are living: Mrs. Alice Bedell, of Redwood City; George A., of this review; and Mrs. Mary E. Drake, of New York City. Mr. Ware died in 1884, while on a visit to San Francisco, at the age of fifty-three years. After his death, his widow remained in Colusa until 1891, when she went to San Francisco to make her home. She passed away on June 6, 1917, at the age of eighty-two. Her remains were laid beside those of her husband, at Colusa.

The only living son of his parents, George A. Ware was born in Colusa, November 27, 1868. He attended the public schools of the town; and when he was old enough, he went to work on the home ranch. Later, with a partner, J. C. Bedell, he began operations on the Ware estate, southeast of Williams. In 1892 he bought out his partner; and ever since then he has been operating alone. He has seven hundred acres in grain, and five hundred acres seeded to alfalfa. He raises from seven to nine tons of alfalfa to the acre without irrigation, making four or five cuttings annually. He holds the record in the state for un irrigated alfalfa. His land yields from fifteen to twenty-five sacks to the acre on au average. Mr. Ware is breeding up a fine herd of thoroughbred Holsteins, principally dairy cows. He makes a specialty of raising mules; and many valuable animals have been sold from his ranch. He also raises some hogs. He is known all over Northern California as a leading farmer and stockman. Mr. Ware has a real estate office in Williams, where he is active in subdivision work. He is selling off the Gauthier tract of six hundred forty acres near Williams. He is identified, also, with the oil interests of the state, as president of the Williams Oil Co.

Mr. Ware was married in Oakland, in 1891, to Miss Alexine G. Fairbairn, who was born in Chico. Her father was Rev. Alexander Fairbairn, a native of Scotland. He was a graduate of Princeton University, and a Presbyterian divine. Her mother was Helen M. Edwards, of New York, who died in Colusa, in 1884. The father died in Williams. Mrs. Ware was a lady of culture and refinement. While raised in the Presbyterian Church, she was a member of the Methodist Church with Mr. Ware and their family. She died in Woodland, April 17, 1916, leaving three children: Helen M., the wife of W. R. Meyer, of Redwood City; Alexiue Gertrude; and George Fairbairn, who is with his father on the ranch. Mr. Ware is public-spirited, actively supporting all measures for the good of his county, and is firmly convinced that there is a great future in store for this section of the state when its possibilities have been fully made known. Politically, he is a staunch supporter of Republican men and measures. Fraternally, he is a member and Past Master of Tuscan Lodge, No. 261, F. & A. M., of Williams.
Williams, Mrs. Sarah W.
A native of Bucyrus, Ohio, Mrs. Sarah Cary Williams was born on January 27, 1832, a daughter of Aaron and Phoebe (Thompson) Cary. She was reared in the states of Ohio and Indiana, her parents settling in the latter state, at Greenfield, La Grange County, in her early childhood. She was the youngest of a large family of children, and in 1858 came with her sister, Jane W., to California, by way of the Isthmus of Panama. Upon their arrival they at once located in Colusa, where, on March 13, 1860, Sarah was united in marriage with W. H. Williams. He was a native of Maryland, and was the founder of the town of Williams, Colusa County, Cal. Thus, Mrs. Williams became the first lady of the town, where she resided until the time of her demise. She was one of the pioneers who shared the dangers and hardships which accompany the founding of a new commonwealth; and she gave to the task the influence of her upright life, conscientious fulfillment of duty and uncomplaining courage.

When Mrs. Williams and her husband first settled in Williams, they were surrounded by broad prairie lands. Their house was the only one in the vicinity. This was destroyed by fire a little later, and was rebuilt of brick hauled from Marysville, a distance of thirty-six miles. The new house served as a hotel until another brick building was erected. Mrs. Williams could recall a five-mile stretch of water which, during the early days before the levees were built, lay between Williams and Colusa, a town ten miles distant, and over which passage had to be made in a boat during the time of high water. In July, 1876, the railroad was put through, and the town of Williams was laid out and founded.

Although lacking in physical strength, Mrs. Sarah Williams was gifted with an indomitable will; and, like her ancestors, she was noted for her steadfastness of purpose. Her main ambition in life seemed to be to bring pleasure and comfort to those about her, regardless of self; and many are the lasting memories of her unselfish kindness still held sacred in the hearts of those with whom she came in contact. She was a great sufferer through life, though she complained but little. On the morning of February 6, 1908, she passed away at her home, after only a few days' illness. Her last words voiced her concern for the comfort of the watchers about her bedside, and her death was painless and peaceful. Her friends loved her for her estimable qualities of womanhood; and her children cherish the memory of her unselfish motherhood.

Mrs. Williams was a descendant of a wonderful family. She traced her ancestry back to the time of Edward the First; to Adam Cary, who was Lord of Castle Cary in Somerset, England. In America she traced her ancestry to John Cary, a native of Somersetshire, England, who joined the Plymouth Colony in 1634. His name was among the original proprietors of Duxbury and Bridgewater. The Cary Memorials trace the descendants of John Cary to the ninth' generation. Sarah W. was born of the sixth generation. She was a cousin of the poetesses, Alice and Phoebe Cary, also members of the sixth generation in this country.

Of the marriage of Mr. and Mrs. Williams four children were born: Harriet May, who became the wife of J. R. Moody; Laura, who died at the age of four years; Lulu, the wife of S. H. Callen; and Ella, Mrs. Harry W. Manor. Mrs. Williams was liberal in her support of all worthy causes and benevolent undertakings, and gave generously to the churches of her community..