History Of Colusa and Glenn Counties, California - Pages: 255-322

History by Charles Davis McCormish and Mrs. Rebecca T. Lambert
Historic Record Company, Los Angeles, California, 1918
Transcribed by: Martha A Crosley Graham.

Note: Click the divider between biographies to return to the top of the page.

Annand, John (Pp: 255-322)
A native of Nova Scotia, John Annand was born on June 6, 1844, a son of David and Margaret (Taylor) Annand, large farmers in that country. He spent the first twenty-two years of his life near Halifax, where he received his education and learned the trade of the blacksmith. He then came to the States and spent two years in the mining districts of Nevada, after which, in the late sixties, he came on to California and located at Butte City, now in Glenn County. Here he found employment at his trade with Elijah McDaniel, three miles south of that village, where, on June 5, 1871, he married Izilla McDaniel, a daughter of his employer.

Soon Mr. Annand was able to buy land ; and his first purchase comprised five hundred sixty acres five miles south of Butte City. Here he developed a good ranch, which he carried on until he was called by death in 1908. His widow still owns the old home place, and is living in the enjoyment of modern conveniences, surrounded by her family and friends.

Mr. Annand was a devout Christian and a prominent member of the Methodist Church, South. As superintendent of the Sunday school he exercised an elevating influence upon the young, in whose welfare he took a deep interest. He was actively interested in education, and served on the board of trustees of his school district. He and his wife had four children: Mrs. George Kirkpatrick, of Colusa; Elmer A., on the home place; Emma, Mrs. Hugh M. Garnett, of Willows; and Earl, superintendent of the Hugh M. Garnett ranch near Willows.
Boggs, Hon. John (Pp: 255-322)
The discovery of gold in California brought to the Coast many of the most capable young men of the East, and gave to our commonwealth its first impetus towards permanent prosperity. Of all those who came across the plains, perhaps none possessed greater energy or keener powers of discrimination than did John Boggs. From whatever standpoint his character may be considered as farmer, stock-raiser, landowner, state official, citizen, or friend it presents the elements of true manhood, so that those within the sphere of his influence counted it a rare privilege to be numbered among his friends.

Descended from a prominent Southern family, John Boggs was born at Potosi, Mo., July 2, 1829, a son of Robert W. and Abigail (Carr) Boggs, natives of Virginia and Kentucky respectively. At the completion of his common school education in Howard County, he was sent to the college at Fayette. When he was twenty, he joined a party of gold-seekers bound for the West. After innumerable hardships the party arrived at Weber Creek, from which point Mr. Boggs made his way to Sacramento, where he was engaged as a chainman in the first survey of that city. He bought some land on Cache Creek, and began trading for broken-down horses and mules used by emigrants in crossing the plains. Almost without exception they were anxious to exchange their stock for provisions and other necessities; and as a consequence he had, at the end of a year, some four hundred head grazing on his ranch. Though they cost him only a few dollars each, at the end of the year he sold them for two hundred dollars per head.

In 1854 Mr. Boggs came to Colusa County and bought six thousand acres of the Larkin grant, and later bought other tracts, which he held for a rise in values. In 1868 he embarked in the sheep business. This proved profitable, as there was a ready market for wool and mutton. A few miles from Princeton stood his country home, one of the finest homesteads in the state at the time. In recent years, the laud has been divided into small tracts and sold.

The public career of Mr. Boggs began in 1859, when he became a member of the first county board of supervisors. In this capacity he served until 1866, and by his intelligent labors aided in giving system to the management of the affairs of the county. One important improvement made during his period of service was the erection of the courthouse. In 1866 be was elected to the state senate, and in 1870 he was reelected. In 1877 he was again returned to the upper house, as also in 1883, and once more in 1898. He was a member of that body at the time of his death. Senator Boggs was a stanch Democrat, and wielded a strong influence in the party deliberations. He served as a member of various conventions, county and state, and from 1871 until his death he was a member of the Democratic State Central Committee. He made a losing fight against county division. When the new maps came out, it was found that the county line was placed so that the barn on the Boggs estate was in Glenn Count}' and the balance in Colusa County; and it was only after assiduous effort that the senator was able to have the line set beyond the end of his barn. At the Palace Hotel in San Francisco, on January 30, 1899, Senator John Boggs passed away. When the news of his passing flashed over the wires, there was a universal feeling of sorrow in the state; and the press of the state was unanimous in its verdict concerning the high quality of his statesmanship.

In 1870 John Boggs was united in marriage with Miss Lou Shackleford, of Georgia. Three children were born of this union : Frank, Frederick and Alice. Senator Boggs was for years connected with the State Agricultural Society as director and president. Until his death he was a member of the board of trustees of Stanford University; and at one time he was a regent of the University of California. From 1876 to 1880 he was a director of the Napa State Asylum. In 1885 he was appointed penology commissioner, and about the same time he held the office of state prison director. At one time he was on the board of commissioners of Yosemite Valley. He was one of the organizers of the Colusa County Bank, and served as a director till his death. He took a prominent part in the organization of the Bank of Willows, and was one of the directors ; and he was also a director in the Bank of Hayward.
Boyd, JamesJ (Pp: 255-322)
A man who has risen from a subordinate position to that of an influential landowner, and who is actively identified with the agricultural interests of the county, is James Boyd, a native of County Down, born near Belfast, Ireland, February 28, 1849. His father was also named James, and was born at the same place. Here, also, Hugh Boyd, the grandfather, was a well-to-do farmer, a descendant of Scotch ancestors who fled from Scotland to the North of Ireland at the time of the persecution of the Covenanters. James Boyd, Sr., was also a farmer by occupation. He married Eliza Patton, of Scotch descent, a daughter of John Patton. She died at the age of forty-nine, in 1857, leaving eleven children, of whom James, Jr., was the fourth youngest. The father reared his family and lived to the age of eighty-four.

James Boyd, of this review, was educated in the common schools of his native county and early learned the methods of farming as it was carried on there. He had heard good reports from California, and had made up his mind that he would prospect the country for himself; and accordingly he crossed the ocean to New York when he was nineteen, in 1868. He came on to Cali-fornia by way of Panama, arriving in San Francisco on board the steamship Sacramento in May of that year. He traveled on to Yolo County, and then to Colusa, where he worked in a livery stable for a month. He then came on to what is now Glenn County, and found employment on the Patrick O'Brien ranch for four years. Having made a little money, Mr. Boyd was willing to take a chance, and with a friend bought a flock of sheep in 1873, and drove them to Nevada, where he was engaged in the sheep business for one year, when he sold out and returned to Willows. He leased the Murdock ranch of nearly five thousand acres, and for nine years raised grain. Next he rented eight thousand acres of the Glide ranch, and continued the grain business for another similar period, becoming in time one of the largest grain raisers in this part of the Sacramento Valley.

Having made considerable money, and also saved some, Mr. Boyd began to look about for land. He found and purchased a quarter section, to which he added four hundred eighty acres, and then twelve hundred acres ; and still later he bought an entire section. He now owns some twenty-eight hundred acres three miles west from Willows. He erected a fine home and the usual barns and out buildings, and now has one of the best ranches in Glenn County. On this place he has lived since 1899. Besides the home ranch he owns twelve hundred acres on the Sacramento River, near Butte City, the latter being rented, while the home ranch is devoted to grain-raising and is operated by Mr. Boyd and his two sons, who raise some fourteen hundred acres of grain on the place each year, using the latest models of machinery and implements.

In 1889, Mr. Boyd married Miss Clara M. Williams, of Dixon, Cal., a daughter of Nathanial P. and Sarah Jane (Rice) Williams. She was but three months old when her parents came to California by way of Panama. She is a niece of the late Hon. Henry E. McCune, prominent in public life in the state and for many years a resident of Solano County. Two children have been born of this marriage: James Boyd, Jr., who married Genevieve Nash and is the father of one son, James Boyd, third; and Carleton Williams Boyd, who married Miss Bruce Morgan, of Red Bluff , and is the father of a son, Carleton Wilcox. Both sons have had a college education, and are well equipped for life's responsibilities.

Mr. Boyd is prominent in financial affairs as a director of the Bank of Willows, and as a stockholder in the First National Bank of Willows, the Bank of Colusa, the Bank of Princeton, and the Willows Warehouse Association. He served as supervisor of his district one term, being elected on the Democratic ticket. In fraternal circles he is a Mason, a member of Laurel Lodge No. 245, F. & A. M. ; the Colusa Chapter and Commandery; and Islam Temple, A. A. 0. N. M. S., of San Francisco.

Mr. Boyd is a man of commanding appearance, six feet, six and one quarter inches in height, a giant in stature; and in the early days there were few men that surpassed him in strength and activity. With all his vitality, energy and ambition, it is no wonder that he was able to win success and accomplish the results that have characterized his career. He landed in this state with only about one hundred dollars; but it did not take him long to see the opportunities offered by this fertile country. Capitalizing his natural inheritance of thrift and foresight from his Scotch ancestry, he began investing in lands when they were cheap; and being benefited by the rise in values, he has been enabled to live in comfort in his latter years. Both he and his wife have endeared them- selves to their friends, who are legion. They are public-spirited, and are willing at all times to assist those less fortunate than themselves.
Crane, Jefferson Davis (Pp: 255-322)
How a town, of sturdy, thriving burghers honored itself in electing as mayor its pioneer blacksmith, is shown in the story of Willows and its choice of Jefferson Davis Crane as presiding officer and chief executive. Jefferson D. Crane was born in Sonoma County, September 7, 1861. His father, who crossed the plains to California in 1849 in one of the conventional ox-team trains, was James E. Crane, a native of Kentucky; while his mother, whose maiden name was Lucy M. Beaver, was a native of Ohio and came to California in 1851. On his arrival in this state, James E. Crane went to the mines for a time. Later he farmed near Santa Rosa, and afterwards near Salinas, in Monterey County. In 1870 he came to Los Angeles County, in what is now known as Orange County. There he died, aged seventy-six years.

Brought to Los Angeles County in his boyhood, Jefferson D. Crane attended the public schools there, and then went to Bakersfield, where he learned the trade of the blacksmith. He blew the bellows and swung the hammers like the ablest of those at the forge ; and by 1880 he was ready to set up his shop in Bakersfield, where he continued as a smith for four years. He then moved to San Luis Ohispo County, and for a year worked as a blacksmith there. In 1885 he arrived at Willows. Here be became associated with the Willows Foundry, with which he continued for some time. In 1895, he opened up a blacksmith's shop of his own, and this he conducted for three years. At the end of that time he took into partnership C. S. Schmidt, whereupon the firm became known as Crane &; Schmidt. Ever since, Mr. Crane has had a hand in the manufacture of nearly all the iron and steel work done in Willows.

In 1887, Jefferson Davis Crane was married to Miss Kate Somers, a native of Placer County, and the daughter of Charles R. Somers, a pioneer who came to California from Vermont, by way of the Isthmus, in 1854. Mr. Somers farmed on two ranches in Placer County, and in 1871 removed to Willows, where he bought a hundred sixty acres of land, on a part of which the southerly end of Willows now stands. While he farmed, he also conducted a draying business. For thirty-five years he hauled freight for Hochheimer & Co., in Willows. He died in 1908. His wife's maiden name was Mary E. Cameron. She was a native of Illinois, who crossed the plains in 1854 with an uncle. She saw Willows grow from a wilderness to a prosperous community, with a population of twenty-four hundred ; and she can remember when the antelope and wild cattle roamed over the plains. Mrs. Crane died in June, 1916, mourned by a large circle of friends, with whom she was a social favorite. She is survived by a daughter. Pearl C, Mrs. Terry McCaffrey, of McCloud, Cal., who is the mother of one daughter, Tyrel.

Mr. Crane's public-spiritedness is finely displayed in his record of twenty-one years as clerk of the Willows school board, from which office he resigned in 1917; and in his service as town trustee, to which he was elected in 1910. For four years he filled the latter office; and from 1912 to 1914 he was chairman of the town board, and thus performed the duties of acting mayor. During this period the City Hall was built, sewers were laid, and the fire department was improved by the accession of a modern motor fire engine, the first combination pump and chemical engine on the coast. Mr. Crane is a member of the Odd Fellows, a Woodman of the World, an Elk, and a charter member of the Rebekahs.
DeGaa, Harrison Darrough (Pp: 255-322)
Born and educated in the Old World, Harrison D. DeGaa came to America, as a young man, well equipped to take advantage of the opportunities which the New World afforded, to forge rapidly ahead in business, and to render valuable service in the building up and developing of the communities in which he has lived. Harrison DeGaa was born in Paris, France, May 6, 1843. His parents were Joseph J. and Katherin (Wimmer) DeGaa, the former of French birth, and the latter a member of a prominent German family of the city of Karlsruhe. They were married in 1838, and in the following year came to America, settling in Ohio.

In 1848, the year of the German Rebellion, they returned to Germany on a visit, and Mr. DeGaa took part in the Rebellion. He became an officer, holding a commission as Colonel, and in company with Carl Schurz, General Siegel and others, had to flee the country. Later he was arrested by the German government and tried for treason ; but in the meantime he had become an American citizen, and through the intervention of the home government gained his freedom.

Harrison D. DeGaa began his education in the schools of France, attending there until the age of twelve, when he was sent to Baden-Baden, Germany. At the age of sixteen he entered the University of Heidelberg, from which he graduated in 1864. He at once left for America, where his parents had been residing during his attendance at school.

After spending two years in the East and South, Mr. DeGaa came to California, making the journey by way of the Isthmus. He at first engaged in mining, but soon left that occupation and took up the printer's trade, some knowledge of which he had obtained at school. He has since followed this business in its various branches, until at the present time he is the editor and proprietor of the Glenn Transcript, published at Willows, Cal., and established in 1902.

At North San Juan, Nevada County, Mr. DeGaa was united in marriage, on November 24. 1889, with Miss Anna G. Smith, a daughter of Mr. and Mrs. Thomas Golden Smith. Their four children are Joseph Darrough, Victor Golden, Hallet, and a married daughter, Mrs. W. J. Canfield.

Ever since coming to California Mr. DeGaa has been prominently identified with its growth.. For the past quarter of a century he has held office ;as president or secretary of chambers of commerce and kindred associations. He was the second president of the Glenn Club, and later became its fourth president. He is today its only honorary member. He is the president of the E. Clampus Vitusa an organization of boosters, with a membership of over four hundred. He has always been active in the Republican Party, and has been influential in its councils. In religion he is an Episcopalian.
Elbe, Pacific Ord (Pp: 255-322)
From the time of settling in what is now Glenn County, in 1870, until his death, which occurred in February, 1917, Pacific Ord Elbe was one of the most influential business men and citizens of the county. Emphatically a man of work, he was never idle, but continued to be one of the most enterprising and active men of Willows. No enterprise was projected that failed to receive his substantial encouragement, and every plan for the promotion of the public welfare had the benefit of his keen judgment and wise cooperation. A man of broad and charitable views, he aided every movement for the advancement of education, morality or the well- being of the county. "No man was held in higher esteem by the people of this county, and they showed their love for him by thrusting honor after honor upon him." Thus spoke one of the leading county newspapers of Pacific Ord Elbe, at the time of his death; and the sentiment unquestionably reflects the opinion of thousands of his fellow citizens who, during his varied and useful career, either knew him or knew about him.

Born at Pacific Springs, Utah, on June 29, 1854, the future pioneer first saw the light when his parents, Matthew and Emily (Zumwalt) Elbe, were crossing the plains to California. They were members of a large train of emigrants drawn by ox teams, and when they reached Pacific Springs many of their oxen so sickened and died from poisoning that this delayed the parties at that point for a number of weeks. While there a baby son was born; and his parents, wishing to commemorate the event, gave him the name Pacific after the place of his birth.

When the Elbe family arrived in the Golden State, they settled for a time in Solano County, near Silveyville, where their son, Pacific Ord, attended the common schools. Afterwards he took a preparatory course in a business college at Berkeley, and then worked at home until in 1870, when, with his brother, J. C. Elbe, he took up his residence on what is today known as the Eibe ranch, two miles west of Willows, Glenn County, where he farmed to grain and raised stock successfully. In due time his fellow
citizens found in Pacific Ord Eibe the qualities necessary in a public officer, and he entered upon his public career as a deputy under Lon Stewart, county assessor of Glenn County upon its organization. For eight years Mr. Elbe served in that capacity, and then became a candidate for the office of assessor and was elected by a handsome majority. At the end of his first term he was reelected to the office through the will of the people, serving to the end of his term with commendation from everybody.

Believing that it would be a good plan to let some one else have a chance at the office, Mr. Elbe refused to be a candidate for reelection and retired to business life for the following four years. In partnership with I. J. Proulx, he carried on a very successful and extensive real estate business. During this time, he was instrumental in having the great Glenn estate subdivided, and in having thirty thousand out of the fifty thousand acres sold. In 1905, the community thought no better representative of Glenn County could be selected for the Lewis and Clark Exposition at Portland, and Mr. Elbe therefore went north on his official mission, returning to his home after the duties of the position were ended.

In 1909 Mr. Elbe was induced to become a candidate for the office of county supervisor from the First District in Glenn County; and he was elected by an overwhelming majority. Four years later he was reelected ; and still again the people, appreciating his honest and painstaking administration, invited him, at the November election, 1916, to retain his portfolio. He worked for and favored every project that would build up Glenn County. He induced many to buy land and become settlers on the Glenn Tract, when the land was cheap. Since that time the land has increased five, and even six, times in value. He favored the building of good schoolhouses and the maintaining of a high standard of education. He named the Ord district ; gave to every church, no matter what its denomination ; was a man of broad intelligence, keenly alive to every opportunity offered in the county; and made and retained friends wherever he went. It was while he was an incumbent in office that he passed away, following a long period of illness. His death was commemorated by the unfurling at half-mast of many flags throughout the city and county. Thus passed a man who held a clean record all through his career, which he left as a heritage to his dependents.

The first marriage of Pacific Ord Elbe took place in 1880, in Solano County, when he was united with Miss Maud Emma Abbott, and two children were born to brighten the home circle: Ernest V. ; and Maud Emma, who died at the age of five months. Ernest V. is living on the home place and assisting in its management. Mrs. Elbe passed away on December 23, 1884 ; and on November 5, 1905, Mr. Elbe married Mrs. Belle (Quint) Barceloux, who survives him, together with three of his brothers and a sister A. O. Eibe, of San Francisco; J. C. Elbe, of Sacramento; T. T. Elbe, of Dixon ; and Mrs. M. J. Parrish, of Napa. At the time of her marriage to Mr. Eibe, Mrs.Eibe was the widow of Ernest J. Barceloiix, a son of Peter Barceloux, a pioneer of Glenn County. Three children were born of her first marriage: P. Elmer, Leo Vernon, and Ernest J., who are with their mother on the home ranch. Of a very sociable nature, Mr. Eibe was a member of Chico Lodge, No. 423, B. P. 0. Elks, and of Monroe Lodge No. 289, 1. O. 0. F., at Willows, of which lie was a charter member, and in which he passed through all the chairs. Shortly before his death, he embraced the Catholic faith of his own free will.

After her husband's death Mrs. Eibe took up the burden of running the home ranch, assisted by Mr. Eibe's son, Ernest V.; and here they raise fine Egyptian corn, barley, hogs and cattle. On the place there are some two thousand prune trees, five years old, besides cherries, apples, peaches and apricots. The place was developed by Mr. and Mrs. Eibe after they took up their residence there. Mrs. Eibe ever proved her worth as a true helpmate to her husband in all his business affairs. She made his home life happy, and in his home he was always to be found after his business was concluded, his happiest hours being spent in her society.
French, MiltonM (Pp: 255-322)
It is always a pleasure to the historian to commemorate the life of a self-made man like Milton French. In this man's veins flowed the blood of a race of pioneers, and with it he inherited the adventurous spirit and sound principles that go to make up the successful life in a new country. He was born in Callaway County, Mo., January 23, 1833, the youngest child in a family of four sons and two daughters born in the home of John French, a native of Tennessee. John French lived through the pioneer days of Tennessee and trained his family in the simple, straightforward ways of those times, when conditions were such that sham and pretense found no following. His wife was a Miss Clark, born in Kentucky, the daughter of another pioneer family, for the Clarks dated back to the days of Daniel Boone and were among the early history-makers.

When Milton French was a year old, his mother died. Afterwards his father married again ; and of that union three children were born, of whom Hugh French, of Hollister, Cal., is the only survivor. Eight years after the death of his first wife, John French passed away; and then came the breaking up of the family. Here is a lesson for the boys of today who hang on to "dad" and never think they have had a square deal unless he has put them through college and set them up in business. Milton French, a boy twelve years old, homeless, without father or mother, but already feeling the desire for honorable success which later won for him a place among the wealthy and honored men of the state, hired out to a man for thirty dollars a year and his board. Two dollars and a half a month, young men, to do the hardest kind of work and plenty of it. Probably three months of schooling in the winter was all the boy got; but, to be sure, he was getting an education every day he lived, for Milton French was one of those who got their diploma from the "College of Hard Knocks."

In 1850, at the age of seventeen, he was crossing the plains, bound for the mines of California. With him were two brothers, Marion Bryman and John. They mined at Forbestown, and later went to the mines on Trinity Eiver, meeting with a moderate degree of success. Beef sold as high as a dollar per pound in the mines. Only the long-horned, rangy Spanish cattle were to be had; and most of these were driven from the ranges south of Monterey County to the market at the mines in Northern California.

Young French saw a big opportunity in the luxuriant pastures of the foothills, if they were stocked with the right kind of animals ; so in 1856 he returned to Missouri by way of Panama, and the following year, 1857, found him driving a band of cattle across the plains to the Sacramento Valley in California. In January, 1858, after a short stay on the Sacramento River, while his cattle recuperated from their long drive, he took up a government claim of one hundred sixty acres in the foothills of Colusa County, as then organized, but now included within the boundaries of Glenn County. All about was open range; and he gradually increased his holdings until he was the owner of ten thousand acres of land in various parts of the county. He farmed thousands of acres to wheat in the level valleys, and on the uplands pastured his herds of cattle, together with droves of fine horses and mules, which he raised, and of which he made a specialty. He became one of the leading grain and stock men in the Sacramento Valley, and wealth flowed into the hands of the man who, as a lad of twelve, had worked for his board and thirty dollars a year. He erected a fine home in Willows, and took a leading part in many enterprises, in which he invested large sums of money. He was the owner of a large warehouse in Germantown, and was vice-president of the Bank of Willows, president of the Willows Water Works, and a director in and president of the Willows Warehouse Association.

Mr. French took an active part in the formation of Glenn County when it was decided to divide Colusa County, and when the northern half, containing the great Glenn ranch, became Glenn County. The writer remembers driving across the Glenn ranch, in 1885, and riding for hours beside the great piles of wheat, sacked and awaiting shipment.

Mr. French never forgot his own hard times when he struggled for a start, and he gladly assisted more than one young man yes, and some old ones too — on the road to success, helping them to help themselves. He liked to make money, not for its in- trinsic value, but for what it would enable him to do for those he loved, and for the furtherance of every worthy object. He was especially interested in all projects for the upbuilding of the county and state. He was just in his dealings, and rejoiced in the prosperity of others; and when, on November 10, 1916, at his ranch near Willows, Milton French passed to his "home in the Beyond," a man "full of years and of good report," the whole county mourned a good man gone. He was a man who never took an unfair advantage of any person, and never stooped to do anything that might be construed as dishonest; and while he aided many unfortunates, he rarely let his benefactions become known even to his family. No man has had more true friends than had Milton French, to mourn his loss.

His wife, who survives him, is carrying on the good work in which he was so interested. In maidenhood Mrs. French was Miss Elizabeth F. Williams, a native of Missouri and a daughter of Nathaniel P. and Sarah Jane (Rice) "Williams. Her parents were Kentuckians, who came to California in 1855, by way of the Isthmus of Panama, with their two daughters, now Mrs. Milton French and Mrs. James Boyd, Sr., then aged two and a half years and six months respectively. Upon their arrival in this state they stopped for a time in Solano County, near Dixon. Later they moved to Yolo County, and thence back to Solano County, where Mr. Williams died at his home near Dixon, in 1898. His widow survived him and made her home with her daughter, Mrs. French, until 1910, when she also answered the final call. There were four more children born in this family after they settled in California; and of the six the following, are living: Mrs. Milton French, Mrs. James Boyd, Sr., Mrs. Barbara McCune Lillard, and Nathanial P. Williams.

Mrs. French was reared and educated in California. On May 14, 1871, she became the wife of Milton French; and since that date she has been a resident of Glenn County. Three children were born to brighten the already happy home of Mr. and Mrs. French. Curry Milton, the only son, is a landowner in his own right, and is manager of the great ranches and interests left by his father. He married Miss Lulu Louise Jacoby. Rita is the wife of Judge Frank Moody, of Willows. Natalie is the widow of Robert E. L. Eagle, and makes her home with her mother. Mrs. French is an active member of the Baptist Church, which Mr. French also attended, and to which he was a liberal contributor, as be was like-wise to all other denominations, as well as to every worthy object that was brought to his attention.
Garnett, Edith A. McCune (Pp. 255-322)
To the pioneer women of California, no less than to the pioneer men, are due the honor and respect of the generations that have followed ; for without their loving sympathy, and support, without their faithful devotion and toil, there had been no civilization carved in the wilderness and no homes built in lonely places where wild beasts prowled by day and night. They have borne their full share in the making of a great commonwealth; and their names are held in loving remembrance in the hearts of the children of the Golden West, and will continue so to be through all generations to come.

A prominent place among the women who have left their impress on the development of Glenn County must be accorded to Mrs. Edith A. McCune Garnett, wife of the late Peter E. Garnett, one of the foremost men of the Sacramento Valley, and one whose services to the county were of exceptional importance. In all the activities of his active career, Mr. Garnett was ably assisted by his able wife. Although her name did not appear on the public roster, she aided her husband, as only a faithful wife can, in the performance of his public duties.

Before her marriage, Mrs. Garnett was Miss Ruth A. Mc-Cune, a daughter of Hon. Henry E. McCune. Mr. McCune was born in Pike County, Mo., June 10, 1825, and received a good education in his native state. He was a veteran of the Mexican War, having served eighteen months with the mounted volunteers ; and at the close of his service he was honorably discharged. Gifted by nature with a spirit of adventure, he had a desire to see the Pacific Coast; so in 1854, with E. K. Biggs, he drove one hundred head of cattle across the plains to Solano County, Cal. On his arrival, he seemed to visualize the great future of the Sacramento Valley. He preempted one hundred sixty acres of land, and thus began his career as a pioneer of the Far West — a step which resulted in his becoming one of the largest farmers and stockmen of his day in Solano County. As he prospered, he invested further in lands, until he owned extensive areas in the Sacramento Valley. He was very successful in raising grain and stock, from which pursuit the greater part of his large fortune was made.

Henry E. McCune became prominent in politics. His political career began in 1873, when he became a candidate for senator from Solano and Yolo Counties. Although a Democrat, he was elected on the People's ticket. He served two terms, taking an active part in the various deliberations of the legislative body of his state. He was greatly interested in the cause of education. For twenty years he was president of the board of education, and for thirty years he served as a trustee of California College ; and for a time he was president of Dixon College. An active member of the Baptist Church, he was instrumental in the building of the church of that denomination at Silveyville. Fraternally, he was a Mason.

Senator McCune was married to Miss Barbara S. Rice, a native of Kentucky, who proved an amiable and lovable helpmate. Of this union eight children were born, of whom six grew to maturity, as follows: Mollie, Mrs. James Hill, who died in Dixon; Ruth A., of whom we write; Rebecea, Mrs. Henry Silver, who resides in Oakland; Joseph H., deceased; Jessie St. Clair, Mrs. Rice of Oakland ; and Sarah, deceased, who was the wife of the late Dr. Gardner, chief surgeon of the Southern Pacific Railroad in San Francisco.

Ruth A. McCune Garnett is a native daughter, born at Dixon, where she received her early education amid the refining influences of a cultured home. Her parents were people of education and refinement ; and the environment surrounding her early years is today reflected in her charming personality. Her education was completed at Mrs. Perry's Seminary, in Sacramento, where she was a classmate of Dr. Theodora T. Purkitt of Willows, as well as of others who have become prominent socially and as women of affairs, among them Mrs. Gus Hart of San Francisco and Mrs. Ella Flournoy Hershey of Woodland. After her education was completed, Miss McCune was married to Peter B. Garnett, the ceremony taking place at her father's home on October 21, 1873. Mr. Garnett was a prominent farmer and stockman, and one of the builders of Colusa and Glenn Counties. His biography is presented on another page of this volume. Mrs. Garnett presided over her household with grace and tact, and was ever watchful of her husband's interests, meanwhile showering upon him her words of encouragement and affection, and bringing to bear, in many unobtrusive ways, an inspiring home influence that had much to do with his success and popularity. Since Mr. Garnett 's death, Mrs. Garnett has been looking after the large interests left her by her husband, as well as her heritage from her father. Senator McCune. In this task she is assisted by her loving and devoted daughter, Mrs. Inez Garnett Freed, a splendid woman, of charming personality, and by her son, Hugh M. Garnett, a prominent business man and stockman. Through their assistance the mother is relieved from all unnecessary care and worry. The home place is a very valuable ranch, located two miles southeast of Willows. This property is devoted to the raising of grain and stock. Mrs. Garnett built a beautiful and comfortable residence at 5515 McMillan Street, in one of the most attractive residential sections of Oakland ; and here she resides with her grandson, Garnett Black.

Having traveled considerably in different states besides those of the Pacific Coast section, Mrs. Garnett had always cherished a desire to visit Europe. In the spring of 1911 she realized her ambition, when, accompanied by her daughter, Mrs. Inez Garnett Freed, and her grandson, Garnett Black, she made a tour of Germany, Austria, Italy, Switzerland, France, and the British Isles, visiting the places of interest in the various countries. They returned to Boston on the Laconia, after which they visited the more important cities of the East, among them New York, Washington (and Mt. Vernon), Philadelphia, and Buffalo (with a trip to Niagara Falls). They made a tour of the Southern states also, via New Orleans and through Texas, to their home in the land of sunshine and flowers.

Mrs. Garnett is a woman of culture and refinement, gifted with an amiable disposition and a winsome personality, and endowed with much native business ability. Her late husband gave her no small degree of credit for laying the foundation of their fortune. She is a very charitable woman, always ready to aid those who have been less fortunate than herself ; but all her deeds of kindness, and all her acts of benevolence, are accomplished in a quiet and unostentatious manner.
Garnett, Peter R. (Pp: 255-322)
The abiding influence and optimism of Peter R. Garnett, and his wonderful power of perception, stimulated by visions of the value and possibilities of Sacramento Valley lands in the future, have never been more apparent than at the present day. The keenness of mental vision which enabled him to foresee the possibilities of production, and the wise provisions for the welfare and moral uplift of the community which he advocated during his career in Colusa and Glenn Counties, are seen the better in the light of present-day development. His advocacy of improvements in irrigation, his loyal support of temperance and Christianity, and his honest, straightforward business methods, have born their natural fruit; and results have shown this man's breadth of out-look, and vindicated his prophecy of expansion, placing him in the forefront of the upbuilders of his generation in the community where he lived so long and became so well and favorably known.

The late Peter E. Garnett belonged to an old and prominent Southern family, being descended from 'Virginian forebears. He was born in Ealls County, Mo., February 14, 1841, and died in Glenn County, Cal., March 21, 1911. During the seventy years of his life, he accomplished much good, and meanwhile accumulated a competency which was left to his descendants, along with hislegacy of an untarnished name. His father, James Richard Garnett, was born in Virginia, as was also the grandfather. James R. Garnett was a farmer and miller by occupation. He removed to Meade County, Ky., where he founded a town called Garnettsville in his honor ; and there he built a flour mill, which he ran in connection with his farm. In 1820 he settled in Pike County, Mo. Here he engaged in farming, and also had a flour mill at Hannibal, until his death. His wife, Elizabeth (Parker) Garnett, was also a native of Virginia. Her demise occurred in Missouri in 1875, at the age of seventy-three. Of the ten children born to this pioneer couple, J. St. Clair and Mrs. Katie Garnett Davis were the only ones, besides Peter R., that migrated to California.

Reared on the home farm until the age of seventeen, Peter E. Garnett assisted diligently with the farm, work, meanwhile attending the subscription schools, and then left home to seek better educational advantages, in time matriculating at McGee College, College Mound, Mo. Here he continued his studies until the breaking out of the Civil War, when, at the age of twenty, he left college and enlisted for service in the Second Missouri Regiment, under General Price's command. He performed his duty faith- fully, and was several times wounded in battle. At Grenada, Miss., he was promoted and commissioned lieutenant, in recognition of meritorious services. After this his brigade was captured at Mobile Bay, at which time Lieutenant Garnett and his command were sent to Jackson, Miss., where they were paroled.

After the war, Mr. Garnett taught school near Vicksburg, meantime studying law, as he intended to follow the legal profession. He was duly admitted to the bar ; but the confinement necessary to the practice of his profession proved injurious to his health, and he therefore decided to give up the law and seek out-of-door work. His brother, J. St. Clair Garnett, had come to California in 1853, and was located on a farm near Dixon, Solano County; so he determined to come to the Golden West. Making the journey via Panama, he joined his brother at Dixon, on June 15, 1868. His operations in ranching continued in that vicinity until 1873, when he settled on a farm three miles southeast of Willows. Here he enlarged his operations, and was very successful in raising wheat, barley, and stock. Having confidence in the producing quality of the soil, he purchased land from time to time, until he became the possessor of thousands of acres, and was one of the largest owners of land in the Sacramento Valley. Foreseeing the great future in store for the rich lands of Glenn County through the building of canals to the the Sacramento River, Mr. Garnett exerted his powerful influence in behalf of the cause of irrigation, and never tired of emphasizing the increase in land values, and the vast extension of the state's resources, that must follow upon the wise conservation, and the liberal development and distribution, of the waters from the Sacramento River and its tributaries. He was a director in the Central Irrigation Company; and in recognition of his services and sincerity in the cause of irrigation. Governor Pardee appointed him a member of the International Irrigation Congress that met in^ Portland, Ore., in 1905.

Mr. Garnett was always a Democrat ; and while not a radical, he was always progressive in his political views. Before county division, he was elected and served three years as a member of the board of supervisors of Colusa County, and proved a worthy representative of his district. After county division, he was elected a member of the board of supervisors of Glenn County, in 1894, and was reelected in 1898 ; andl he took an active and conscientious part in so guiding the destinies of the new county that it is found today in the front rank, in financial standing, among the counties of the state. The cause of education found in him a stanch friend and supporter. He served for many years as a school trustee, and was the prime mover in the organization and erection of the Willows High School, serving as a member and president of the board. Always favoring religious movements, Mr. Garnett contributed to all denominations in his locality, and aided in erecting their church buildings. For years he was a member and the superintendent of the Sunday school of the Baptist Church. Fraternally, he was a Mason, being a member of Laurel Lodge No. 245, F." & A. M., at Willows.

At Dixon, on October 21, 1873, Peter R. Garnett was united in marriage with Ruth A. McCune, a daughter of the Honorable Henry E. McCune, ex-state senator and prominent landowner and financier of Dixon. Mrs. Garnett is a native daughter of Dixon; she is represented more fully in a separate sketch on another page of this work. Mr. and Mrs. Peter Garnett had three children. Inez, a graduate of California College, at Oakland, is the wife of C. E. Freed; they are extensive farmers, and are also in charge of the home ranch at Willows. Reba, who died in Oakland at the home of Mrs. Garnett, December 19, 1916, was the wife of Robert Black. She left one son, Garnett Black, who makes his home with Mrs. Garnett in Oakland. Hugh M. Garnett, the only son, is a prominent stockman at Willows, of whom further mention is made elsewhere in this work.

Every movement for reform found in Peter E. Garnett a stanch assistant and supporter, and especially the temperance cause, in which he took an active interest, working conscientiously to bring about the "Dry Campaign" in the county. He was a fluent writer, and contributed liberally to the press, particularly the Willows Journal and the Colusa Sun. An advanced thinker and student of history, he was well posted in the annals of our country. Prior to his death he was compiling a book on the "Causes of the Civil "War." This work, however, was never finished.
Green, Mrs. Sallie B. (Pp: 255-322)
One of the representative women of the Sacramento Valley, Mrs. Sallie B. Green, owner and editor of The Colusa Sun, has been identified with Colusa for many years. She was born in Clinton, Hinds County, Miss., a daughter of Dr. Jacob Bedinger Morgan, owner of a plantation ten miles northwest of Jackson. Her mother was Minerva (Fitz) Morgan, a daughter of Gideon Fitz, at one time surveyor general of Mississippi, when it was a territory. Grandfather Fitz was born in Monticello, Va., and learned surveying under President Thomas Jefferson, then a surveyor, and later received his appointment from him. He died in Washington, Miss., and was buried at Jackson. Robert Williams, a great-grandfather on the maternal side, was governor of Mississippi Territory. All of her forebears figured prominently in the early history of Virginia and Mississippi. Thomas Jefferson, President of the United States, was a warm friend of the Fitz family.

Dr. Morgan was born in Virginia and, when a child of five, was taken to Kentucky by his parents. He was educated in the schools of Kentucky and at the Medical College of Lexington, Ky., from which he was graduated with the degree of M. D. He rode a horse all the way back to Clinton, Miss., from Lexington, and, settling there, became the leading physician of that section, the owner of a large plantation, and a man of considerable means and influence. Eight children were born to Dr. Morgan and his wife: Mary, who married Hunter H. Sonthworth, and lived and died in Mississippi; William Henry, a major, and later a colonel, of the 3rd Mississippi Infantry during the Civil War, who died in Mississippi in 1905; Fitz Robert, who was accidentally killed while hunting, at the age of thirteen; Thomas, who died at the age of three ; Sallie B., Mrs. Green ; Martha, who married W. G. Poindexter ; Lewis S., who was killed while in the 3rd Mississippi Cavalry, at Collinsville, Tenn. ; and George, who died in Mississippi.

Sallie B. Morgan was tutored by a governess, at home, and then attended a private school for girls, after which she went to a convent at Nazareth, Ky., and later was graduated from a young ladies' seminary at Nashville. Returning then to her home in Jackson, she there became a social favorite. She met Will S. Green, and in Salt Lake City, in 1891, was united in marriage with him, and since that time has resided in Colusa. . Mr. Green died on July 2, 1905. Mrs. Green never had any children of her own; but she reared the two youngest of Mr. Green's children by his first marriage, Rae, Mrs. Dr. J. J. Maloney of San Francisco, and Donald R., now in the office of the state surveyor general at Sacramento, who were fifteen and thirteen years old respectively at the time of her marriage.

Mrs. Green is eligible to membership in the Daughters of the Revolution. She is a Daughter of the Confederacy, and organized and was president of the Confederate Monument Association, which after five years succeeded in raising the funds for building the monument that now stands in the old capitol yard at Jackson, Miss., to commemorate the Confederate dead; and her name is inscribed in the vestibule as president of the Association. She organized the Colusa Woman's Improvement Club, and was active in the organization of similar clubs in other cities in the valley, afterwards serving as president of the Federated Woman's Clubs of the Sacramento Valley.

Having traveled considerably over the United States, and even into Alaska, she had a desire to see some of the foreign countries; and on December 1, 1908, she started on a trip around the world, leaving San Francisco on the steamship Mongolia. Crossing the Pacific, she visited Hawaii, Japan, China, and the Philippines, and from there sailed on through the Suez Canal into Egypt, and on to Italy, at a time when Mt. Vesuvius was active, and saw that wonderful volcano in action. After visiting France and England, she came on to New York, reaching home in December, 1909, without having had an accident. She was more impressed than ever with the greatness, grandeur, and beauty of her native land, having seen nothing in her whole trip to equal her own beloved country. From various places en route she sent a series of letters giving a description of her travels, and of places visited, which appeared from time to time in The Colusa Sun, and which received favorable comment.

Mrs. Green is to be found at her desk every day, guiding the destinies of The Colusa Sun and wielding a strong influence for the public good. She is active and progressive, and is looked upon as one of the upbuilders of Colusa, where she is held in high esteem. She is a member of the Methodist Church in Colusa.
Green, Will Semple (Pp: 255-322)
(By the late John P. Irish)

The debt of California to her American pioneers grows in appreciation as they pass away. In the first group, composed of those immortal in grateful memory, a stalwart figure is Will S. Green. He was of pioneer lineage. His ancestors were on the Virginia frontier. His parents settled in Kentucky when the land had the virgin beauty that attracted Daniel Boone to its conquest. There he was born, December 26, 1832. Financial reverses befell his father while Will was a child. This deprived him of any education under teachers, except a brief attendance at an " Old Field School"; and while a boy he assumed the burden of self-support and the helping of others. It is said of him that such was his energy that, though a boy, he commanded the -wages of a man. While he worked he studied. To him may be applied the wise characterization of the late President McKinley by John Hay: "He belonged to a generation of boys who knew no want their own labor could not satisfy, and who knew no superior and no inferior. ' ' Those were the qualities of a pioneer generation.

Working and seeking knowledge, he felt the frontier impulse and, following the call of his pioneer lineage, landed in California in 1849, before he was seventeen. His mental and manual self- training and his steady industry had prepared him to put hand and head into any honest work. He ran the first steam ferry over the straits of Carquinez, took the second mail contract let in the state, and carried all the mail for Napa and Sonoma Counties in his pocket. In July, 1850, he left his mail route and ferry and piloted the new steamer Colusa up the Sacramento River to the present town of Colusa. He landed in Colusa on July 6, 1850, and there he was buried just fifty-five years later. For five years more than a half century he was a citizen of that town, of which he first saw the site from the pilot house of the pioneer steamer. He left amongst his writings a description of that voyage up the Sacramento that is a classic. There came to him then a clear conception of the capacity of that valley to support a dense population through agriculture. He caught a vision of a future wrought by man upon those fertile plains that equaled the prophet's vision of the promised land, full of corn and wine and oil, and flowing with milk and honey. While yet camping on the bank of the river, he began preparing for his part in the history to be. Already self- cultured to a degree of which many a college graduate would be proud, he took up the study of civil engineering and fully equipped himself for that profession. Perhaps no man in our company of pioneer worthies had as little waste knowledge as he. Whatever he applied himself to he thoroughly learned, and whatever he learned was useful to the end of his long life. His service as captain of the Carquinez ferry boat, Lucy Long, gave him the pilot's knowledge of the surface indications of channel and shoal water that served him in steering the pioneer steamer Colusa in waters strange to him and all her crew. His reading of the best books in literature and science gave his style as a writer a grace, directness and individuality, and a homely philosophy, such as Ben Franklin had; and his knowledge of civil engineering made him the first, and to the end the greatest, professional authority in the state on the problems of irrigation and drainage.

A half century ago the physical characteristics of California were but little known. Some of them are still the despair of the climatologists. But, early in his experience in the Sacramento Valley, Mr. Green saw that to reach their highest potency there must be a drainage of the rich bottom lands, for protection against floods, and irrigation of the rich plains for protection against the normal drought of the dry season. He knew land, and he loved it. He was California's first apostle of agriculture, and land was the text of all his epistles. As an engineer, he surveyed the land. As a legislator, he drew the land code of the state. As surveyor general of the United States, he protected the public domain for the settlers who would till it. As treasurer of the state, be conserved and economized the taxes paid by the owners of the land. As the foremost editorial writer of the state, he considered the land as the first material object of human interest. He developed the first plans for irrigation and drainage of the Sacramento Valley; and though high-salaried engineers have wrought upon the same problem, his plans stand un impeached.

The foregoing is a mere circumference of his work. The vastness of the great circle, and the infinite detail included, may be conceived when it is known that he came to be the final authority upon more things of vital concern to the state than any other man in California. In such a position he had to antagonize the opinions of others. He often had to champion the many against the few. He had to rebuke waste and ignorance, thrift-lessness and intemperance. But so great was his spirit, and so full of pity and charity, that his very remarks made friends of those who received them, and his antagonists were amongst his most ardent admirers. As his life drew to its close, and the horizon no longer receded as he approached it, his activities were greater than ever. In a high sense he incorporated his views of the necessities of the Sacramento Valley in organizing the Sacramento ^"alley Development Association, of which he held the presidency until his death. In that capacity was found his last public activity, in escorting the Congressional committees on irrigation through the state. At the close of the tour and the final meeting at the banquet at Red Bluff, he was introduced by Judge Ellson as "the Patriarch of Irrigation in the Sacramento Valley." He rose with the splendors of that valley of light before him, but upon him was the somber tone of the Valley of Shadows. Speaking briefly he said: "It is our business to develop the Sacramento Valley, and in behalf of the Association I wish to say that we will do this. I have a valuable history of irrigation work since I have been in the great valley, and the value of that work is incalculable ; I recognize its full force when I hear these people speak of the vastness of the preparation and the money they are spending in preparing their plans for this work for the United States government. I undertook to do it all individually, and to demonstrate what could be done. Doing my own engineering and paying my own expenses, I located the present Central Canal and prophesied this work, and now I find that the United States will take years to go ahead, and feel how small have been my efforts. But, gentlemen, my only hope, as I am on the decline of life, is that some day I may stand on Pisgah and see a Promised Land for God's people in this valley. Then I will be ready to die."

The fact was, that, in every essential, in outline and in detail, in its hydrograph, agriculture, proper division of land holdings, transportation and economics, he had worked out the whole problem to a solution ; and those who follow will use his work or rediscover what was to him an open book of principles. That was his last public utterance, and -the contrasts of the occasion gave the full measure of his work. His footsteps had plodded over the whole field, and then came the government, paying tens of thousands only to follow him.

In his life he was singularly pure, as to speech, thought and practice. But it was all without ostentation. He never abated his view of principles to please friend or foe. Yet in discussion he seemed rather an eager listener than a teacher, and by rare art taught others by asking them to teach him. On his social side, he was thoroughly lovable. As an editor he made his paper, The Colusa Sun, the leading rural organ of the state. A collection of his editorial writings, in essay form, would make a volume of permanent literature for the library. He was the last of the great group of pioneers who sought to build a state not on the vanishing mining industry, with its risk arid uncertainty, but upon the imperishable land and the unbroken promise of seed time and harvest ; and of that group he was the leader. He took his name and blood pure and untarnished as his only heritage, and with a heart as pure as his lips, transmitted them to his children.

Mr. Green was twice married. At his first marriage he was united with Miss Josephine Davis, by whom he had five children, who survive their parents. Some years after the death of their mother, he married Miss Sallie Morgan, of Mississippi, a faithful helpmate and affectionate companion, who also survives him.
Grimes, Cleaton (Pp: 255-322)
Born in Mason County, Ky., May 24, 1815, Cleaton Grimes was the oldest of five children in the family of Henry and Nancy (Bane) Grimes, and the last to pass over the great divide. He was descended from Irish ancestors, and was reared and educated in his native state, attending the subscription schools and Maysville Academy, where General Grant is said to have acquired the rudiments of his education. Young Grimes learned the trade of the tanner and currier, working at that calling in Aberdeen, Ohio, where his father had bought a tannery. He later worked at Georgetown for Jesse L. Grant, father of General Grant. At Concord, Ky., Mr. Grimes ran a tannery of his own, which he later traded for a store at Vanceburg, in the same state. While living there, he married Martha Stevenson, who died in Kentucky, as did three of their children.

In 1849 Mr. Grimes sold out his interests in Kentucky and set out for California. He traveled by boat to St. Joseph, Mo., where he was fortunate in the purchase of an outfit from a man from Ohio, who was traveling with an emigrant company, but had grown impatient and wished to return home. In this way Mr. Grimes was able to accompany the party to California. His outfit consisted of a mule team and a wagon, into which was loaded the necessary supplies. After an uneventful journey, the party arrived at their destination over the Fremont trail. Mr. Grimes went to Dry Creek, and there began mining in association with a mining company; but later they moved to Oregon Canyon above Georgetown. In the spring of the following year they located on the north branch of American River; and he also was interested in the first claim taken up on the Middle Fork of that river. As it was late in the season, how-ever, they did not remain to develop this claim. Mr. Grimes and Captain Daniels went to Sacramento, bought a barge, and engaged in transporting timber to Marysville. This boat was operated by three hands, and was pulled and poled to Marysville, proving a good investment. In 1851-1852 they loaded their boat with general merchandise and went as far up the Sacramento River as Stony Creek. Here Mr. Grimes secured a team and hauled the goods to Shasta, where they were sold, the boat dropping back to Sacramento. In March, 1852, he went to Grand Island, Colusa County, and engaged in cutting hay with a scythe. This was hauled to Colusa and sold for fifty dollars a ton. That same year he took up a thousand acres of what he supposed was government land, but which later proved to be a grant. After several years of litigation, he purchased the thousand acres. He stocked his ranch, established Grimes Ferry, and opened a wood yard at Grimes Landing. With these interests, Mr. Grimes rose to a position of importance in the county. He began with five head of sheep, and in time had some four thou-sand head, which he sold. At the same time he carried on grain farming, the rich lands along the river yielding bountiful harvests. In 1852 he established his home here, building a two-room house. Deeply interested in the place, where he had laid the foundation for a town, Mr. Grimes gave his best efforts towards inducing settlers to locate here. He was interested in the Grange movement, whose promoters established a store and warehouse on land he donated ; and he also started the first livery stable in the town. Up to the time when he was nearing his ninetieth milestone, he was active in the management of his interests. He sold off all of his property but a quarter section, which he retained as a home. In the early days of his settlement in the state, his table was supplied with fresh meat brought down by his rifle ; for elk, deer, bears and other wild animals then abounded.

In Sacramento, on September 28, 1869, Mr. Grimes was united in marriage with Mrs. Ann E. (Tait) Rollins, born near Richmond, Va., a daughter of Alexander Tait, who crossed the plains to California in 1865. During this trip his wife, Elizabeth Lockhart Tait, died. The first marriage of' Ann E. Tait united her with Alfred Rollins, by whom she had four children. Mr. Grimes was a member of the first board of supervisors of Colusa County, and gave valuable aid in the deliberations of that body. Politically, he was a Democrat. He was enterprising and influential, and lived to a ripe old age, passing away on January 19, 1913.
Hamilton, John C. (Pp: 255-322)
A descendant of an old pioneer family of California, and a native of Orland, Glenn County, John C. Hamilton is carrying on the development work started by his father in this district in the early sixties. Born on the home ranch, near Orland, March 10, 1874, he is a son of John C. and Cordelia (Springtun) Hamilton. The father was a native of Missouri; and the mother was born in Texas. Their living children are John C. ; James L., of Red Bluff ; and Mrs. L. M. Walters, of Berkeley. The father crossed the plains to California by ox team, in 1859. Going to the mines, he worked there for two years, after which he came to Colusa County and worked on ranches for a time. His object, however, was to own a ranch of his own; and accordingly he homesteaded one hundred sixty acres of land five miles east of Orland, later adding to his holdings until he owned three thousand acres. He became one of the large grain-raisers of early days in the state, when California was the leading state in the Union in the production of grain. In 1884, he settled in Red Bluff, where his death occurred on December 5, 1907. He had retired from active pursuits in the latter years of his life. Soon after her husband's death, Mrs. Hamilton removed to Berkeley, where she now makes her home.

John C. Hamilton attended school in Orland, and afterwards moved with his parents to Red Blutf , where he finished his school-ing and became assistant in the post office, for three years, under Postmaster H. W. Brown. In the fall of 1900 he returned to the home ranch in Orland, and has since made this his home, taking an active part in the upbuiilding of the district, which has made and is making such wonderful progress along agricultural lines. Mr. Hamilton is bringing his property to a high state of development, being decidedly a man of progress, with breadth of mind to grasp new ideas and methods of cultivation. He farmed the greater part of three thousand acres, on the old home place and land near by. His home ranch comprises two hundred thirty acres which he cultivates to grain. ln 1917, he set out eighty acres to almonds; and he purposes gradually to increase the acreage devoted to this branch of horticulture. He has put the land under a private irrigation plant, with cement pipes through the orchard, which lies east of the home ranch proper ; and in other respects also he is using strictly modern methods in his horticultural work. The holdings of the family in Glenn County now comprise some eleven hundred acres.

Being a native son of Orland, Mr. Hamilton has watched its growth with a keen interest. He has given his support and active cooperation to all undertakings for the advancement and development of his town and county; and personally he exerts that forceful influence found only in men who have become known for integrity and ability. He was one of the men who financed the Orland College; and he has always been a friend of education.

The marriage of Mr. Hamilton was celebrated in 1906, when he was united with Haddassah Cleek, also a native of the valley, born in Colusa County. Fraternally he is a Mason, a member of Orland Lodge, No. 265, F. & A. M.; Chico Chapter, No. 42, R. A. M.; and Chico Commandery, No. 12, K. T. With Mrs. Hamilton, he belongs to Citrus Chapter, No. 208, O. E. S., of Orland.
Logan, Hugh A. (Pp: 255-322)
A pioneer farmer and stockman of the Sacramento Valley, especially of Colusa and Glenn Counties, the late Hugh A. Logan held rank as one of the successful and prosperous ranchers of Northern California. He located on a ranch in the foothills in the vicinity of Norman, where he improved a fine place and lived in comfort during the latter years of his life. He made a specialty of raising sheep, and was one of the up-to-date men of the state in that industry. He had modern equipment, pens, bath, and shearing apparatus, as well as a circular bath for dipping the animals. He gave to this enterprise the same careful consideration that would be necessary for successful competition in the commercial world. He was one of the upbuilders of this section, and was identified with the early history of Glenn County.

Mr. Logan was born in Montgomery County, Mo., September 6, 1830, a son of Henry and Sallie (Quick) Logan. Henry Logan was a Kentuckian, a son of Hugh Logan, who emigrated from Ireland to the United States and settled in Kentucky, where he passed the remainder of his life as a farmer. He was a soldier in the War of 1812, thus demonstrating his loyalty to the country of his adoption. Henry Logan went to Missouri with Daniel Boone, locating in Montgomery County, where he was engaged in farming and as a tanner until 1870. He then started for California on the transcontinental train, his death occurring en route. Mrs. Sallie Quick Logan was likewise a native of the Blue Grass" State. She died in Missouri, leaving a family of seven children, of whom Hugh was the fifth in order of birth. He was able to get but a limited education in the schools of that period ; moreover, he worked on his father's farm from early boyhood. In March, 1854, when in his twenty-fourth year, he started for California, crossing the plains with ox teams. They left St. Joseph on April 1 and arrived at Deer Park six months later. They were successful in bringing a bunch of cattle from his native state through to the Coast. He later went to Sutter County and worked" with his brother Anderson in the dairy business six miles south of Yuba City. He remained in California until 1861, when he returned to Missouri; and the following year he enlisted under General Price, serving under him six months.

In 1863 Hugh Logan married and came again to this state, making the trip this time by way of Panama. In Colusa County he bought about a thousand acres of land, which formed a part of the A. D. Logan ranch on Logan Creek; for he was in partnership at that time with his brother, A. D. Logan. They followed general farming and the raising of cattle until 1868, when Hugh A. Logan took up the property that remained his home for so many years. He also entered land, owning at one time about sixteen thousand acres, part of which was in Mendocino County. There were eight thousand acres in the home place near Norman, three thousand in a mountain ranch, and two thousand near the home place.

Mr. Logan started in the sheep business by the purchase of about five hundred head at seven dollars per head; and he increased his bands until he owned or handled a flock of about six thousand head. To add to his fortunes he raised large numbers of cattle and planted a large acreage to wheat and barley, having as high as four thousand acres planted to these cereals. He erected a comfortable home in 1880, and suitable outbuildings to protect his stock and implements. He witnessed many changes in the country, for when he first located in the valley there was no Glenn County and the post office was at Colusa. He lived to witness the rapid advancement along agricultural lines, and the dividing up of the large areas into small and productive farms.

About 1904 Hugh Logan incorporated all of his holdings as the H. A. Logan Land and Stock Co., with himself as president, and his immediate family and J. S. Logan as the other stockholders of the company.

Mr. Logan was twice married. His first wife was Jane Hudnell, a native of Missouri, who died in California. Their only child, Samuel, died in infancy. His second marriage united him with Miss Sallie Ann Logan, a cousin, and a native of Missouri, where the marriage was celebrated in 1866. She was a daughter of Alexander and Elizabeth (Quick) Logan, pioneers of that state. Mr. and Mrs. Hugh Logan had three children born to them: Anderson, Stephen, deceased, and Lee. The latter married Miss Victor La Grande, a native daughter of Glenn County, born into the family of Edward and Elizabeth (Portier) La Grande, natives of Montreal, Canada, who became pioneers of Colusa County. Mr. and Mrs. Lee Logan have three children: Lee Verden, Elsie Marie, and Hugh Edward.

Hugh Logan was a Mason, a member of Colusa Lodge. He was a member of Antelope Valley Grange, serving as Master five terms. He was a stanch advocate of the principles of Democracy, and served as a supervisor from his district in Glenn County one term. At the time of his death he was counted one of the best-known of the pioneers of Glenn County. He died in November, 1906, mourned by a large concourse of friends from far and near. After his death, the large farming and stock-raising operations of the company were continued under the following officers: Mrs. Hugh A. Logan, president; Lee Logan, vice-president; Mrs. Lee Logan, secretary, and J. S. Logan, treasurer. The same persons also made up the directorate. Mrs. Logan died on July 8, 1917, and was buried beside her husband in the family plot, in the cemetery at Colusa.
McDaniel, Elijah (Pp: 255-322)
This Colusa County pioneer was born in Roane County, Tenn., July 4, 1820, a son of Daniel McDaniel, captain of a company in the United States army, who served under General Jackson during the war with the Creek Indians. After the war. Captain McDaniel married Mary Ann Buchanan and settled in East Tennessee, remaining there until 1834, when he moved with his family to Illinois.

Elijah McDaniel remained with his father on the farm until his marriage in January, 1842, when he was united with Sarah Ann Gore. The young people then went to Wayne County, where they remained six years, operating a farm. During this time two sons and two daughters were born to them. In 1848 he moved into Schuyler County, the same state, where he rented land and farmed until 1852. He was then seized with the "California fever" and began making preparations for an early start the following spring. With five children, his wife, and such effects as would likely be needed for the long trip across the plains, he began the journey in an ox wagon, in 1853. Crossing the Mississippi River at Warsaw, they made their way across Iowa through storms of snow and sleet, and arrived at Council Bluffs in good spirits, on the last day of March. Hearing that there was no grass on the plains, they went into camp until it was grown sufficiently to furnish feed for their stock. As their journey continued, they fell in with California-bound travelers until their party numbered eighteen men. A captain was elected by the party, George Garratt, one of their number, being chosen for this important position. The weather continued bad as they passed up the Platte River, the stock began to give out, and dissatisfaction was expressed with the captain. At Pacific Springs, Mr. McDaniel and James Teal, with their outfits, left the main train and struck out alone. Things went better after that, and they finished the trip, although under very trying conditions. On the fourth of August they crossed the summit of the Sierras and entered the Golden State.

In Amerieau Valley Mr. McDaniel stopped for twenty days and worked with his team, earning one hundred dollars. Here he fell in with Mayberry Davis, Alexander Cooley and a man named Painter, who told him of the Sacramento Valley and induced him to come here; and September 1, 1853, they arrived at Painter's landing. He went to work on a threshing machine ; but not being used to the climate, he contracted chills and fever and was unable to do any further work that fall. Just above the landing Mr. Mc-
Daniel built a log house, and there, on October 1, 1853, a daughter, Izilla, was born, the first white child born on the east side of the river. Mr. Painter went back on every proposition he had made, and Mr. McDaniel was forced to make other arrangements. He leased land from James McDougal, above what is now Butte City, put in one hundred acres of wheat, and got a good crop, but was obliged to sell his cattle, except a cow, in order to get money to harvest it. As the price of grain was only one and one half cents per pound and it was necessary to haul it to Marysville, thirty miles away, to have sold it would have left him in debt; so he hauled it to the Buttes and put it in a warehouse. The price of grain rose to three cents during the winter. He then sold it, receiving enough to pay his debts and some fifty dollars besides.

Having decided to take up a farm of his own, Mr. McDaniel selected a place just above Butte City, where he put in fifty acres of wheat. He got a good crop and received good prices, clearing one thousand dollars, which he invested in cattle. He continued to deal in cattle until 1862, when he disposed of part of his stock. In 1864 he sold out the balance; and thereafter he devoted his attention to grain-farming. In 1865 the crops were good throughout the state. Foreign demand sprang uj? for the wheat raised in California, and every farmer began to enlarge his boundaries, Mr. McDaniel along with the rest. He bought up many squatters' claims, until he held a large acreage.

While Mr. McDaniel was living on the east side of the river, the territory there was a part of Butte County. Mr. McDaniel had a petition circulated, requesting that this section be incorporated in Colusa County. The petition was granted, and the territory on the east side was made a part of Colusa County. He served as county assessor two years, and as justice of the peace for six years. On September 8, 1889, Mrs. McDaniel passed away. On July 3, 1891, Mr. McDaniel was married to Martha J. Anderson. Both he and his wife were members of the Methodist Church, South. In 1874 he erected Marvin Chapel, in the cemetery, in which both himself and his first wife are buried. He died at his home on January 9, 1898, at the age of seventy-seven. He was the father of ten children, of whom seven grew up, as follows : Henrietta, who married A. S. Furnell ; Mary Ann, who became the wife of William Luman ; Izilla, Mrs. John Annand ; and Isaac L., P. L., Henry E., and L. J. McDaniel.
McDaniel, J. E. (Pp: 255-322)
The only son of Levi Jefferson McDaniel, J. E. McDaniel was born on his father's ranch, October 25, 1884. He attended the grammar school at Butte City, and finished his education at the high school at Willows. After the death of his father, he took charge of the home ranch and continued in its management until 1909, when the place was sold to the Carson colony, and was divided into small tracts. Mr. McDaniel thereupon became associated with H. B. Tnrman and J. C. Mitchell, in the cattle business and together they bought the Patrick O'Brien place of nine thousand acres, west of Willows. They incorporated the Turman- Mitchell Land & Title Co., which owns the land and cattle. Mr. McDaniel was made secretary and manager of the company, with a third interest in its holdings. This is the largest cattle company in Glenn County, and one of the largest in Northern California. It handles over five thousand cattle each year. The corporation also owns a cattle ranch at Lakeview, Lake County, Ore., which disposes of six thousand cattle annually. The ranch comprises seventeen thousand acres of deeded land in an open range country, devoted to the raising of cattle.

At Willows, in 1908, J. E. McDaniel married Miss Edith M. Hannah, a native daughter of Glenn County, whose father, James Hannah, one of the earliest settlers of the county, once kept a popular hotel at Willows. Two children, Gregg and Lemona, have blessed their union. Mr. McDaniel was made a Mason in Laurel Lodge, No. 245, F. & A. M., at Willows, and with his wife is a member of the Eastern Star. He is also a member of the Independent Order of Foresters; and nowhere are he and his charming wife more welcome than in the councils and at the festivities of these organizations.
Nelson, John (Pp: 255-322)
Those men who have been far-sighted enough to engage in the dairy industry in Colusa County are now reaping their returns, and realize that intensive farming on a few acres will bring a larger percentage of profit, in proportion to the expenses, than the cultivation of a large acreage. John Nelson of Maxwell is one of these men; for immediately upon his arrival in California, in 1904, he came to Maxwell, bought sixty acres of land, part of the Moak ranch, and began making improvements by putting in alfalfa, preparatory to starting a dairy. He further improved his place with a family orchard of almonds, pears, figs, peaches, prunes and oranges; and he has eight and one half acres in table and raisin grapes, from which he gathers from four to six tons annually. Mr. Nelson sunk a well and installed a pumping plant, run by electric motor, so that he has his own irrigation system for his seventeen acres of fine- alfalfa, besides his orchard and vineyard, and also has an ample supply of water for domestic purposes. A dairy of fifteen cows yields a good income ; and he also raises Duroc-Jersey hogs for the market.

John Nelson was born in Bylleberga, Skane, Sweden, March 18, 1866, and attended the home schools until he was fifteen, when he came to America with the family, and settled in Minnesota. There the father bought an eighty-acre farm, which he improved, and on which he raised wheat, oats and flax. He rented considerable land adjoining, and in connection with his other farming operations also ran a dairy and raised cattle. When John Nelson was twenty-one he bought the farm from his father, and continued operating it along the same lines, raising the same products. He worked hard, farming on a large scale for a number of years, and making a success of his labors. When he had enough to make a start in California, wishing to avoid the rigorous winters of Minnesota, he disposed of his interests and came to this state. What he has accomplished here speaks for itself and is a splendid example for the homeseeker to follow.

Mr. Nelson married Christina Pearson, also born in Sweden ; and they have four children: Warner, Delphin, Emma, and Wesley. Wesley is a member of the Odd Fellows in Maxwell. Mrs. Nelson died on March 23, 1905, at the age of thirty-seven years. Mr. Nelson is quiet and reserved. He is a hard worker, a public-spirited citizen, and a hospitable neighbor, and has made many friends since settling in California.
Newman, Mrs. Mary (Pp: 255-322)
A resident of California since 1870, and a woman of more than ordinary business ability, Mrs. Mary Newman has contributed in no small degree to the upbuilding of the town of Willows. Mrs. Newman was born at Hull, Wright County, in the Province of Quebec, Canada. Her father, John Cook, was born in London, England, and came to Canada when a young man, where he married Georgianna Rule, who was born in Prince Edward Island. They became successful farmers at Hull, about seven miles from Ottawa, and resided there until their death. Of their eight children, five are living, Mrs. Newman being the eldest and the only one in California. Her childhood was spent on the home farmland in the pursuit of her studies in the subscription or private schools. About fifty years ago she was married at Aylmer, Canada, to John McCallum, who was born at Guleburn, Ontario, the son of Duncan and Ellen (Sloane) McCallum, natives of Scotland and the North of Ireland respectively. His parents migrated to Canada and were farmers at Guleburn. John McCallum followed farming, but later sold his outfit and engaged in the hotel business at North Wakefield.

About 1870, Mr. and Mrs. McCallum came to California. After their arrival in this state, Mr. McCallum followed mining at Smartsville, Yuba County, until his death a few years later, which resulted from an attack of brain fever. Mrs. McCallum, left with a family- of children, proved equal to the emergency, and immediately set about to make a living for the family, and rear and educate her children. She engaged in the hotel business at Smartsville, in which she met with success. While thus engaged, she was again married, to John Mee, a native of the North of Ireland, who followed mining at Smartsville. In 1882, the family moved to Willows, then but a small burg. Here she leased a large residence and ran it as a boarding house for five years. It was about one year after locating here that Mr. Mee passed away. At the end of five years, Mrs. Mee purchased a residence on Shasta Street; but after residing there from August until the following June, she again decided to engage in the hotel business and leased a hotel building on Tehama Street, which she named the Palace Hotel. Here she conducted a successful business, giving such good service that the hotel became very popular.

In February, 1894, Mrs. Mee was united in marriage with Charles Newman. Mr. Newman was born in Germany, and came to California when sixteen years of age. He learned the merchant's business, and became owner of a store at Eocklin, Cal. Later he sold out and came to Willows, where he was one of the pioneer merchants, and where he served as postmaster for several years. Mr. Newman built the Palace Hotel, the Newinan Building, and other buildings in Willows. After selling out his store here, he lived retired till his death, which occurred in December, 1913. Fraternally, Mr. Newman was a Mason. Previously to Mr. New-man's death, the" old Palace Hotel had been sold to Mrs. Newman's son, John 0. McCallum, who enlarged the hotel, of which he is still proprietor.

By her first marriage, to Mr. McCallum, Mrs. Newman had eight children: William J., deceased; Ellen, Mrs. Henning, of Willows; John Arthur, deceased in infancy; Georgianna, deceased; Christene, Mrs. W. D. Davis, of San Francisco; Duncan C, court stenographer at Oroville; John O., proprietor of the Palace Hotel ; and George, who resides with his mother. By her marriage to Mr. Mee, she had one child, Frances, the wife of F. W. Sydell, D. D. S., of Chico. Mrs. Newman devotes her time to looking after her varied interests. She owns the Newman block, and other valuable business and residence property in Willows, as well as her residence at 158 Twenty-seventh Street, in San Francisco. In 1915 she built the Tenney and Schmidt Garage, on the corner of Tehama and Wood Streets, the finest and largest garage in Willows. Mrs. Newman was reared in the Presbyterian Church, and still adheres to that faith. In national politics, she is a Republican.
Ossenbriiggen, Matthias (Pp: 255-322)
A successful rancher, and a man of affairs of the Sacramento Valley, Matthias Ossenbriiggen was born near Hamburg, Germany, on July 8, 1864. He is a son of Matthias and Annie (Rove) Ossenbriiggen, who were prosperous farmers in his native country. Young Matthias was reared to farming in his native place, where he helped with the work on the home farm; and there also he received his education. He had an older brother, Peter, who had migrated to California in 1870 and was engaged in ranching on Grand Island, Colusa County. The letters he wrote back to the home land mentioned the opportunities that here awaited young men of brawn and energy, and Matthias was inspired to come to the Pacific Coast to cast in his lot with the wonderful West so vividly described by his brother. In May, 1882, he arrived in California ; and on the 28th of that month he was at Grand Island. Necessity demanded that he at once get to work, and he therefore found employment for a time on ranches in that section. Afterwards he was employed in Sutter County for nine months, and then came back to Grand Island, where for five years he was in the employ of W. F. Howell. After this he assisted his brother Peter, working on his ranch for another year.

Mr. Ossenbriiggen had now resided in the state about seven years ; and in the meantime he had saved enough of his earnings to enable him to go into business for himself. Accordingly, in 1889, with Adolph Fendt, he leased from Fred Monson his ranch of four hundred eighty acres, for five years, and bought a ranching outfit, paying down twenty-two hundred fifty dollars, and his partner fifteen hundred dollars, on the purchase price of sixty-five hundred dollars. They gave their notes for the balance. The partners put in their crop, and then went to work for others with their teams. Mr. Ossenbriiggen remembers making eight hundred dollars ; so that in spite of a flood that caused a total failure of their crop, their work paid their expenses and the interest on deferred payments. They stuck to their original plan, and were finally successful, in the third year adding to their leasehold another tract of four hundred eighty acres, which they farmed for three years. At the end of six years, they dissolved their partnership, dividing their equipment, stock and profits.

In the fall of 1895, Mr. Ossenbriiggen went to Glenn County, and south of Butte City bought four hundred forty acres of land, going in debt for much of it. With the same tenacity of purpose displayed in his earlier operations, he kept at work with his teams when he was not working for himself on his own place. He had a lot of timber on his place, and this he hired cut, and sold it. All in all, he made a success of his work, and in four years paid for his land and got out of debt. In 1905 he bought another ranch of three hundred forty acres, north of Butte City, and this he rented while he operated his own place. In 1908, wishing to obtain better school advantages for his children, he rented both of his places and moved to Chico, where he purchased a comfortable residence on Sixth and Laburnum Streets, Chico Vecino, where he has since made his home.

Mr. Ossenbriiggen was married at Grand Island to Miss Amanda Fendt, who was born in Holstein. Four children have blessed this union; George, who is farming the home place; Annie J., who graduated from the Chico State Normal and taught school until her marriage to L. F. Cecil, with whom she now lives in Sutter County ; Dora M., who became Mrs. Crenshaw, and lives in Colusa; and Harry H., who lives at home. In 1892 Mr. Ossenbriiggen became a citizen of the United States; and ever since he has been a stanch adherent of the policies of the Republican Party. He has served as a delegate to county conventions, has done jury duty, and in every way has shown his appreciation of the treatment accorded him in this country. He is a firm believer in the principle of constitutional rights for every citizen. Mr. Ossenbriigg'en was made a Mason in Emanuel Lodge, No. 318, F. & A. M., at Biggs. He was reared in the Lutheran Church, and with his wife attends the church in Chico. By hard work, good management, and perseverance he has accumulated enough to enable him to live retired from hard work and enjoy life with his wife at their home in Chico, where they have made many friends. When they moved from their old home in Glenn County, they left many friends, who felt their moving as a personal loss, but whom they still visit from time to time.
Otterson, William Harvey (Pp: 255-322)
An enterprising, efficient and prosperous rancher, William Harvey Otterson is also a public-spirited citizen who looks beyond the confines of his own interests and is ready to do anything possible for the public good and the advancement of the state. Mr. Otterson is a native of Santa Clara County, born at Mayfield, November 22, 1867, a son of James and Alice (Short) Otterson. James Otterson was born in Canada, but came originally from a pioneer family of New York State, who crossed the Isthmus of Panama on their way to California in 1852. Grandfather James Otterson crossed the plains in 1849, from Canada where he was engaged in the lumber business ; and after his arrival in California, he settled in Santa Clara County and conducted a hotel at Mayfield. He died in this state at the age of eighty-two years. The mother of W. H. Otterson, Alice Short, came with her father's family to California in 1852, settling in Santa Clara County, where she was married to Mr. Otterson. During the Civil War, Capt. William Short, with James Otterson, father of our subject, organized a company at Mayfield. They were not sent to the front, however, but saw service in California until the close of the war. Captain Short was a Mexican War veteran. When he found that the company were not going to the front, he resigned and went East, where he secured a commission in the regular army. He served valiantly until the close of the war, and then went to Idaho, where he passed his last days at the home of Mr. Otterson. James Otterson, Jr., was a blacksmith by trade. He is living in Riverside, retired from all activities, and is enjoying his declining days.

William Harvey Otterson was but four years old when his parents moved to Oregon and settled in the vicinity of Eugene. From there they went to the Palouse country in Idaho. Mr. Otterson 's education was received in the public schools of Oregon and Idaho. He led more or less of a roving life, living in various places in Idaho for twenty years. Near what is now the site of Gooding, in that state, he owned a ranch of one hundred sixty acres, which he planted to alfalfa. He rode the range in that country, and from there went to Arizona, where he engaged in freighting, and was exposed more or less to the dangers of frontier life in the early days. When he arrived in Kingman, with a wife and six children, he had but thirty-five dollars to his name; but he soon found employment. He began freighting from the Needles to the German-American camp, and in connection with this enterprise ran a stage line to Gold Roads. The Salt Lake Railroad was then just beginning the extension of its lines through that section of Nevada ; and with a partner, J. P. Parker, now of Los Angeles, Mr. Otterson was engaged for about two and one half years in construction work for the railroad company, with a gang of from fifty to one hundred men and seventy-five to one hundred twenty head of stock. He next began freighting from Las Vegas to Bullfrog, and then from Nipton to Searchlight, for about a year, after which he located in Cima and freighted to the Standard mines, hauling copper ore from there and other camps. We next find him at Tacopa, on the edge of Death Valley, teaming to the railroad with silver and lead ore. When the work opened up on the construction of the Roosevelt Dam in Arizona, he went to Colton and shipped his outfit to Mesa, and began work on that most important piece of construction, becoming a teamster for the government. One difficult contract undertaken by Mr. Otterson, and which he successfully carried out, was the hauling of two boilers, of fifty-two thousand pounds each, from Casa Grande to the Jack Rabbit Mines. This he did with thirty-six head of stock, and wagons built especially for the work. This was one of the largest contracts of its kind executed. The next contract he undertook was hauling for concrete construction on the El Paso and Southeastern Railroad. In all of his large undertakings, Mr. Otterson seldom had an accident. He was careful to avoid unnecessary exposure to danger for his men and stock, and carried out his contracts to the best of his ability, gaining the commendation of those by whom he was employed.

After his many years of experience in freighting and other hard work in the mining country, Mr. Otterson decided he would settle clown to a quiet life and enjoy the society of his family. He saw in the Sunset Magazine an advertisement of the opening up of the lauds in Glenn County, and in 1911 came to look the ground over. When he found a satisfactory location, be made a purchase of eighty acres; and in 1912 he brought his family to their new place of abode. He planted every tree and shrub seen on the place, built fences and outbuildings, and erected a comfortable home. He built a silo of a hundred twenty tons capacity, one of the best in this section of the county. A considerable acreage is now seeded to alfalfa. The ranch maintains a fine dairy of about forty cows, three quarters Holstein, with a registered Holstein bull at the head of the herd. Mr. Otterson raised some fine Berkshire hogs, and had some rare turkeys on his place. In August, 1917, he disposed of this property and moved to Mark West Springs, Sonoma County.

In 1888, William Harvey Otterson was united in marriage with Miss Edith L. Vader, a native of Illinois, of Holland descent. She is a talented lady, and for some years was a school-teacher in the state of her birth. Of this union seven children have been born: Wilbert, residing in the Bayless district, who is married and has two children; George, in Arizona; Olive; Drucilla, who married Ralph Montz, of Fresno, and has one child; and Jack, Leland, and Edith Lenore. Mr. Otterson is a Progressive Republican, and takes an active interest in public affairs. He is a member of Damon Lodge, No. 19, K. of P., in Mesa, Ariz., and belongs to the social organization of that order, the D. 0. K. K.
Snowden, George Washington (Pp: 255-322)
One of the most extensive grain farmers in Glenn County, a man of such established and recognized business ability, honesty and integrity that his advice was widely sought and generally followed, and whose spoken word was considered as good as his bond, was George W. Snowden, a native of Scott County, 111., where he was born near Naples, February 17, 1856. His father was John P. Snowden, a Virginian, who emigrated to the Middle West in early days, and became a successful farmer in Illinois. In 1867, he moved still further west into Missouri, and there engaged in farming amid the fertile acres in Henry County. Still later he returned to Illinois and located in Macoupin County ; and there, in the fall of 1902, he died. George's mother had been Miss Sarah A. Mills, a native of Scott County ; and she became the mother of eleven children, seven of whom were girls.

The second oldest of the four sons, George received a good education at the district schools in his native county, and early began to farm with his father in Henry County, Mo. In 1877, he came to California and located near Durham, Butte County, where he went to work on a farm. His vigorous constitution and his aptness in taking hold of the work, easily secured for him other and more remunerative employment near Gridley. In 1879, he worked for a time on the Glenn ranch, and then went to Eureka, Nev., where he followed mining. When he returned to California, he was appointed foreman of one of the Glenn ranches.

With modest but steadily accumulating means acquired during the seven years in which he held this position, he began farming in 1889, and for eight years rented the Logan ranch of four thousand acres, which he planted to wheat and barley. In 1897, he bought the Killebrew ranch of nine hundred sixty acres, located six and a half miles southwest of Willows, to which he later added three hundred twenty acres adjoining; and there continued farming, also renting a full section near by.

With a brother, James W., he now began to extend these operations, renting five thousand acres of the Boggs ranch near Princeton, and later assumed added responsibility by renting eight thousand acres of the Glenn ranch northeast of Willows. Thus Snowden Bros., for the time being, became the largest grain-growers in the valley, and were among the most successful. In their farming operations they used about fifteen to eighteen eight-mule teams for putting in the crops, and it took three combined harvesters to gather and thresh the grain. Five or six big teams were kept busy for months hauling the grain to the landing on the Sacramento Biver and to Logandale on the Southern Pacific for shipment. Much of the success of George W. Snowden was due, no doubt, to his tireless energy and perseverance. No task seemed too large for him to surmount it. The success of his operations may be ascribed, also, to his use of modern and up-to-date methods, through which he applied every talent that he possessed to the task of each day and the solution of each new problem. Included in his home ranch he owned two sections of land which he improved with a good residence and other buildings, setting out orchards, and avenues of eucalyptus trees, which last were also set around the ranch buildings. He was a lover of nature, and found especial pleasure in beautifying his place ; and he stood for permanent improvement.

On September 19, 1889, in Sacramento, Mr. Snowden was married to Miss Elizabeth M. Woolf, a native of Clinton, Henry County, Mo., and a daughter of James and Margaret E. (Patrick) Woolf, natives respectively of Kentucky and Missouri. The father served in the Confederate army during the Civil War, afterwards engaging in farming until his death at the age of fifty years. At a later date the widow, with her children, removed to Glenn County, where the daughter, Elizabeth, lived until her marriage to Mr. Snowden. Two sons, Raymond and Herbert, were born to Mr. and Mrs. Snowden. They were educated in the high school in Willows and the Oakland Polytechnic. Raymond married Freda Lohse, and Herbert was united in marriage with Norma Lohse. They became partners in large farming operations on the home place, and on thirty-six hundred acres of the old Logan ranch. Both are members of the Masonic fraternity, belonging to Laurel Lodge, No. 245, F. & A. M., in Willows. The third child, Lorene Margaret, who also attended the Glenn County High School, finished her education in the San Jose Normal and the University of California, making a specialty of music, after which she taught music and art in the Willows school, resigning to become the wife of Carl M. Lohse, of San Francisco.

At Willows, on May 28, 1907, Mr. Snowden passed away, lamented by a very large circle of friends. He was a member of Laurel Lodge, No. 245, F. & A. M., of Willows; Colusa Chapter, No. 60, R. A. M. ; Colusa Commandery, No. 24, K. T. ; the Eastern Star Chapter ; and Chico Lodge, No. 423, B. P. 0. Elks. He was a lifelong Republican, a prominent leader in his district, and will be missed from the councils of the party. After his death the partnership with his brother James W. was dissolved. The members of his immediate family own the estate and have since continued the farming operations he had begun. Mrs. Snowden makes her home in Willows, enjoying the companionship of her children and many friends, and places the fullest confidence in the ability of her sons to manage the large affairs left by her husband. She is prominent in club life in Willows, and in the Eastern Star, and in social circles is one of the highly respected and honored leaders.
The Manzanita and Cherry Mines (Pp: 255-322)
Twenty-six miles west of Williams, on Sulphur Creek, are located the old Manzanita and Cherry Mines. Practically the entire gold output for Colusa County has come from these two mines. The Manzanita was located early in 1865 and has been worked intermittently since that time, both for gold and for quick-silver. This mine, according to the Geological Survey, has the rare distinction of being the only quicksilver mine in the world with a sufficient quantity of gold to work the ore for that metal.

These two mines, which were formerly one immense body of slate and sand shale, have been separated by the cutting action of Sulphur Creek. These slate beds, with their strata standing almost perpendicular, rise several hundred feet above Sulphur Creek. Both the gold and the quicksilver occur in the seams of the shale. The mineralization is no doubt due to the hot springs of this section, and is evidently very recent. In fact this process of depositing mineral is now going on, and can be watched from week to week. Prospect tunnels driven into this slate bed soon have their walls coated over with mineral salts.

Both the Cherry and the Manzanita were worked for gold in the early days, and produced something over $104,000 of which there is a record, and probably considerably more of which there is no record. The ore from the Cherry was first milled in an old Mexican arrastra which was driven by water power from the waters of Sulphur Creek. According to local records, Mr. Cherry, from whom the mine took its name, recovered in this crude way something over thirty thousand dollars. Amalgamating the gold with quicksilver was the only process for recovering the gold at that time; and owing to an excess of free sulphur in the ore, making the water strongly acid, both the gold and the quicksilver were coated over. This prevented amalgamation, so that only a small percentage of the gold was recovered. From time to time various other processes were tried ; but these met with no better success than Cherry's.

The Manzanita was later opened up and operated for a number of years by Mr. J. R. Northey. He did considerable prospecting and developing of the ore bodies, and also conducted some very thorough and expensive tests for the recovery of the gold by various processes, but was never rewarded with any great measure of success in the recovery of. gold. He was successful with his quicksilver mining, however, and produced something over two thousand flasks, or approximately 150,000 pounds, of the pure metal.

In the fall of 1916, Chas. L. Austin, a young mining engineer, undertook to solve the metallurgical problems of these mines. After careful sampling and laboratory work, he set up a small mill on the Cherry mine for testing purposes. After several months of careful study, he worked out a combination process of cyanide and amalgamation which was highly successful in the recovery of the gold. In the spring of the year following he organized a stock company among the ranchers and stock-men of Glenn County. About the first of June active operations on a large scale were begun with the construction of a one- hundred-fifty-ton mill. Owing to excessive cost of cyanide, due to the war, it was decided to try some new amalgamating machinery and avoid cyanide until costs became normal again. This plant was completed, but had run only ten hours when it was completely destroyed by fire. Unfortunately it did not run long enough to try out the process. The plant was promptly rebuilt, however, and was given a thorough test. While the various mineral salts, which had formerly given so much trouble, were disposed of, it was found that the gold was so finely divided that it was carried off in suspension in the water and lost ; so the plan was given up, and work was suspended until the price of cyanide should make its use practicable.

Among those interested were Z. E. Simpson, John Scribner, Col. A. Hochheimer, H. B. Turman, L. F. Turman, Ben Tiirman, T. W. Harlan, and A. L. McLamore, all of Glenn County.
Tiffee, John E. (Pp: 255-322)
An early seeker after the precious metal, for which men have sought since the beginning of time, and one who remained in California after the first great excitement had subsided, and turned his attention to other pursuits, was the late John R. Tiffee. He was born in 1824, near Lexington, Ky. His early life was spent in Missouri, whither his people had migrated when that section was being developed. From that state he crossed the plains to California with ox teams in 1849; and on his arrival he went at once to the mines in Placer County, where he spent two years as a miner. His luck was very uncertain, how-ever, and he decided to look up some land and occupy his time with stock-raising and farming. He went to Sonoma County and found a suitable location near Petaluma, and there engaged in ranching.

Seeing the need of a better grade of stock with which to build up a profitable herd in this country, he returned East by way of Panama and bought a band of thoroughbred roan shorthorn Durham cattle, and drove them back across the plains in 1858. He arrived in what is now Glenn County, then embraced within the boundaries of Colusa County,- and settled on land west of what is now the town of Willows. Mr. Tiffee was the first man to bring into this county thoroughbred roan Durham stock. Having bought out the squatters in that part of the county, he entered upon extensive operations as a stock-raiser. In time he became a well-known breeder of the best blooded stock in the Sacramento Valley ; and ranchers and stockmen came many miles to inspect his herds and to purchase. From this small beginning the improvement of the stock in the valley was very marked. He added to his holdings until he was owner of twenty-five hundred acres of land, upon which he erected a handsome rural home, set out a family orchard, and raised considerable grain. He later opened a general merchandise store on his ranch, this being the only store within a radius of twenty-five miles. He was honored with the office of justice of the peace, and held the esteem of a widely settled community. He died in 1868, at the age of forty-four years.

By his marriage in Sacramento, in 1850, with Mrs. Rebecca Terrill (Poage) Rowe, a native of Kentucky, Mr. Tiffee had three children, to each of whom he gave the best educational advantages possible. They were: Annie Rebecca, the wife of H. F. Coffman, of Trinity County; Theodora T., of whom mention is made elsewhere in this work; and John R. Tiffee, Jr., who died at the age of twelve years.
Williams, AndrewA (Pp: 255-322)
The late Andrew Williams was born in England in 1828, and when six months old was brought with his family to the United States. At first they settled in Indiana, and there he was reared with his two brothers, James and John. In 1852, as one of the members of an ox-team train, young Williams set out to cross the plains to California ; and arriving here, he mined for a while in Rough and Ready Camp, Yuba County. The next year, however, he returned to Indiana to buy a herd of cattle. Having gatheredhis band, he drove them across the plains in 1854, selling them on his arrival in California. He then went to Colusa County and worked on the ranches near what is now Willows, being employed in particular on the Murdock and the John R. Tiffee farms. In 1865, he again returned to Indiana ; and while there, a couple of years later, he married Miss Margaret Given, of Ireland. With his wife, he turned his face anew to California, there to remain. At first he farmed the Logan ranch, which he bought and owned. Later, he sold this to John Johansen, and took up a homestead on Stony Creek, where he farmed for a number of years. In the end he sold this farm also, and to the same purchaser, John Johansen.

When he came to Willows, Mr. Williams built a brick block on Walnut Street, in which for many years he conducted a first-class livery stable. This, too, he sold out, to permit his removal to the Stony Creek district. Later, he took up his residence at Elk Creek, where he managed a hotel, of which he was also proprietor. His death occurred on September 22, 1911.

Among the children of Mr. Williams are Mrs. Susandrew Mayfield, of Richmond, Cal. ; Dennis G. Williams, of Willows ; Mrs. Mabel O'Brien, of Patton Apartments, Willows; William J. Williams, of Willows; and Harry M. Williams, of Elk Creek. Mrs. O'Brien, the third child in order of birth, is an active member and a Past Noble Grand of the Rebekahs. She has one daughter, Mrs. Phelieta Scyoc, of Winslow, who is the mother of a daughter and a son.
Williams, William Henry (Pp: 255-322)
Few men were more widely known or more highly honored than this California pioneer of 1850, who was the founder of the town in Colusa County that bears his name. W. H. Williams came to this section in 1853, and, possessing a keen foresight, made extensive investments in land when it was held at only a nominal price. He also began in the sheep business, which in time grew to large proportions, and which was admirably adapted to bring prosperity to its followers during the early period of California history. Laying the foundation of his fortune by industry and intelligent application, he enjoyed an increasing success and accumulated sufficient means to enable him to retire, and to give him a recognized standing among the successful and wealthy men of the Sacramento Valley.

Especial interest attaches to the life history of one so successful and so prominent in the annals of his county. Genealogy shows that the progenitor of the family in America was Robert Williams of Wales, who established his home on a plantation in Maryland. A son and namesake of the original immigrant, born and reared in Maryland, learned the trade of the shoemaker, and in 1828, together with his family, and with his household goods packed in a wagon, crossed the Alleghany mountains into Ohio and settled in Pickaway County. Ten and one half years later he took his family to Illinois and settled in Vermont, Fulton County, where he died in 1853. He was married twice, and chose for his second wife Margaret McCallister. She was born in Maryland, and died in Ohio on February 2, 1848. Of their four sons and five daughters, W. H. Williams was the seventh in order of birth, and the only one to settle in California ; and he was the last of the family.

William H. Williams was born in Cumberland, Md., April 7, 1828. He was taken to Ohio when a babe in arms, and when eleven accompanied the family to Illinois, where he attended the village school at Vermont. The schoolhouse was built of logs, with benches of slabs and floor of puncheon; and the pens were made of quills. However, notwithstanding these handicaps and the irregular attendance necessitated on account of his being needed to help till the farm, Mr. "Williams acquired a good education. With a hopeful spirit, he endeavored, by self-culture, to make the most of his environments; and he became in time a well- informed man. He learned the shoemaker's trade with a brother during the winter months, and cared for the stock and raised corn in summer. When the news came of the discovery of gold in California, he dissolved his partnership with his brother and started out alone to make his way amid untried conditions. He left the old Illinois home on March 18, 1850, and with three companions started West in a wagon drawn by four yoke of oxen. They crossed the Mississippi River at Quincy, and the Missouri at St. Joseph; followed the overland trail by way of Forts Kearney and Laramie; and proceeding up the Sweetwater and down the Humboldt River, went thence by the Carson route into California, arriving at Placerville on August 1, after being on the road just ninety-six days. During their trip they made it a rule to rest Sundays. When their oxen gave out they left them and, having cooked enough provisions to carry them over the mountains, started to walk with their blankets and supplies, getting across in six days.

Mr. Williams spent four months in mining, and only made seventy dollars; so he abandoned the work and went to Sacramento. Here he was engaged as a cook in a hotel at seventy-five dollars a month, and later became a clerk in a shoe store at one hundred dollars a month. His next move took him into Solano County, where, near Suisun, he was employed for a time in mowing hay with a scythe. He then hired out as a teamster, and later bought a team and engaged in freighting on his own account, clearing two hundred eight dollars per month. In the fall of 1853 he sold the team, and, going to Sacramento, opened a boarding house, which he conducted for six months, until the town was burned and drowned out. He next took up land in Spring Valley, and raised stock and farmed for one year, after which he began farming on the plains near the present site of the town of Williams. When the land came into the market, in 1858, he bought a small place at one dollar and twenty-five cents per acre, and to this he added from time to time until his possessions assumed large proportions. He bought fine blooded sheep from the East and made a specialty of raising bucks, being a pioneer in that industry.

When the railroad was prospected for the valley, Mr. Williams gave the right of way through his land and au interest in two hundred acres, which induced the company to establish a station at Central. When the town was laid out, it was named Williams in his honor; and ever since it has been an important shipping- point. In 1874 Mr. Williams built a substantial brick building; in 1876 he erected the Williams Hotel; and in 1880 he put up a warehouse one hundred twenty-one by two hundred feet in dimensions, so constructed that teams can drive through the building and unload, as well as from the west side. In the latter part of the seventies, with others, at a cost of fifty-six thousand dollars, he built the steamer Enterprise, and a barge, to run from Colusa to San Francisco. He owned two livery stables in the town, and nine thousand acres of land near by, and was interested in the steam flouring mill until it was destroyed by fire. The Williams Foundry also received his attention and support ; and with others he built the Odd Fellows Hall. He was one of the charter members of the Odd Fellows Lodge.

During the administration of President Lincoln, Mr. Williams was appointed postmaster of the old office at Central; and the office continued to be in his house until the railroad was built. After the organization of the Republican party, he was a stanch supporter of its men and measures, and frequently was a delegate to state and county conventions. Though not a member of any church, all the churches received his financial support.

Of the first marriage of Mr. Williams three children were born, as follows: Mrs. Harriett May Moody; Lulu, wife of S. H. Callen; and Ella, Mrs. H. W. Manorr all of this locality. His second marriage united him with Mary E. McEvoy, a native of Dublin, Ireland, and daughter of Thomas and Anna (Horace) McEvoy. She came to California in 1877, and in 1880 was married to Mr. Williams. Her deepest bereavement until her devoted husband passed away on May 15, 1909, was the death of four of her children: Iris Cecelia and Inez Vashti (twins), Carmelita Lucile, and William H., Jr. Two are still living: Belle, Mrs. Stanley Moore, of Oakland; and Maruguerita, Mrs. R. L. Welch, of Colusa.

Personally, Mr. Williams was a large, stalwart, handsome gentleman of genial, companionable disposition, with a jovial temperament that enabled him to see the bright side even of life's shadows, and that won him the friendship of acquaintances. When he died, the whole county mourned. In the annals of Colusa County, his name is worthy of perpetuation, for the emulation of the future generations who shall live and labor here.